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Recent Advances in Intelligent Bio-Nano Materials and Structures Research France – US Workshop on Nano Bio Technologies March 2-3, 2006 Washington, DC Dimitris C. Lagoudas, Institute Director Daniel C. Davis, Director of Operations Texas Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nano Materials and Structures for Aerospace Vehicles NASA & Nanotechnology University Research, Engineering & Technology Institutes (URETIs) Bio-Inspired Design and Processing of Multi-Functional Nano-Composites (BIMat) Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing (INAC) • Design and modeling of hierarchically structured materials capable of bio-sensing catalysis and self-healing • Develop fundamental knowledge and enabling technologies in: ultradense memory, ultraperformance devices, integrated sensors, and adaptive systems Natl Inst. Aerospace Northwestern U of NC Princeton UCSB Texas A&M Cornell UCSD Northwestern U of Fl Purdue Yale URETIs Center for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration (CMISE) Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nano Materials and Structures for Aerospace Vehicles (TiiMS) • Basic and applied research in the integration of sensing, computing, actuation and communication in smart materials • Bio-informatics for the development of new, scalable nano-technologies in sensors, actuators and energy sources Ariz. St UCI UCLA CIT U of T-A U of Houston Texas Southern Prairie View A&M Texas A&M Rice

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Recent Advances in Intelligent Bio-Nano Materials and Structures Research

France – US Workshop on Nano Bio TechnologiesMarch 2-3, 2006Washington, DC

Dimitris C. Lagoudas, Institute DirectorDaniel C. Davis, Director of Operations

Texas Institute for Intelligent Bio-NanoMaterials and Structures for Aerospace Vehicles

NASA & NanotechnologyUniversity Research, Engineering& Technology Institutes (URETIs)

Bio-Inspired Design and Processing of Multi-Functional

Nano-Composites (BIMat)

Institute for Nanoelectronicsand Computing (INAC)

• Design and modeling of hierarchically structured materials capable of bio-sensing catalysis and self-healing

• Develop fundamental knowledge and enabling technologies in: ultradensememory, ultraperformance devices, integrated sensors, and adaptive systems

•Nat’l Inst. Aerospace

•Northwestern•U of NC

•Princeton•UCSB

• Texas A&M• Cornell • UCSD

• Northwestern• U of Fl

• Purdue• Yale

URETIs

Center for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration (CMISE)

Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nano Materials and Structures for Aerospace Vehicles (TiiMS)

• Basic and applied research in the integration of sensing, computing, actuation and communication in smart materials

• Bio-informatics for the development of new, scalable nano-technologies in sensors, actuators and energy sources

• Ariz. St • UCI

• UCLA• CIT

• U of T-A• U of Houston

• Texas Southern• Prairie View A&M

• Texas A&M• Rice

Mission of TiiMS

Catalyze the academic community to significantly enhance the education of the next generation of aerospace professionals.

Advance emerging bio-nano science and technologies that will be implemented in adaptive, shape controllable, intelligent micro and macro structures for next generation aircraft and space systems.

UNIVERSITY PARTICIPANTSUniversity of Texas

at Arlington

Texas A&M University

University of Houston

RiceUniversity

Texas Southern University

Prairie View A&M University

Advisory BoardM. O’Neill, Chair

Lockheed Martin

Research OfficersK. Bennett, Director

Texas Engineering Experiment Station

R. Ewing, VP for ResearchTexas A&M University

NASA Headquarters LiaisonM. Dastoor

Washington, D.CInstitute DirectorD. Lagoudas

Texas A&M University NASA Program LiasonK. Belvin

NASA - LangleyDirector of Operations

D. DavisTexas Engineering Experiment Station

Prairie View A&MS. Lin,

Associate Director

R. Wilkins

U.T. – ArlingtonW. Kirk

Rice UniversityJ. Tour

Associate Director

E. BarreraN. Halas

R. SmalleyB. Yakobson

A. MeadeS. Nagarajaiah

Texas A&M Univ.

J. WhitcombJ. Boyd

Z. OunaiesA. Rice-Ficht

R. CrooksH. Bayley

M. AndrewsO. Reginiotis

J. ValasekJ. Junkins

Texas Southern Univ.O. Jejelowo

Associate Director

J. ClementR. Govindarajan

Y. ChenK. Grigoriadis

P. SharmaR. Krishnamoorti

R. LeeM. Pettitt

L. Wheeler

Univ. of HoustonD. ZimmermanAssociate Director

TiiMS Administration

DimitrisDimitris LagoudasLagoudasInstitute DirectorInstitute Director

Daniel DavisDaniel DavisOperations DirectorOperations Director

Advisory BoardM. O’Neill (Chair)

Lockheed Martin

Institute DirectorD. Lagoudas

Texas A&M Univ.

