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Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines EPA’S RICE ...Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines EPA’S RICE NESHAP and NSPS. Content. 12/20/2016 2 RICE Engines ... = 2 Stroke

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  • South District

    December 7, 2016

    Air Resource PermittingCarter B. Endsley, P.E.

    Reciprocating Internal Combustion EnginesEPA’S RICE NESHAP and NSPS

  • Content

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    RICE Engines NESHAP and NSPS RICE Rules Emergency Engines Emissions Standards Compliance Controls Permit or No permit


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    • A stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine(RICE) is any internal combustion engine which usesreciprocating motion to convert heat energy intomechanical work and is not mobile. They are not used inroad vehicles or non-road mobile applications, such asbulldozers, mowers, cranes etc.

    • SI = Spark Ignition 2SLB = 2 Stroke Lean Burn4SRB = 4 Stroke Rich Burn

    • CI = Compression Ignition

  • Engine Stroke and Burn Definition Four-Stroke Engine: Any type of engine which completes the power cycle in two crankshaft revolutions, with intake and compression strokes in the first revolution and power and exhaust strokes in the second revolution.Two-Stroke Engine: Any type of engine which completes the power cycle in single crankshaft revolution by combining the intake and compression operations into one stroke and the power and exhaust operations into a second stroke.Rich Burn Engine: Any four-stroke spark ignited engine where the manufacturer’s recommended operating air/fuel ratio divided by the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio at full conditions is less than or equal to 1.1. All existing engines where no manufacturer’s recommendations regarding air/fuel ratio will be considered a rich burn engine if excess oxygen of exhaust at full load is less or equal to 2 percent.Lean Burn Engine: Any two-stroke or four-stroke spark ignited (SI) engine that does not meet the definition of a Rich Burn Engine.

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  • First Step - Identify your engine

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    • Is the engine a “CI” (Compression Ignition) or a “SI” (Spark Ignition)?

    • What is the horsepower?• Is Cylinder displacement 30 liters or less? Or more?• When was engine ordered? Manufactured?

    Modified/Reconstructed?• Is the engine certified by the manufacture?• Is the engine located in a MAJOR source or AREA source of

    HAP?• Is the engine a Non-Emergency or Emergency engine?• What is maximum fuel consumption to be used per year?

    (Gallons or Cubic Ft.).• Is the engine in a DEP Permitted Facility?

  • Existing vs. New

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    More than 500 HP at a major source• If construction commenced before Dec. 19, 2002, it is

    EXISTING!…………… If not, it is NEW.

    Less than 500 HP at a major or all HP at areasource

    • If construction commenced before June 12, 2006, it is EXISTING!.............. If not, it is NEW.

  • Diesel Engine Tiers

    * Diesel Emissions Tiers 1 to 3• Tier 1 standards were phased-in from 1996 to 2000.

    The more stringent• Tier 2 standards took effect from 2001 to 2006, and

    yet more stringent • Tier 3 standards phased-in from 2006 to 2008 (Tier 3

    standards applied only for engines from 50 -750 hp).

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  • Diesel Engine Tiers (cont.)

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    * Diesel Emissions Tier 4 Standards

    Tier 4 Standards (phased-in over a period of 2008-2015) require that emissions of PM and NOx be further reduced by about 90%. It also includes more stringent HC limits. (CO emission limits remain unchanged from Tier 2-3 stage).

    Such emission reductions can be achieved through the use of control technologies—including advanced exhaust gas after-treatment.

  • NESHAP and NSPS RICE Rules

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    • RICE NESHAP (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) - 40 CFR 63, Subpart ZZZZ

    - Applies to stationary CI and SI engines, both existing and new.• CI RICE NSPS (New source Performance Standards) – 40 CFR 60,

    Subpart IIII– Ordered after July 11, 2005 and manufactured after April 1, 2006– Modified or reconstructed after July 11, 2005– (Does not apply to existing engines)

    * SI RICE NSPS- 40 CFR 60, Subpart JJJJ– Ordered after June 12, 2006 and manufactured on/after July, 2007 if

    ≥500 HP (except lean burn 500 HP to 1350 HP), July 1, 2008 if less than 500 HP, January 1, 2009 if emergency more than 25 HP

    – Modified or reconstructed after June 12, 2006.– Does not apply to existing engines).

