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Rebuilding Of Diesel Engines

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Study project YCMOU BTECH Marine Engg

Text of Rebuilding Of Diesel Engines

RE-BUILDING OF DIESEL ENGINE

RE-BUILDING OF DIESEL ENGINEBACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MARINE ENGINEERING

SUBMITTED BYMIDHUN CHANDRANNIJEESH VALIYAPURAKKAL JANARDHANANROSHAN K PAULSALJO JOSE VADAKKETHALASHARON MOORAYIL SADANANDANSUDHIN SREENIVASANSUGEETH KALLAYIL SURESHGOPIKRISHNAN SURESH KUMARVISHNU SUNIL KUMAR

PROJECT GUIDEPRAMOD K.B

HODJOHNS KURIAN [CHIEF ENGINEER]

EUROTECH MARITIME ACADEMY, 9328AYASHWANTRAO CHAVAN MAHARASHTRA OPEN UNIVERSITY

CONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND..51.2 NEED OF WORK61.3 BRIEF IDEA..7

2. SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND DESIGN

2.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION..92.2 DESIGN PARAMETERS..12

3. MODULE DESIGN

3.1 INDIVIDUAL PARTS...153.2 ISUZU ENGINES...613.3 ISUZU ENGINE RE-BUILDING PROCEDURE.71

4. CONCLUSION.83

5. REFERENCE..84

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

FIRST OF ALL WE WOULD LIKE TO EXPRESS OUR SINCERE GRATITUDE AND THANKS TO OUR GOD ALMIGHTY, WHOSE BLESSINGS AND GRACE ALWAYS BEEN THERE WITH US FOR THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THIS PROJECT.WE ALSO FEEL THAT, IT IS RIGHT OPPORTUNITY TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE SUPPORT AND GUIDANCE THAT THAT COME IN THE FORM OF VARIOUS QUARTERS DURING THE COURSE OFCOMPLETION OF OUR PROJECT.

WE ARE EXTREMELY GRATEFUL TO OUR PRINCIPAL CAPTAIN. VINOD NAVEEN FOR PERMITTING US TO DO THIS PROJECT.

WE AVAIL THIS OPPORTUNITY TO EXPRESS WHOLE HEARTED GRATITUDE TO MR. JOHNS KURIAN, HOD OF MARINE ENGINEERING AND MR. PRASANTH FOR THEIR COORDINATION IN OUR ENDEAVOR. WE WOULD ALSO LIKE TO EXPRESS OUR THANKS TO MR. PRAMOD K.B FOR HIS GUIDANCE AND MOTIVATION IN THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THE PROJECT RE-BUILDING OF DIESEL ENGINE

WE ARE ALSO THANKFUL TO ALL THE FACULTY MEMBERS AND STAFFS FOR PROVIDING VALUABLE SUPPORT IN THIS PROJECT.LAST BUT NOT THE LEAST, WE EXPRESS OUR SINCERE THANKS TO ALL OUR FRIENDS WHO GIVE US EXTREME SUPPORT FOR COMPLETION OF THIS PROJECT.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUNDThe diesel engine is a technical refinement of the 1876 Otto cycle engine. Where Otto has realized in 1861 that the efficiency of the engine could be increased by first compressing the fuel mixture prior to its ignition, Rudolph Diesel wanted to develop a more efficient type of engine that could run on much heavier fuel. The Lenoir, Otto Atmospheric, and Otto Compression engines (both 1861 and 1876) were designed to run on Illuminating Gas (coal gas). With the same motivation as Otto, Diesel, wanted to create an engine that would give small industrial concerns their own power source to enable them to compete against larger companies, and like Otto to get away from the requirement to be tied to a municipal fuel supply. Like Otto, it took more than a decade to produce the high compression engine that could self-ignite fuel sprayed into the cylinder. Diesel used an air spray combined with fuel in his first engine.During initial development, one of the engines burst nearly killing Diesel. He persisted and finally created an engine in 1893. The high compression engine, which ignites its fuel by the heat of compression is now called the Diesel engine whether a four-stroke or two-stroke design.The four stroke diesel engine has been used in the majority of heavy duty applications for many decades. Chief among the reasons for this is that it uses a heavy fuel that contains more energy, requires less refinement, and is cheaper to make (although in some areas of the world diesel fuel costs more than gasoline). The most efficient Otto cycle engine runs near 30% efficiency. Some of the modern engines have more efficiency. It uses an advanced design with turbo charging and direct fuel injection. Some B&W ship Diesels with ceramic insulation have exceeded 60% efficiency.