NASA Technical LiasonT. Gates

NASA-Langley

Chief ScientistJ. Tour, RU

D. Davis, TAMUE. Barrera, RU

J. Clement, TSUD. Lagoudas, TAMU

J. Valasek, TAMUR. Wilkins, PVAMUK. Grigoriadis, UH

W. Kirk, UTA

Chief EngineerJ. Junkins, TAMU

FunctionalizedNanomaterials

MultifunctionalMaterial Systems

MultiscaleModeling

Biomaterials& Devices

IntelligentSystems

Education& Outreach

E. Barrera, RUR. Krishnamoorti, UH

R. Lee, UHR. Smalley, RU

J. Tour, RUR. Wilkins, PVAMU

J. Boyd, TAMUY. Chen,UH

D. Davis, TAMUN. Halas, RUW. Kirk, UTA

D. Lagoudas, TAMUZ. Ounaies, TAMU

B. Yakobson, RUM. Pettitt, UH

P. Sharma, UHL. Wheeler, UH

J. Whitcomb, TAMU

A. Rice-Ficht, TAMU

M. Andrews, TAMUH. Bayley, TAMUJ. Clement, TSUR. Crooks, TAMU

R. Govindarajan, TSUO. Jejelowo, TSU

D. Zimmerman, UH

Adaptive ControlK. Grigoriadis, UHJ. Junkins, TAMU

A. Meade, RUS. Nagarajaiah, RU

Systems IntegrationS. Lin, PVAMU

O. Rediniotis, TAMUJ. Valasek, TAMU

Chief Engineer and Chief Scientist

Dr. John JunkinsChief Engineer

Dr. James M. TourChief Scientist

In MemorialProfessor Richard E. Smalley

Rice University

Chief ScientistCo-Principal Investigator

TiiMS Institute

Research and Education Thrust Areas

Intelligent Aerospace

Vehicle

Multifunctional Composite

Functionalized Dispersed

Carbon Nanotubes

Single Wall Cross-linked

Carbon Nanotubes

Functionalized Single Wall

Carbon Nanotube

Research Challenge: Bridging the Length Scales - fromNanomaterials to Aerospace Systems

10-10m 102m

Research Thrust: Functionalized Nanomaterials

Research Activities:• Nanotube purification,

functionalization, separation and dispersion.

• Strength and toughness of organic and inorganic nanocomposites.

• Polymeric nanocomposites for multifunctional use with improved conductivity properties.

• Studying multifunctionality of nanocomposites

Nanostructures: 100 times stronger than steel at 1/6 the weight.

Barrera, Krishnomoorti, Lee, Lagoudas, Wilkins, Ounaies

Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites

a. high strength carbon fiber

b. ceramicc. elastomeric d. structural and radiation

protection

Tour, Barrera, Smalley

Production and functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)

a. multifunctional CNTb. electrically tunable CNT c. self-healing of

nanocompositesd. other URETI uses

PI’s InvolvedResearch Tasks for Group A

Functionalized Nanomaterials

Functionalized NanomaterialsLiBr

PS PS TMS

n-BuLi

THF

Styrene

THF

TMSCl

THF-

Process for sidewall initiated polymerization

Functionalized nanotubes

dispersed in a polymer

Functionalized unropedseparated nanotubes to enable structural enhancements

Boyd, Lagoudas, Junkins, Valasek, Rediniotis, Halas, Barrera

Integration of nanocomposites into morphing wing & multifunctional space structure. (Beginning Year 3)

Barrera, Lagoudas, Boyd, Krishnamoorti, Davis, Ounaies

Critical testing and characterization for aerospace use of nanocomposites

Barrera, Krishnamoorti

Process Development by integration & hybrids and scale-up of materials fabrication (Beginning Year 4)

PI’s InvolvedResearch Tasks for Group A

Functionalized Nanomaterials

Functionalized Nanomaterials (Cont)

101

102

103

104

105

106

107

10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103

00.350.751.5

wt % SWNT

Stor

age

Mod

ulus

b TG' (

dyne

s/cm

2 )

aTω (rad/sec) [T

o = 170oC]

