Read and Interpret Construction Drawings & specifications

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Sustainable construstion module: Read and Interpret Construction Drawings & specifications

Text of Read and Interpret Construction Drawings & specifications

  • UnitStandard140414:Readandinterpretconstructiondrawingsand specifications.3credits Adrawingisoneofthemosteffectivetoolswecanusetocommunicatewith.It holdsnobarriersbetweenpeoplewhodonotunderstandeachotherslanguage.It isamethodusedtocommunicateandshareideaswithpeopleofdifferent culturesandnationalities.Ancientrockartdrawingsfoundincavesaroundthe worlddescribesthewayinwhichpeoplelivedinthoseyears. Explainingtoapersonhowtobuildacupboardwillbenearimpossiblewhereas adrawingwilltakebutafewminutes. Theabilitytoreadandinterpretconstructiondrawingsisofgreatvaluetoany constructionworker.Hewillbeabletoaccuratelyconstructanarchitects architecturalconceptanddesignintoarealisticbuildingstructure.Construction drawingsuseslines,words,symbols,abbreviationsandspecificationstoindicate totheconstructionteamwhatthebuildingwilllooklikeandthepurposeanduse thereof.Inthisunitstandardweaimtodescribetoyouindetailhow Constructiondrawingsarereadandinterpreted. A/Wgraphic SpecificOutcomes WewillworktowardsachievingthefollowingSpecificOutcomesinthischapter: 1 Explaintheroleofdrawingsandspecifications. 2 Identifydrawingsandsymbolsusedonaconstructiondrawing. 3 Applyinformationfromdrawingsinconstructionactivities.
  • 4 Interpretspecificationsappearingonconstructiondrawings.
  • UNIT 1EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS. Bytheendofthisunityoushouldbeableto: Explaintheroleofdrawingsinrelationtoprojectspecifications,contract documentation,quantitiesandconstruction.(SO1AC1) Explaintheroleofspecificationsinrelationtoquantities,qualityofwork, contractdocumentationandpaymenttocontractors.(SO1AC2) 1. The role of drawings (SO1 AC1) Theroleofthedrawingsistoshowthegraphicaloutlayofabuildingtobe constructed.Thesedrawingsorplansconsistmainlyoflinesandsymbolsthat aredrawntoaprecisescaledmeasurementtorepresenttheactualbuilding. Buildingsarestructureswhichareplannedanddesignedbyprofessional architects,drawnbydraughtspersonsandbuiltbybuildingcontractors.There arealsomanyotherroleplayerswhowillinteractwiththedrawingsduringthe courseoftheconstruction. Something to know Ninetyninepercentofallbuildingplansaredrawnoncomputerusinga computeraideddraughtingpackage.Someofthemostcommonlyusedprograms areAllycad,AutocadandCaddie. Abuildingprojectstartswithanownerwhointendstoerectabuilding;this couldrangefromasimplehousetoashoppingmallorschoolorevenmulti storeybuildings.Buildingsarenotallofthesamedesignandsizeanditisnot commontofindtwobuildingswhichareexactlythesame.Itisonlyinsituations ofhousingestateswherewewillfindhousesthatareofthesamedesign. Buildingsaredesignedtosatisfythespecificneedsofanownerormore specificallytheclient.Thecomplexityofabuildingstructurerequiresthatafully detailedsetofdocuments,whichclearlyspellsoutacompletedetailed descriptionoftheworkthatneedstobedone. Inorderforthisbefullyunderstoodbythebuildingcontractor,thejobofthe architectwillbetospecifyeachpartorsectionoftheconstructioninfulldetail. Itwillbetotallyimpossibleforanarchitecttodescribethedesignofabuildingin words.Architectswillthereforeproducefullydetaileddrawingstogetherwitha setofspecificationsthatwillbeusedbythecontractortoerectthebuilding.
