Receptive Multilingualism: Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts (Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism)

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<ul><li><p>Receptive Multilingualism</p></li><li><p>Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism (HSM)</p><p>Volume 6</p><p>Receptive Multilingualism. Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic conceptsEdited by Jan D. ten Thije and Ludger Zeevaert</p><p>Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism (HSM) publishes research from colloquia on linguistic aspects of multilingualism organized by the Research Center on Multilingualism at the University of Hamburg.</p><p>Editors</p><p>Jrgen M. MeiselMonika RothweilerJuliane HouseUniversity of HamburgResearch Center on Mulitlingualism</p></li><li><p>Receptive MultilingualismLinguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts</p><p>Edited by</p><p>Jan D. ten ThijeUtrecht University</p><p>Ludger ZeevaertUniversity of Hamburg</p><p>John Benjamins Publishing Company</p><p>Amsterdam / Philadelphia</p></li><li><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Receptive multilingualism : linguistic analyses, language policies, and didactic concepts / edited by Jan D. ten Thije &amp; Ludger Zeevaert.</p><p> p. cm. -- (Hamburg studies on multilingualism, issn 1571-4934 ; v. 6)Includes bibliographical references and index.1. Multilingualism. 2. Communication. I. Thije, Jan D. ten. II. Zeevaert, Ludger.P115.R427 2007</p><p>306.44'6--dc22 2007009072isbn 978 90 272 1926 8 (Hb; alk. paper)</p><p> 2007 John Benjamins B.V.No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm, or any other means, without written permission from the publisher.</p><p>John Benjamins Publishing Co. P.O. Box 36224 1020 me Amsterdam The NetherlandsJohn Benjamins North America P.O. Box 27519 Philadelphia pa 19118-0519 usa</p><p>The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ansi z39.48-1984.</p><p>8 TM</p></li><li><p>The production of this series has been made possiblethrough financial support to the Research Center on Multilingualism</p><p>(Sonderforschungsbereich 538 "Mehrsprachigkeit")by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>Abouttheauthors ix</p><p>Introduction 1Ludger Zeevaert and Jan D. ten Thije</p><p>Part 1 Historical development of receptive multilingualism</p><p> 1. ReceptivemultilingualisminNorthernEuropeintheMiddleAges: Adescriptionofascenario 25</p><p>Kurt Braunmller</p><p> 2. Linguistic diversityinHabsburgAustriaasamodelformodernEuropeanlanguagepolicy 49Rosita Rindler-Schjerve and Eva Vetter</p><p>Part 2 Receptive multilingualism in discourse</p><p> 3. ReceptivemultilingualisminDutchGermaninterculturalteamcooperation 73Anne Ribbert and Jan D. ten Thije</p><p> 4. Receptivemultilingualismandinter-Scandinaviansemicommunication 103Ludger Zeevaert</p><p> 5. ReceptivemultilingualisminSwitzerlandandthecaseofBiel/Bienne 137Iwar Werlen</p><p> 6. TheSwissmodelofplurilingualcommunication 159Georges Ldi</p><p> 7. Receptivemultilingualisminbusinessdiscourses 179Bettina Dresemann</p><p> 8. Speakerstancesinnativeandnon-nativeEnglishconversation: I+verbconstructions 195</p><p>Nicole Baumgarten and Juliane House</p></li><li><p>viii Receptive Multilingualism</p><p>Part3 Testingmutualunderstandinginreceptivemultilingualcommunication</p><p> 9. Understanding differences in inter-Scandinavian language understanding 217Gerke Doetjes</p><p> 10. Scandinavian intercomprehension today 231Lars-Olof Delsing</p><p>Part4 Determiningthepossibilitiesofreadingcomprehensioninrelatedlanguages</p><p> 11. Interlingual text comprehension: Linguistic and extralinguistic determinants 249</p><p>Rene van Bezooijen and Charlotte Gooskens</p><p> 12. Processing levels in foreign-language reading 265Madeline Lutjeharms</p><p>13. A computer-based exploration of the lexical possibilities of intercomprehension: Finding German cognates