PS152K + Functionalized SWNT

Rheological methods for dispersion

quantification

Improved mechanical properties in SWCNT –reinforced elastromer

0

1 0 0 0

2 0 0 0

3 0 0 0

4 0 0 0

5 0 0 0

6 0 0 0

7 0 0 0

C o n t r o l ( NoS W NT a t

C a r d e r o c k )

No S W NT F- S W NT S ila n e - S W NT S W NT - Br A lly - S W NT S W NT

Fo r m u la t io n (0 .1 w t% S W N T s )

Shor

t Bea

m S

hear

Str

engt

h (P

si)

F irs t-run(3 -0 4 )S e c o nd -R un(6 -0 4 )

Significant enhancements w/low NT concentrations

Z-axis strength

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

0 200 400 600 800

Control (0 wt % SWNT)Specimen with 0.7 wt % SWNT

Stre

ss (P

si)

Strain (%)

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Reinforced PPF polymer with Functionalized SWNTs

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Flex

ural

Mod

ulus

(MPa

)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Flex

ural

Str

engt

h (M

Pa)

PPF 0.1% Pristine SWNTs / PPF 0.1% Functionalized SWNTs / PPF

Sidewall functionalization

(J. Tour, E. Barrera, R. Smalley, @Rice)

Poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocomposites using Surfactants

350

450

550

650

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

MeasuredFit to Halpin - Tsai

Com

pres

sive

Mod

ulus

(G in

MP

a)

wt % SWNT

0

10

20

30

40

50

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

PCLPCL + 0.05 wt % SWNT

Stre

ss (M

Pa)

Strain (%)

Non-Covalent Polymer Wrapping Non-Covalent Surfactant Adsorption

(R. Lee, R. Krishnamoorti @ UH)

Elastomeric Reinforcement (Siloxane) by Functionalized SWNTs

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

0 200 400 600 800

Control (0 wt % SWNT)Specimen with 0.7 wt % SWNT

Stre

ss (P

si)

Strain (%)

Tensile testing Composition dependence

J. Tour, Rice U.; R. Krishnamoorti, U. Houston;C. Dyke, NanoComposites Inc.,

0

2

4

6

8

10

1

3

5

7

9

0 2 4 6 8

Normalized Tensile Modulus

Elongation at Break

Nor

mal

ized

Ten

sile

Mod

ulus

Elon

gatio

n at

Bre

ak

wt % SWNT

T = 30 oCRK

Technology licensed, being commercialized for annular blowout preventers (BOPs), elastomers enduring up to 20,000 psi with 90” ODs

HO(CH2)10

O

Tour

TiiMS Research Leads to New Nanotechnology Companies

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Control (NoSWNT at

Carderock)

No SWNT F-SWNT Silane-SWNT SWNT-Br Ally-SWNT SWNT

Formulation (0.1wt% SWNTs)

Shor

t Bea

m S

hear

Str

engt

h (P

si)

First-run(3-04)Second-Run(6-04)

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

0 200 400 600 800

Control (0 wt % SWNT)Specimen with 0.7 wt % SWNT

Stre

ss (P

si)

Strain (%)

NanoRidge Materials, Inc.Houston, TXCEO: Chris LundbergCTO: Enrique BarreraInitial funding raisedFour initial projects forNASA, DOD, and a a polymer Co.Licensed key IP

NanoComposites, LLCHouston, TXCEO: Barry DraysonCTO: Chris DykeCTAdvisor: James TourInitial funding raisedKey project with HydrilLicensed key IP

NASA URETI research and Nanotubes from Richard Smalley that lead to commercial work and real revenue for two start-up companies.

~50% Improvement in Z-axis properties for composites currently being sold.

Three times the strength increase in rubber. An Oil Field o-ring that was shown at the Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, TX.

0.1 wt.% SWNT Loadings

Red-First runBlue-Second Run

Sho

rt be

am s

hear

stre

ngth

(PS

I)

VARTM usedto make largecomponents.

Microwaveprocessing gives a new approach.

Research Thrust: Multifunctional Material Systems

Research Activities:• Multifunctional materials and

systems at nano – micro –meso - macro physical length scales.

• Experimental validations of hierarchical material models for structural, electrical, and thermal functionality.

• Integrate porous SMAs into smart structures relevant to multifunctional lightweight space applications and shape control of morphing wings.