  • NESHAP Subpart ZZZZ

    • NESHAP = National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants. (There are 187 listed Hazardous Air Pollutants).

    • Regulates HAPS from stationary RICE at both Majorand Area source of HAPS. (Hazardous Air Pollutants). (All engines existing and new).

    • Major source HAPS = More than 10 tons for single HAP and 25 tons for combined HAPs per year emissions.

    • Area Source HAPS = Any area not a major source of HAPS.

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  • Stationary CI NSPS Subpart IIII

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    • CI Engines: 40 CFR part 60 subpart IIII (New Engines)

    • CI Engines ordered after July 11, 2005 and manufactured after April 1, 2006 (July 1, 2006 for fire pumps).

    • Modified/reconstructed after July 11, 2005

    • Engines mfg. after 2007 and later engines less than 30 liter/cyl displacement.

    • Manufacturers Certification is required.

  • NPS Subpart IIII Standards

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    • For engines with less than 30 liters/cylinder.Meet Tier standards equivalent to standards for non-road engines.

    ****************• For engines with more than 30 liters/cylinder.

    NOx limits equivalent to EPA’s standards for large marine engines.PM limits: 60% reduction or 0.15 g/KW-hr for non-emergency.

    .40 g/KW-hr for emergency.

  • Stationary SI NSPS Subpart JJJJ

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    • SI Engines : 40 CFR Part 60 Subpart JJJJ (New Engines)

    • Ordered after June 12, 2006. • Modified/Reconstructed after June 12, 2006.• Some engines require Manufacturers Certification,

    but others may not, such as landfill gas, etc.

  • NSPS Subpart JJJJ Standards

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    Engines StandardsLess than 25 HP Part 90 or part 1054 standards

    for new non-road SI engines

    Non-emergency gasoline or RB LPG

    Part 1048 standards for new non-road SI engines

    Non-emergency natural gas and LB LPG25 to 100 HP

    Part 1048 standards for new non-road SI engines

    More than 100 HP and not gasoline or lean burn LPG

    Standard in Table 1 subpart JJJJ,part 1048 standards for some engines

  • Subcategory Criteria

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    CI Engines

    Emergency Non-Emergency

    SI Engines

    Non Emergency Lean Burn

    2 Stroke 4 stroke

    Non Emergency 4 stroke Rich


    Landfill/Digester gas Emergency

  • Engines exempt from NESHAP Rule

    • Residential: includes apartment buildings.• Commercial: includes office buildings, hotels, stores,

    telecommunication facilities, restaurants, financial institutes, doctors office, sports and performing arts facilities.

    • Institutional: includes medical centers, nursing homes, research centers, institution of higher education, correctional facilities, elementary and secondary schools, libraries, religious establishments, police stations and fire stations.

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  • Emergency Engine Definition

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    • Emergency Stationary RICE means:• (1) RICE is operated to provide electrical power or

    mechanical work during an emergency situation such as: Used to produce power for critical networks or equipment when electric power from local utility or power source is interrupted or stationary RICE is used to pump water in case of fire or flood.

    • (2) Stationary RICE is operated under limited situations not included in above paragraph, as defined in 63.6640(f).

  • Emergency Engine Operational Restrictions

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    No time limit on the use of RICE for emergencies caused by power outage, fire or flood.

    May be operated for 100 hr./year for any combination

    • Maintenance and testing

  • Emergency Engine Operational Restrictions

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    Up to 50 hr./ can be used for Non-Emergency situations. Hours counted as part of the 100 hr. per calendar year in non-emergency situations.* Non-Emergency situation if no financial agreement

    exists.* Local reliability as part of a financial agreement

    with another entity with conditions.

    Maintenance and testingCan’t be used for peak shaving, or non-emergency demand response to generate income or supply power.

  • Emergency Engine Compliance Requirements

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    • Existing Engines: Regulated by NESHAP 40 CFR 63 Subpart ZZZZ but not subject to NSPS 40 CFR 60 Subpart IIII or JJJJ.

    • Change oil and filter every 500 hours operation or annually.

    • Inspect Air Cleaner every 1,000 hours of operation or annually.