1.2 NEED OF WORKThe prime requirement for the ships propulsion machinery and power generation are reliability, safety and efficiency. Much of the factors have its origin from manufactures skill relating to design, proceeding techniques and material specifications. The efficient maintenance of performance is another concern of engineers.Traditionally ships maintenance has been to prevent breakdown rather than rectification following the breakdown. The ship board machinery has become a little more sophisticated today than ever before. One must realize that condition of working has regards for temperature, stress, power, velocity and vibration, noise flow, handling of combustible material and so ones more extreme. From these facts it is clear that more careful examinations are required periodically covering vast number of items in order to prevent awkward failure of machinery. The systematic maintenances period of important machinery parts may be made overlapping and simultaneously with 5 years survey cycle. Maintenance should include documentation of observation and measurement noting defects, wear down rate etc for correct prediction of service life.

1.3 BRIEF IDEAA four-stroke engine (also known as four-cycle) is an internal combustion engine in which the piston completes for separate strokes- intake, compression, power, and exhaust- during two separate revolutions of the engines crankshaft, and one single thermodynamic cycle. There are two common types of four-stroke engines. They are closely related to each other, but have major differences in design and behavior. The earliest of these to be developed is the Otto cycle engine developed in 1876 by Nicholas August Otto in Cologne, Germany, after the operation principle described by Alphonse Beau de Rochas in 1861. This engine is most often referred to as a petrol engine or gasoline engine, after the fuel that powers it. The second type of four-stroke engine is the Diesel engine developed in 1893 by Rudolph Diesel, also of Germany. Diesel created his engine to improve efficiency compared with the Otto engine. There are several major differences between the Otto cycle engine and the four-stroke diesel engine. The diesel engine is made in both a two-stroke and a four-stroke version. Ottos company, Duetz AG, now primarily produces diesel engines. The Otto cycle is named after the 1876 engine of Nicholas A. Otto, who built a successful four-stroke engine based on the work of Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. It was the third engine type that Otto developed. It used a sliding flame gateway for the ignition of its fuel- a mixture of illuminating gas and air.

1. INTAKE stroke: on the intake or induction stroke of the piston, the piston descends from the top of the cylinder to the bottom, increasing the volume of the cylinder. A mixture of fuel and air, or just air in a diesel engine, is forced by atmospheric (or greater) pressure into the cylinder through the intake port. The intake valve(s) then closes. The volume of air/fuel mixture that is drawn into the cylinder, relative to the maximum volume of the cylinder, is called the volumetric of the engine.2. COMPRESSION stroke: with both intake and exhaust valves closed, the piston returns to the top of the cylinder compressing the air or fuel-air mixture into the combustion chamber of the cylinder head. During the compression stroke the temperature of the air or fuel-air mixture rises by several hundred degrees.3. POWER stroke: this is the start of the second revolution of the cycle. While the piston is close to Top Dead Center, the compressed air-fuel mixture in a gasoline engine is ignited, usually by a spark plug, or fuel is injected into a diesel engine, which ignites due to the heat generated in the air during the compression stroke. The resulting pressure from the combustion of the compressed fuel-air mixture forces the piston back down towards Bottom Dead Center.4. EXHAUST stroke: during the exhaust stroke, the piston once again returns to Top Dead Center while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent fuel-air mixture through the exhaust valve(s).

SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND DESIGN2.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATIONDiesel Engine Stroke CycleDiesel and gasoline engines can be designed to operate on a four-stroke cycle or a two-stroke cycle. Each stroke in the cycle corresponds to the up or down movement of the piston within the cylinder . Four-cycle gasoline and diesel engines use four piston strokes to complete one operating cycle- one stroke each for intake, compression, power and exhaust using only two piston stroke, one Upward and one downward.Virtually all high horse power gasoline engines are four-cycle engines. Two-cycle gasoline engines are used primarily for power tools, lawn and garden equipment chain saws, outboard boat motors, and other relatively light-duty applications. In contrast, both two and four-cycle diesel engines can be used in high horsepower applications. All modern on-highway diesel engines are now four-cycle engines. Two-cycle diesel engines are popular in marine, power generation, and industrial applications. In a two-cycle Diesel engine, intake and compression occur on the upward piston stroke, while power and exhaust occur during the downward piston stroke. Diesel engines are also more efficient than gasoline.

TWO STROKE CYCLE TIMING DIAGRAM

FOUR-STROKE CYCLE TIMING DIAGRAM

2.2 DESIGN PARAMETERS

Four-stroke cycle

The four-stroke cycle is completed in four strokes of the piston, or two revolutions of the crankshaft. In order to operate this cycle the engine requires a mechanism to open and close the inlet and exhaust valves. Consider the piston at the top of its stroke, a position known as top dead centre (TDC). The inlet valve opens and fresh air is drawn in as the piston moves down. At the bottom of the stroke, i.e. bottom dead centre (BDC), the inlet valve closes and the air in the cylinder is compressed (and consequently raised in temperature) as the piston rises. Fuel is injected as the piston reaches top dead centre and co

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