• Life assessment of multi-functional nanocomposite materials and structures.

current collector

electrode

electrode separator

current collector

Collapsible Cellular Structure with NiTi cells, using Pseudoelasticity Effect for Impact Absorption

MEMS Piezoceramic Actuators for Epidermis Shape Control

Turbulent Drag Reducing Epidermiswith Embedded Nanotube Skin Friction Sensors

Supercapacitorfor Powering the PiezoceramicActuators

Davis, Chen, Ounaies, Boyd, Lagoudas, Hadjiev

Experimentally validate hierarchical material models for stiffness, strength, fracture toughness, power, thermal conductivity, and shape memory effects (Began Year 2)

Boyd, Ounaies, Chen

Produce supercapacitors, porous shape memory alloys, and other devices and materials

Boyd, Whitcomb, Chen, Lagoudas

Develop hierarchical material models for supercapacitors, porous SMAs, and other devices and materials

PI’s InvolvedResearch Tasks for Group B

Multifunctional Materials Systems

Multifunctional Material Systems

Proposed Multifunctional

Structural Supercapacitors

Design using SWCNTs

Electro-magneto-elastic Composite Materials

A

B

NiTi sample showing electric current induced

bonding between particles

Barrera, Ounaies, Halas

Develop nanocomposites applicable for stress sensing and other multifunctional capabilities using nanotubes, other nano-inclusions and nanoshells(Beginning Year 4)

KirkProduce hybrid solid state materials for integrated intelligent systems

Boyd, Lagoudas, Chen, Ounaies

Integrate supercapacitors, porous shape memory alloys, and other devices and materials into multifunctional structural components (Beginning Year 4)

PI’s InvolvedResearch Tasks for Group B

Multifunctional Materials Systems

Multifunctional Material Systems (Cont)

Optics at thenanoscale !

Nanoshells for nanophotonics: Stress sensing, biomedical, new sensors

Eutectic Alloy Nanowires

Actuation Characteristics of Multifunctional Materials

CarbonNanotubes

Based on Original Graph by Don Leo, VPI

ElectroactiveCeramics

Shape MemoryAlloys (SMAs)

Ionic / ElectronicConducting Polymers

I-PVDF

10-2

100

102

10-2

10-1

100

101

102

103

104

5 J/m350 J/m3 500 J/m3 5 kJ/m3 50 kJ/m3

500 kJ/m3

5 MJ/m3

50 MJ/m3

I-PVDF

Actuation Strain (%)

Act

uatio

n St

ress

(MPa

)

DielectricElastomer

Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys (MSMA)

Capabilities for synthesis and fabrication of:•Thin film•Non-woven mats•Nanofiber•Bulk films

Multifunctional Materials:Electric field-driven anisotropic dispersion of nanoparticles in thin filmsChange of property with designed-in anisotropyPolymer in liquid formNanoparticles: Carbon nanotubes, exfoliated graphite oxide, graphite, ceramic particles

Characterization and TestingFabrication

Modeling and Simulation

Active Nanocomposite Materials for Multifunctional ApplicationsActive Nanocomposite Materials for Multifunctional Applications

CCD

•Electromechanical coupling characterization•Nanoparticle-polymer interaction by spectroscopy, FTIR, HRSEM, AFM, and XRD•Static and dynamic mechanical characterization•Thermal characterization

•Effective media approach•Thermodynamically-based constitutive modeling for multifunctional materials

Extensive CharacterizationCapabilities in:

EFEFFunction GeneratorFunction Generator

100μmOscilloscopeOscilloscopeOscilloscope

5 μm5 μm5 m

5 μm5 μm5 μm

0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.01

0.012

0.014

0.016

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

th ickness stra in fo r 0% and 0 .1% SWN T in (b -CN)A/O at 10 Hz

out-o

f-pla

ne s

train

(%)

E (MV/m )

0.1%SW NT

0.0%S W NT

d33=6 pm/V

Polymer Nanocomposites as Sensors and Actuators

Aligned and PatternedComposites

1589

1589

0 1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

11000

12000

13000

14000

15000

16000

17000

18000

19000

Int

1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700 Raman shift (cm-1)

PerpendicularParallel

Bending Electrostriction Enhanced Piezoelectricity

Random Composites: Bending Electrostriction

+ -++ -- + + +-- -

++ ++ ++-- -- --

-+ --++

No SWNT

0.1 wt% SWNT

Strain Vs Electric Field for different SWNT concentrations

Electric Field (MV/m)