    • Inspect hoses and belts every 500 hr. or annually.• Inspect spark plugs (SI) every 1000 hr. or annually.• Operate and maintain the RICE according to

    manufacturer’s instructions.

  • Emergency Engines Requirements

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    • Minimize startup and idle time (Not to exceed 30 minutes).

    • Non-resettable hour meter must be installed. (40 CFR 63.6625(f)

    • Records of hours of operation and maintenance.• Initial Notification is NOT required for Emergency

    Engines.• NEW ENGINES- Regulated under NESHAP 40 CFR

    63, Subpart ZZZZ and comply with NSPS Rules, Subpart IIII or Subpart JJJJ.

    • Reporting requirements.

  • Emergency Engines: Other requirements

    • Reporting requirements: apply to engines with more than 100 HP that are operated to be available more than 15 hr. contractually for demand and voltage deviation etc.

    • Reporting starts from 2015.• Reports need to be submitted to EPA through central

    data exchange.• Fuel requirement: Apply to emergency CI more than 100 HP

    and displacement of less than 30 liters/cylinder that are obligated for demand and local reliability.

    • Beginning January 1, 2015, for CI engines, use Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel fuel. Rule allows for depletion of fuel with higher sulfur content purchased prior to January 1, 2015.

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  • Emissions from RICE Engines

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    • Fuel components plus air form exhaust emissions results in emissions of H20, CO2, CO, HC, NOX, SOX, Aldehydes and PM 10. (Particulate Matter).

    • EPA is particularly interested in FormaldehydeReduction which is a HAP (Hazardous Air Pollutant), known to be a human carcinogen and Greenhouse Gas which is regulated by the EPA, Clean Air Act.

  • Emission Standards: Existing RICE at Major Source

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    HP Engine subcategory



    Non-Emergency Emergency

    Lss 100Change oil and filter and inspect air cleaner(CI) or spark plug (SI) every 1000

    hours or annually, inspect belts and hoses every 500 hours of operation.

    Change oil/filter, insp.

    hoses and belts 500 hrsor ann. Insp. air cleaner and spark

    plugs 1000 hrsor annually.

    100-300 230 ppm CO225 ppm

    CO 47 ppm CO 10.5 ppm CH2O177 ppm



    49 ppm CO or 70 % CO

    reduction225 ppm

    CO 47 ppm CO 10.5 ppm CH2O177 ppm


    More 500

    23 ppm CO or 70% CO




    350 ppb CH2O or 70 % CH2o Reduction

    No standard

  • Emission Standards-New RICE at Major Source

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    HP Engine subcategory




    Less 250 Comply IIII Comply JJJJ Comply JJJJ Comply JJJJComply JJJJ

    Comply with CI or SI but for

    more than 500 HP no standard.

    250-500 Comply IIII Comply JJJJ

    14 ppm CH2O OR 93% CO Red. Comply JJJJ

    Comply JJJJ

    More 500

    580 ppb CH2O or 70% CO

    12 ppm CH2O or 58% CO

    14 ppm CH2O OR 93% CO Red.

    350 ppb CH2O or 70 % CH2o Reduction

    No standard

  • Compliance Requirement: Rice at Major Source

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    Engine subcategory Compliance RequirementExisting Non-EmergencyCI More than 100 HP at major sourceSI 100-500 HP at major source

    Initial testSubsequent testing every 8760hours or 3 years for more than 500 HP (5 years for limited use)NotificationsSAM reports (annual report for limited use)ULSD FuelCrankcase emission control requirement

  • Compliance Requirements: Rice at Major Source

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    Engine Subcategory Compliance RequirementExisting Non EmergencySI 4 SRB More than 500 HP

    New Non EmergencySI 2 SLB More than 500 HPSI 4 SLB More than 250 HPSI 4 SRB More than 500 HPCI more than 500 HP

    Initial testSubsequent test semi-annually (can be reduced)Operating limitation –catalyst pressure drop and inlet temp.NotificationSemi- annual compliance report

    New Emergency/Limited useMore than 500 HP

    Initial notificationReporting and ULSD for emergencyengines used for demand response