of Dutch words 285</p><p>Robert Mller</p><p> 14. How can DaFnE and EuroComGerm contribute to the concept of receptive multilingualism? Theoretical and practical considerations 307Britta Hufeisen and Nicole Marx</p><p>Name index 323Subject index 326</p></li><li><p>Kurt BraunmllerUniversittHamburgInstitutfrGermanistikISkandinavistikVonMellePark6D-20146HamburgGermanybraunmueller@uni-hamburg.de</p><p>Rosita Schjerve-RindlerUniversittscampusAAKHGarnisongasse13,Hof8A-1090WienAustriarosita.schjerve-rindler@univie.ac.at</p><p>Eva VetterUniversittscampusAAKHGarnisongasse13,Hof8A-1090WienAustriaeva.vetter@univie.ac.at</p><p>Rene van BezooijenDept.ofLinguistics,RadboudUniversityNijmegenP.O.Box9103NL-6500HDNijmegenTheNetherlandsr.v.bezooijen@let.ru.nl</p><p>Charlotte GooskensDept.ofScandinavianStudiesUniversityofGroningenP.O.Box716NL-9700ASGroningenc.s.gooskens@rug.nl.TheNetherlands</p><p>Anne RibbertDept.ofEnglishRadboudUniversityNijmegenP.O.Box9103NL-6500HDNijmegenTheNetherlandsa.ribbert@let.ru.nl</p><p>Jan D. ten ThijeDepartmentofDutchLanguageandCultureUtrechtInstituteofLinguistics(UIL-OTS)Trans10NL3512JKUtrechtTheNetherlandsJan.tenThije@let.uu.nl</p><p>Ludger ZeevaertUniversittHamburgSFB538MehrsprachigkeitTeilprojektH3Max-Brauer-Allee60DE-22765HamburgGermanyzeevaert@uni-hamburg.de</p><p>Iwar WerlenUniversittBernInstitutfrSprachwissenschaftLnggassstrasse49CH-3000Bern9Switzerlandiwar.werlen@isw.unibe.ch</p><p>Georges LdiUniversittBaselInstitutfrFranzsischeSprach-undLiteraturwissenschaftStapfelberg7/9CH-4051BaselSwitzerlandGeorges.Luedi@unibas.ch</p><p>About the authors</p></li><li><p>x ReceptiveMultilingualism</p><p>Bettina DresemannUniversittErfurtSprachenzentrumPostfach900221D-99105ErfurtGermanybettina.dresemann@uni-erfurt.de</p><p>Nicole BaumgartenUniversittHamburgSFB538MehrsprachigkeitTeilprojektK4Max-Brauer-Allee60D-22765HamburgGermanynicole.baumgarten@uni-hamburg.de</p><p>Juliane HouseUniversittHamburgInstitutfrAllgemeineundAngewandteSprachwissenschaftAbteilungSprachlehrforschungVon-Melle-Park6,II.StockDE-20146HamburgGermanyjhouse@uni-hamburg.de</p><p>Gerard DoetjesFremmedsprksenteretHgskolenistfoldN-1757HaldenNorwaygerard@doetjes.de</p><p>Lars-Olof DelsingLundsUniversitetSprk-ochlitteraturcentrumNordiskasprkBox201S-22100LundSwedenLars-Olof.Delsing@nordlund.lu.se</p><p>Madeline LutjeharmsVrijeUniversiteitBrusselVakgroepTALKenInstituutvoorTaalonderwijsPleinlaan2,lokaalE210</p><p>B-1050BrusselBelgiummlutjeha@vub.ac.be</p><p>Robert MllerUniversitdeLigeDpartementdeLanguesetLittraturesgermaniquesPlaceCockerill,3B-4000LigeBelgiumr.moller@ulg.ac.be</p><p>Britta HufeisenTUDarmstadtSprachenzentrumHochschulstr.1D-64289DarmstadtGermanyhufeisen@spz.tu-darmstadt.de</p><p>Nicole MarxTUDarmstadtSprachenzentrumHochschulstr.1D-64289DarmstadtGermanynmarx@spz.tu-darmstadt.de</p></li><li><p>Introduction</p><p>LudgerZeevaertandJanD.tenThije</p><p>ReceptiveMultilingualism.Linguisticanalyses,languagepoliciesanddidacticconcepts</p><p>This volume revealsnewperspectives fromdifferent theoretical frameworkson lin-guisticanalysesofreceptivemultilingualisminEurope.Receptivemultilingualismre-ferstothelanguageconstellationinwhichinterlocutorsusetheirrespectivemothertonguewhilespeakingtoeachother.Casestudiesarepresentedfromcontemporarysettings,alongwithanalysesofhistoricalexamples,theoreticalconsiderationsand,fi-nally,descriptionsofdidacticalconceptsestablishedinordertotransferanddissem-inate receptivemultilingualcompetence.Receptivemultilingualismcannot (yet)beregardedasanestablishedfieldwithinresearchonmultilingualism,eventhoughtheeconomicandpoliticaldevelopments,usuallydenotedas globalisation,have led toaconsiderableincreaseininternationalcommunication.Infact,ithasbecomeclear,thatcommunicativechallengesconnectedtothesedevelopmentsarehardlysolvableusingtraditionalconceptsofmultilingualism.Therefore,newconceptshavetobede-velopedanddiscussed. At theUniversity of Hamburg and especially at theResearchCentre 