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Stra

in (m

m/m

m)

0.0000

0.0002

0.0004

0.0006

0.0008

0.0010

0.0012

0.1% SWNT

2% SWNT1% SWNT

Monolayer Bending as a unimorph

0 V 1 V 2 V 3 V

d33=20 pm/V

Fabrication and Characterization metallic (Bi, Sn, Pb-Bi) nanowires

metal

Al

P- mechanical - electrical

Single crystal Nanowires: for interconnects, & sensors

Challenges

Manipulationfor integration with nano- and micro-

devices

Hydraulic Injection method – cost effective method suitable for low melting metals and alloys with stochiometriccomposition

Anodic Aluminum Oxide template

Pb-Bi Pb-Bi

CharacterizationWell ordered pores from low purity Al

60nm diameter, 10μm long

60nm diameter and 10μm long nanowire

Size-dependent – Coupled

Physical and Mechanical Behavior

Coupling to Opto-

electronic Properties of

Quantum Dots

Stresses and strains

in nano-inclusions

Nanocompositeand

Multifunctional Thin Films

Defects and impact on

optoelectronic and

mechanical properties

ε

Quantum Dots

Pradeep Sharma @ UH

Research Thrust: Biomaterials and Devices

Research Activities: • Integrate nanomaterials and

biomaterials into multifunctional devices.

• Produce novel biomaterials (protein composites) with sealants and adhesives for structural self-healing.

• Develope Continuous Mixer for high shear mixing of SWNT and Bio-fluids.

• Investigate the toxicology of SWNT and nanocomposites.

Bio-Chemical Agent Sensors

Biomaterial and Devices

Jejelowo, CrooksDevelop bio-chemical sensors

Clement, Ramesh, Jejelowo

Toxicology and human health

BayleyDevelop stochastic sensing with membrane proteins, functionalized carbon nanotubes (Began in Year 2)

Andrews, FichtDevelop multifunctional devices that use catecholicproteins and abductin as sealants, adhesives, and structures (Beginning Year 4)

Ficht, AndrewsCharacterize and produce (natural elastomeric abductin) proteins)

a.Produce chimeric genesb.Produce catecholic

proteins

PI’s InvolvedResearch Tasks for Group CBiomaterials and Devices

Biopolymers as Dispersing Agent

Development of a hand-held biosensor for analysis of DNA and proteins

2 μm3500 x

Micro-encapsulation of self-healing materials

Design and Construction of a Stochastic Sensing Element Based on the α-hemolysin Protein Pore

αHL-(M113FK147N)7 R

S

-8 -6 -4 -2 00.00

0.05

0.10

Nor

mal

ized

Cou

nt (N

)

Amplitude (pA)

-8 -6 -4 -2 00.00

0.05

0.10

Nor

mal

ized

Cou

nt (N

)

Amplitude (pA)

-8 -6 -4 -2 00.00

0.05

0.10

Nor

mal

ized

Cou

nt (N

)

Amplitude (pA)

01

3 ms RS

R

S0

-20

0

-20

Level 0: βCD,Level 1: S-thalidomide, Level 2: R-thalidomide.

0oC20oC40oC60oC80oC100oC

α-HL, β-CD analyte.

0

-20

02

0

12

• A novel a-hemolysin mutant pore, αHL-(M113FK147N)7 has been designed that is stable and functional at temperatures up to 100°C. •The single-molecule nanopore chiral sensor at elevated temperatures might have important applications in exobiology andspacecraft.

a b c

Xiaofeng Kang, Stephen Cheley and Hagan Bayley @TAMU

High Temperature Protein Nanopore Sensor

Research Thrust: Multiscale Modeling

Research Activities:

• Theoretical and computational modeling of nanotube-polymeric molecular architectures and nanocomposites.

• Computational tools and methods to bridge the various length scales.

Multiscale Modeling Strategy

Multiscale Modeling

Yakobson, Pettitt, Whitcomb, Wheeler, Sharma

Materials and Property Simulation

YakobsonBiominetics - Develop quantitative hierarchical models of the mechanical properties of cytoskeleton, with special attention to mimicking tensegrity.