    New Non-emergency LFG/DGMore than 500 HP major source

    Initial notification Monitor/record fuel usesAnnual report of fuel uses

  • Compliance Requirement: RICE at Major Sources

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    Engine Subcategory Compliance RequirementExisting emergency/black start more than 500 HP Existing non-emergency less than 100 HP at major source

    Operate and maintain mfg. spec.May use oil analysis programRecord of operation and non-settable hour meterKeep recordsNotification not requiredReporting and ULSD for engines more than 100 HP used for emergency demand

  • Compliance - Existing Non-Emergency RICE at AREA Source

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    HP Engines SubcategoryCI SI 2SLB SI 4S Remote SI 4S Non-remote SI LFG/DG


    less 300 HP

    Change Oil and filter 1000 hours and hoses and belts 500 hours

    Change oil/filter spark inspect hoses and belts 4320 hours or annually

    change oil/filter, inspect spark plug and hoses and belts 1440 hours or annually same as left

    Change oil/filter/ inspect spark plugs inspect hoses and belts 1440 hours or annually


    49 PPM CO or 70 % CO Reduction Same above same above same above same above

    More 500

    23 ppm CO or 70% CO reduction Same above

    Change oil/filter, inspect spark plug and hoses and belts 2160 hours or annually

    If engines used more than 24 hours 4 SLB install catalyst, 4 SRB install NSCR same above

  • Compliance Requirement: Non-Emergency Engines at Area Source

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    Engine Subcategory Compliance RequirementsExisting non-emergency CI more than 300 HP at area source

    Existing non-emergency SI4SLB/4SRB more than 500 HP at area source used more than 14 hr. and not in remote area.

    Initial testSubsequent test 8760 hours or three years for engines more than 500 HP (5 yr. for limited use)Operating limitation catalyst pressure drop 2’’ Water and inlet temperature for engines 450-1350 F more than 500 HPNotification is requiredULSDCrankcase emission control

    Initial and annual catalyst activity checkHigh temp. engine shutdown or continuously monitor inlet temp.Notification is requiredSemi annual compliance report

  • Compliance Requirements: Non-Emergency Engines at Area Sources

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    Engine Subcategory Compliance RequirementsExisting Non-EmergencyBlack start at area sourcesCI less 300 HPSI less 500 HPSI 2SLB more 500 HPSI LFG/DG more 500 HPSI 4SLB and 4 SRB more 500 HP used less than 24 hours in remote area

    Operate and maintain engine and control system as per mfg. specs.May use oil analysis program instead of frequencyKeep records of maintenanceNotification not required

  • Controls - Oxidation Catalyst

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    • Controls CO and VOC by oxidation.

    • CO is reduced to O2• HC is Oxidized to H2O• Catalyst Inlet Temp and

    pressure drop monitored if the engine is more than 500 HP.

  • Controls - Oxidation Catalyst

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  • Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) System

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    • Some exhaust gas escape past piston into crankcase of engines

    • In the past these blow-by gas used to be removed from crankcase as emissions

    • These gases are re-circulated to intake manifold through a valve.

    • Reduces HC by 25%

  • Small 100 HP 4SRB- Existing

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    • Change oil & filter every 1440 hr. of operation or annually.• Inspect spark & plugs every 1440 hr. of operation or annually.• Inspect hoses & belts every 1440 hr. or annually which ever

    comes first.

  • Diesel Fuel Requirements:

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    Date RequirementOctober 1, 2007 Low Sulfur Diesel

    October 1, 2010

    Engines less than 30 litr/cylinderdisplacement

    Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)Max sulfur content 15 ppmMinimum cetane index of 40 or max aromatic content of 25 volume%

    June 2012Engines with more than 30 lit/cyl.

    1000 ppm sulfur diesel

  • Owner/Operator Compliance Requirements

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    • 2007 model year and later with displacement less than 30 liters/cylinder-

    Purchase certified engines.**********************

    • Displacement more than 30 liters/cylinder.Initial performance test.Annual performance test for non-emergency engines.Continuously monitor operating parameters.

  • Compliance Requirements

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    • Certified enginesInstall according to mfg. and operate

    • If not operated according to mfg. spec – Keep maintenance record– Operate with good AP control– 100- 500 HP initial performance test– More than 500 HP initial performance test and

    after 8760 hours or three years, whichever comes first

  • Compliance Requirements

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    • Non-certified engines.- Maintenance plan.- Performance testing, 25-500 HP initial test, & more

    than 500 HP initial and 8760 hrs. or three years.- Monitoring and record keeping.