538:Multi-lingualism pioneering work was carried out. Between 1989 and 1995 the role ofsemicommunication as used between speakers of Middle Low German and theScandinavianlanguageswasinvestigated.1ReceptivemultilingualcommunicationasaformoflanguagecontactthathadamajorimpactonthedevelopmentoftheMainlandScandinavianlanguageswasdiscussedandinthefollowingwidelyacceptedinthelit-eratureonScandinavian languagehistory (cf.e.g.Bardaletal.1997:362,Teleman2002:29,Josephsson2006:22).ThelanguagesituationincontemporaryScandinaviawasthesubjectofresearchinasecondproject,2yieldingseveraldissertations(Zeevaert2004,Hz2005,Golinski2007andDoetjesinprep.)andnumerousfurtherpublica-tions.Infact,onlyfouroutoffourteenarticlesinthisvolumeactuallycomefromtheHamburgresearchprojectonsemicommunication.Thisshowshowexchangeanddis-cussion on receptivemultilingualism have spread over Europe and increasingly at-tractedattentionoffunctionariesinallkindofinstitutions,variousresearchersandpolicymakers.Sofar,receptivemultilingualismhadbeenatypicalbottom-updevel-opment, supportedbyofficialEuropeanorganisationsonly toacertainextentcom-paredtootherEUlanguagepolicies. Sincethemid-ninetiesreceptivemultilingualismispromotedbytheEuropeancom-missiononparwithotherpossibilitiesofincreasingthemobilityoftheEuropeanciti-zensinordertosolvethestructuralproblemswithintheEuropeanUnion.Throughout,</p></li><li><p>2 LudgerZeevaertandJanD.tenThije</p><p>roughlyspeaking, the last tenyearsamarkedincrease intheresearchonthis topichasbeenobservable,a factwhichwasnot least stimulatedby thechallenges setbytheEuropeanmotto,unity in diversity,whichalsoreferstothelinguisticsituationinEurope.Theincreasingimportanceofthisissuehasbeenemphasisedbytheappoint-mentofacommissionerformultilingualism.Sincethebeginningof2007therearenow27officiallanguagesintheEU.ThenumberoflanguagesspokenasthemothertonguebyEUcitizens,however,canbeestimatedtobebetween40and100,depend-ingonwhethernearlyextinctlanguagessuchase.g.KaraiminLithuaniaorlanguagesthatarelinguisticallyveryclosetotheofficiallanguageofacountrylikeLimburgishintheNetherlandsareincludedornot. Thisvolumechallengesthreetacitassumptionsinthefieldofmultilingualcommu-nicationresearch,thatarecounteredbythefollowingstatements:</p><p> Multilingualismisasocialphenomenondeeplyembedded inEuropean languagehistory.</p><p> Multilingualunderstandingdoesnotnecessarilyrequirenear-nativelanguagecom-petency.</p><p> Englishaslingua francaisnottheoneandonlysolutionforinterlingualcommuni-cationinEurope.</p><p>Thefirstassumptionreferstosuggestionsthatmultilingualismisarecentphenomenonandismainlyrelatedtoglobalisationandlabourmobility.Incontrasttothesestate-mentsithastobesaidthat, inactualfact,theideaofmonolingualismasthestand-ardcasefor individualsandsocieties is theresultoftheemergenceofnationstatesinEuropeintheeighteenthcenturyresultinginnational linguistichomogenisation.FormostcountriesoutsideofEuropeandNorthAmericamonolingualismisasome-whatunusualphenomenon.InmanycountriesinAsia,SouthAmericaorAfricasev-eraldifferentmothertonguesarespoken.ForexogamicsocietiessuchastheVaupsinSouthAmericamultilingualismisinevitable.Marriagesbetweenmembersofthesamespeechcommunityareprohibited,meaningthateverychildgrowsupinabilingualenvironment(cf.Romaine1994:38).IncountrieslikeIndiaorSouthAfricatheuseoffourdifferentlanguageswithdifferentfamilymembersandcolleaguesineverydaylifeisquitenormal(cf.thedepictionofBhatiaandRitchie2004:796f. ,orKamwangamalu2004:726f.),althoughacompletenearnative linguisticcompetence isnotseenasaprerequisiteforsuccessfulcommunication. ThesamepatterncanbeobservedinEuropeintheLateMiddleAgesandinEarlyModernTimeswhencommunicationwasmultilingualbydefault.Onepurposeofthisbookistoreconstructthehistoricaldevelopmentsofvariousmultilingualconstella-tionswhilefocussingespeciallyonreceptivemultilingualism.Scandinavia,SwitzerlandandtheHabsburgEmpireofferinterestinghistoricalmaterialforthelinguisticstudyofthemaincharacteristicsofthismultilingualconstellationundervariousconditions. It