Pettitt, Whitcomb, Wheeler, Yakobson, Sharma

Develop hierarchical modeling tools from nano to macro scales that will allow multifunctionality to be designed into various length scales

PI’s InvolvedMultiscale Modeling

Research Thrust Objectives/Deliverables

Defects in carbon nanotubes

Si1-zMeznanowires

c3t9 Stable c3t8 Collapsing

Design and testing of biominetic molecular tensegrity structures

DNA strand diffusing in salty water on an organically functionalized surface

SWCNT Composite Idealization and Associated Length Scales

Graded Interphase Microscale CNT Bundle Scale CNT Scale

Interphase RegionsRandomly Oriented Bundles In-Plane Clustering in Bundles

Characterization and Modeling of SWCNT Toughened CarbonFiber Composites

Interphase Region with Graded Material Properties (due to varying CNT volume fraction)

Fiber-Graded Interphase Scale

Composite Laminate Scale

Carbon Fiber

Lamina Microscale

Macroscale Composite

Fabrication, Characterization and Modeling of Nanocomposites

Multiscale Modeling

Amnaya Awasthi (TAMU)Sarah Frankland (NIA)

Tom Clancy (NIA)

Jiang Zhu (RICE)Piyush Thakre (TAMU)

Atomistics

Piyush Thakre (TAMU)Helen Herring (NASA)

Victor Hadjiev (UH)

Co-ordinatorsDr. T. Gates (NASA)Dr. E. Barrera (RICE)Dr. D. Lagoudas (TAMU)

Fabrication and Characterization

Micromechanics

Macromechanics

Gary Seidel (TAMU)Sarah Frankland (NIA)Dan Hammerand (SNL)

John Whitcomb (TAMU)Jaret Riddick (NIA)

Fabrication

Characterization

Functionalization Jiang Zhu (RICE)

Collaborators: Dr. D. Davis (TAMU), Dr. Z. Ounaies (TAMU)

Research Thrust: Intelligent Systems

Research Activities• Develop sophisticated

integrated engineered materials, sensing, and actuation systems with high strength-to-weight ratios.

• Develop autonomous control system designs with the robustness, intelligence and adaptability to accommodate distributed and hierarchical (multiscale) sensing and actuation.

Survivability:Distributed Nervous System Self-Healing Systems

Strong, Lightweight:Integral Wing-BodyStructure

Morphing: Continuous Optimal Shape control

Intelligent Systems

Rediniotis, Valasek, Zimmerman, Junkins

Hierarchical functional coding algorithms (Beginning in Year 4)

Junkins, Meade, Valasek, Zimmerman, Nagarajaiah

Rules-Based Decision Theory & Fault Detection(Began in Year 3)

Junkins, Meade, Zimmerman, Nagarajaiah

Artificial Neural Networks

Valasek, Zimmerman,Nagarajaiah, Lin, Grigoriadis

Structured Adaptive Control

Rediniotis, Valasek, Lin, Junkins, Nagarajaiah

Macro-modeling and validation (Began in Year 2)

PI’s InvolvedResearch Tasks for Group D Intelligent Systems

Adaptive structural space test-bed development

SJA Flow Separation Control

Without Actuation

With Actuation

Intelligent Systems (Cont)

Integration of nanocomposites into morphing wing & multifunctional space structure (Beginning in Year 4)

Rediniotis, Lin, Junkins

Reconfigurable Smart Wing Experiment (Began in Year 2)

Rediniotis, Junkins, Lin

Drag and separation control(Began in Year 2)

Junkins, Valasek, Zimmerman

Adaptive mission planner(Began in Year 3)

Junkins, Rediniotis, Valasek

Adaptive shape control of reconfigurable structures(Began in Year 3)

PI’s InvolvedResearch Tasks for Group D Intelligent Systems

Morphing wing with CNT elastomer

Desired TrajectoryDesired Trajectory Control DistributionAdaptiveController

Embedded Actuators

Modeling and Control of High Dimensioned Systems

0 100 200 300 400 5000

5

Volta

ge(V

)

0 100 200 300 400 5000200400

Tem

p (C

)

0 100 200 300 400 500012

Time (sec)

Stra

in

0 50 100 1500

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Temperature (Degrees Celsius)

Stra

in

SMA Hysteresis Curve

0 50 100 1500

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0 50 100 1500

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1SMA Hysteresis Curve SMA Hysteresis Curve

Stra

in

Stra

in

Temperature (Degrees Celsius)0 50 00 50Temperature (Degrees Celsius)

500 ACTIONS1000 ACTIONS 1500 ACTIONS

Graphs show that over the course of experience, Reinforcement Learning can determine how to get to a specific position via applied voltage, and the hysterisis behavior.