  • Air Permits for Engines

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    • Permitted facilities list the engines as emission units. A construction permit must be issued for a new engine at a minor or major permitted facility.

    • Engines not qualifying for categorical exemption (Emergency, etc.) must obtain a permit. (Depending upon fuel usage –General Permit or Air Construction/Air Operating Permit).

    • All the RICE engines must comply with RICE NESHAP rule 40 CFR 63 Subpart ZZZZ whether they are permitted or not.

    • Don’t have to send an initial notification for emergency engines.

  • Air Permits for Engines

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    EXEMPT – No permit required for RICE Emergency Engines or if fuel does not exceed:• This is total for all engines at site

    5,400 gallons of Gasoline per year.64,000 gallons of Diesel fuel per year.

    288,000 gallons of Propane per year.8.8 million standard cubic feet of Natural Gas / year.


    • (Except for Title V facilities, where it must be included as part of the Title V operation).

  • Air Permits for Engines

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    GENERAL PERMIT (GP) - if fuel does notexceed:

    20,000 gallons of Gasoline per year250,000 gallons of Diesel fuel per year

    1.15 million gallons of Propane per year40 million standard cubic feet of Natural Gas per year

    *************• General Permits – $100 Fee - Reciprocating Internal

    Combustion Engines (RICE) - Contact:Barbara Friday (D.E.P., Tallahasse, Florida)

    Air General Permits850-717-9095

  • Air Permits for Engines

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    • Above General Permit (GP) Thresholds –Over 20,000 gallons of Gasoline per year.Over 250,000 gallons of Diesel fuel per year.Over 1.15 million gallons of Propane per year.Over 40 million standard cubic feet of Natural Gas/year.

    * An Air Construction permit is required, with fee and Public Notice, then an Air Operating permit is

    required with a fee. (Unless it is a Title V facility).

  • Air Permits for Engines

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    EXEMPTION Documentation• The Department does not issue an exemption

    certificate or document. • However, the Department will accept written

    notifications from an applicant who is using or plans to use a RICE Engine that meets the exemption rules. This notification will be maintained in the Department’s database files.

  • Contact

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    Florida Department of Environmental Protection

    2295 Victoria Avenue, Suite 364Fort Myers, Florida 33902

    Carter B. Endsley, P.E.Professional Engineer

    Air Resources Management *

    Tel: (239) 344-5600 Email: [email protected]

    mailto:[email protected]

    Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines�EPA’S RICE NESHAP and NSPSContentRICE ENGINESEngine Stroke and Burn Definition First Step - Identify your engineExisting vs. NewDiesel Engine TiersDiesel Engine Tiers (cont.)NESHAP and NSPS RICE RulesNESHAP Subpart ZZZZStationary CI NSPS Subpart IIIINPS Subpart IIII Standards Stationary SI NSPS Subpart JJJJNSPS Subpart JJJJ Standards�Subcategory CriteriaEngines exempt from NESHAP RuleEmergency Engine DefinitionEmergency Engine Operational RestrictionsEmergency Engine Operational RestrictionsEmergency Engine Compliance RequirementsEmergency Engines RequirementsEmergency Engines: Other requirementsEmissions from RICE EnginesEmission Standards: �Existing RICE at Major SourceEmission Standards-New RICE at Major SourceCompliance Requirement: �Rice at Major SourceCompliance Requirements: Rice at Major SourceCompliance Requirement: RICE at Major Sources Compliance - Existing Non-Emergency RICE at AREA SourceCompliance Requirement: Non-Emergency Engines at Area SourceCompliance Requirements: Non-Emergency Engines at Area SourcesControls - Oxidation CatalystControls - Oxidation CatalystPositive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) SystemSmall 100 HP 4SRB- ExistingDiesel Fuel Requirements:Owner/Operator Compliance RequirementsCompliance RequirementsCompliance RequirementsAir Permits for EnginesAir Permits for EnginesAir Permits for EnginesAir Permits for EnginesAir Permits for EnginesContact