isnotbycoincidence thateightof the fourteenarticles in thisvolumerefer tomultilingualconstellationsbetweenGermaniclanguages.Inseveralpublicationsthe</p></li><li><p> Introduction 3</p><p>Scandinavianlanguagecommunityisdescribedasafunctioningexampleofreceptivemultilingualcommunicationand,therefore,asamodelforEuropeanunderstanding.Alreadyinmedievalsources,e.g.theIcelandiclawbookGrgs(GreylagGoose)whichispasseddowninmanuscriptsstemmingfromthethirteenthcentury,Scandinaviaisdescribedasasacommonspeechareainwhichdnsk tunga(theDanishlanguage)isspoken(cf.Melberg1952foracomprehensivedepiction).AtthesametimevisitorsfromSouthernEurope(liketheSpanisharchbishopRodrigoXimenes)reportedthattheinhabitantsofGermany,Scandinavia,theNetherlandsandEnglandallseemedtospeakdialectsofthesamelanguage(cf.Karker1978:7).GermaniclanguagesaretheofficiallanguagesinnineEUcountries(coveringmoreorlessthesameareadescribedbybishopXimenesinthethirteenthcentury)whichismorethananyotherlanguagegroup.Insum,GermaniclanguageshavedeterminedmultilingualhistoryinNorthernEuropeconsiderably. InScandinaviareceptivemultilingualcommunicationwaspropagatedasearlyasthefirsthalfofthenineteenthcenturyaspartofthePan-Scandinavianmovement(cf.Zeevaert2004:47andDoetjesthisvolume).Thismovementgraduallyledtoamoreintensive political and cultural cooperation between the Scandinavian countriesnowadaysknownastheNordicCouncil.However,inthecontextofspeakersoftheGermaniclanguagegroupoutsideoftheScandinavianlanguagesthisconsciousnessoflinguisticcommonalitiesandtraditionofreceptivemultilingualcommunicationisfarlessdeveloped.Inthesecases,newdidacticalconceptshadtobeestablishedinordertoovercomeany linguisticdifferences. It shouldbementionedthatalreadyover75yearsagoHeinzKloss(1929)designedadetailedconceptofacquiringareceptivecom-petenceofthedifferent(West)Germaniclanguages,aimedatestablishingamutualunderstandingbetweenspeakersofAfrikaans,German,Dutch,PennsylvaniaDutch,YiddishandFrisian.Atthattime,hisconceptwasmostlydisregarded,seenasallat-tentionwasplacedonapproachessupportingthehomogenisationanddisseminationofnationallanguages.Currently,ateamofresearchersfromvariousEuropeanuniver-sitiesunderthedirectionofBrittaHufeisen(Darmstadt)areworkingonthedidacti-calimplementationofthereceptivemultilingualapproachtowardstheGermaniclan-guagesthatwediscussmoreextensivelybelow(cf.HufeisenandMarxinprep.). Thesecondassumptionisrelatedtotheconceptionthatonlynear-native language competency guarantees a successful multilingual understanding. On the contra-ry,thecontributionspresentedinthisvolumeargueinfavourofnative-likecompe-tencenolongerbeingasufficientprerequisiteforadequatemultilingualcommunica-tion inmanybusinessand institutional settings.Consequently, thisconceptioncanorevenshouldbereplacedbyalistoforalandwrittencompetencieswhichcomprise(meta-)linguisticandinterculturalunderstanding,actionandinstitutionalknowledge.Theanalysesrevealhowtheconceptofreceptivemultilingualismrequiresmorethanminimallinguisticknowledge,andisneitherasimplepidginnorincompletelanguagelearning. Instead, it represents the acquisition of receptive competencies in morethanonegiventargetlanguage,andatthesametimeincludesasetofspecificforeign</p></li><li><p>4 LudgerZeevaertandJanD.tenThije</p><p>languagelearningstrategiesonthesideofthehearerinreceptivemultilingualism. Thisleadstotheconclusionthatpassive competenceisamisnomerforreceptivecom-petence.Inreceptivemultilingualconstellationsasanalysedinthisvolumethemainefforthastobemadebythehearer.Incasesofanyproblemsoccuringtheinteractantshavetodecidewhethertheywanttosomehowsolvetheproblemorchooseaso-calledlet it pass-strategy(cf.BaumgartenandHouse,Doetjes,Dresemann,Zeevaertinthisvolume). In interscandinaviancommunicative encounters as examinedbyZeevaert(2004)onlyfewinstancesofaccommodationstrategies(slowerand...</p></li></ul>

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