Learning the Hysteresis Behavior and Position Voltage Relationship Numerically

Artificial Intelligence forCharacterization of Shape Memory Alloy Materials

John Valasek @ TAMU

Biologically Inspired Systems: Enabling Aircraft and Spacecraft to Morph

Original Research that Combines Traditional Control and Intelligent Control:• Structured Adaptive Model Inversion Control (SAMI)

– Flight controller to handle wide variation in dynamicproperties due to shape change

• Machine Learning– Learns the optimal shape at every flight condition

in real-time

Control Theory for Autonomous, Intelligent, Robust, and AdaptiveSystems Comparable to Flying Birds

2-D Plate Rectangular Block Ellipsoid Delta Wing Final2003 2004 2005 2006 Objective

Morphing: Continuous Optimal Shape Control

Progress in Morphing Control and Simulation

John Valasek @ TAMU

NASA Relevance

Examples of collaborations:• LaRC: Computational Methods / Modeling

/Characterization /Nanomaterials• LaRC: Multifunctional Material Systems• LaRC: Integrated Tailored Aerospace Structures

(ITAS)• LaRC: Sensors and Biomaterials• LaRC/JSC: Vehicle Health Monitoring• LaRC/JSC: Platform Nanomaterials / Composites /

Components• Ames: Biomaterials /Thermal Protection Systems /

Multiscale Modeling

TiiMS has developed strong collaborations with NASA Centers

Education and Outreach

Major Objectives:• Train the next generation of

aerospace engineers and scientists.• Increase the number of engineers

and scientists from under-represented groups.

• Introduce nano-science and engineering to K-12 schools through established and emerging education programs.

• Provide professional development opportunities for K-12 educators focusing on nanoscience and engineering initiatives.

• Provide training to students and educators in interdisciplinary education in science, mathematics, and engineering.

Undergraduate Student Design

“The majority of the Institute’s budget will be spent on education.”

Undergraduates in Research –2005

Brian Hrycushko miniaturizing micro-SQUIDsRoss McLendon investigating dragon fly wing structure

Brent Volk characterizing high temperature SMAs Natalie Cygan fabricating protein nanocomposites

Undergraduates in Research –2005

Justin Maddox characterizing PVDF for bio applications Marquita Bradshaw characterizing dendrimer encapsulated Co

Toren Watson finding the flexural properties of Epon 862

Field Trips• NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)

in Houston, Texas• The Zyvex Corporation

in Richardson, Texas• The University of Texas at Dallas

in Richardson, Texas• The Lockheed-Martin Corporation

in Fort Worth, TexasREU students in front of an F-16 at Lockheed Martin

In front of mock shuttleNanotechnology Presentation

TiiMS 3rdAnnual Review - Poster Session - 2005

Mrs. Magdalini Lagoudas Jessica Fichuk

Brent VolkJustin MaddoxDaniel Ayewah

Nicholas ShaverDr. Boris Yakobson

Poster presentations can be seen at: tiims.tamu.edu/2005summerREU/presentations.html

REU Student Research Poster Prize Winners!!

TiiMS 3rd Annual Review - Poster Session - 2005

Marquita Bradshaw

Marquita Bradshaw won 1st place in Biomaterials and Devices and 1st place Overall

Holly FeldmanDr. Valasek

Holly Feldman won 3rd place in Intelligent Systems

Angela CarpenterJessica Fichuk

Jessica Fichuk won 1st place in Intelligent Systems

European Union United KingdomFranceSwedenAustriaSpainItalyGreeceRussia

European Union United KingdomFranceSwedenAustriaSpainItalyGreeceRussia

International Collaborations -Europe

Russia

Summary• TiiMS consists of six thrust areas with strong interfaces.• There is strong collaboration in research and education

amongst the 6 institutions and 32 co-PIs• TiiMS has developed collaborations with NASA Centers,

national laboratories and industry.• TiiMS is supporting and educating a significant number of

students (pre-college, undergraduate, graduate) and post docs.• The co-PIs are integrating bio-nanotechnologies into their

courses and implementing curricular changes.• Significant research advances have been achieved in the areas:

– Functionalized nanomaterials– Multifunctional materials– Biomaterials and devices

– Multiscale modeling– Intelligent systems

http://TiiMS.TAMU.EDU

Thank You