  • Letsnowtakeacloserlookatsomeoftheimportantdocumentsthatwillbe required:Thecomplexityofthedesignrequiresafullydetaileddescriptionofthe workthatneedstobedone. Thecontractdrawings:Manyofusknowtheseastheplans.Thedrawings representapictorialoverviewoftheproposedbuilding.Itconsistsoflines, symbols,dimensions,levelsandmanyothergraphicalfeaturesofthebuilding. Wewilldiscusstheroleofthedrawingsinmoredetailinalaterchapter. Thespecifications:Specificationscanmostlybedescribedasthatwhichcannot bedrawn.Thespecificationswilleitherbewrittenonthedrawingoritwillbe compiledandanadditionalsetofnotes.Specificationsmustbewrittenclearly andinsimplelanguage.Wordsordescriptions,suchas,bestqualityorhighest qualityorproperworkmanshiparecauseforconfusion.Twoofthemost commonspecificationsinclude: Generalspecificationswhichcontaintheworkmanshipandmaterials,and Projectspecificationscovertheworkmanshipandqualityofthematerialsthat areuniquetoaspecificproject.Projectspecificationswillalwaystakepreference overthegeneralspecifications. TheBillofQuantities:Thepurposeofthebillofquantitiesistolistallthe materialsandlabouroperationsnecessarytoconstructabuilding,togetherwith ameasurementofthequantitiesofmaterialsandworkinvolved.Thisdocument isusedbythecontractorstotenderforacontract.Afullypricedbillconstitutes thecontractorsoffertoundertaketheworkatthatprice.Thebillofquantitiesis drawnupbyaprofessionalquantitysurveyor. Theconditionsofthecontract:Thiswilldefinetheliabilities,responsibilitiesand powersoftheemployer,contractorandarchitect.Itwouldincludemethodsof payment,insurance,liabilityofpartiestothecontract. Thetender:Thisisasignedfinancialofferofthecontractortoconstructthe works. Thelegaldeed:Thisdocumentissignedbybothpartiesconfirmingtheir respectiveintentiontohavecontractbetweenthemasdefinedbyalltheabove documents. Allthesedocumentstogetherwillbeknownasthecontractdocuments.
  • {Importantwordsandideas} Specifications:Isadescriptionofthequalityofworkandmaterialsfora particularjob,writteninasequenceoftradespreparedtoexplainthosethings concerningaprojectwhichcannotbeshownonadrawing, Itsmainpurposewouldbetodefinetheproductstobeused,thequalityofthe work,anyperformancerequirementsandtheconditionsunderwhichtheworkis tobeexecuted. Contractdocumentation:Thecontractdocumentationisalegalcontract whichconsistsofthedrawings,thespecification,thebillofquantitiesor scheduleofprices,thegeneralconditionsofthecontractandalegaldeedwhich bindsthecontractorandtheclient. Sequenceoftrades:Theorderinwhichthevariousbuildingandservicetrades carryouttheirworkinanewbuilding.Thisistheorderinwhichthetrade sectionsoccurinabillofquantitiesorspecification. Billofquantities:Acompletelistofthematerialsandlabouroperations necessarytoconstructabuilding,togetherwithameasurementofthequantities ofmaterialsandworkinvolved.Thisdocumentformsthebasisofthecontractors tenderandeachitemispricedbythecontractorbyinsertingtherateagainst eachitemandmultiplyingitbythequantity.Afullypricedbillconstitutesthe contractorsoffertoundertaketheworkatthatprice. Quantities:Theamountsofbuildingmaterialorbuildingoperationsneededto constructabuildingwhichiswritteninthebillofquantities. Qualityofwork:Theinspectionmethodsimplementedonabuildingsiteto ensurethataproductmaintainsacceptedminimumstandardsofquality. {End} Activity1.1 1. Explain,withnodrawingsorsketches,whereyoulive. 2. Statethedifferencebetweengeneralandprojectspecifications. 3. Statethedifferencebetweenquantitiesandqualityofwork. 4. Whatismeantbycontractdocumentation?
  • 5. Whatismeantbyatenderandalegaldeed? 2.Theroleofthespecifications(SO1AC2) Thepurposeofthespecificationsistodescribeindetailthetypeofmaterialsto beused;thespecificationscomplementthedrawings.Builderswillnotbeableto whattypeandgradeofmaterialswillberequirediftherearenospecifications. Thequantityofmaterialsandqualityofworkwillallbecontainedwithinthe specifications. Quantities:Asweexplainedearliertherearenotwobuildingsthatareexactly thesame.Itstandstoreasonthatthequantityofmaterialswillthenalsodiffer. Thebuilderwillneedtoknowhowmuchmaterialshewillneedtocompletethe proposedbuildingbeforehecandohiscostingandcompletehistender.This informationiscontainedwithinthebillofquantitieswhichconsistofanitemised listallthematerialsthatwillberequiredtocompletethejob. Thequalityofwork:Thisisoneofthemainpurposesofthespecificationsand hasadirectlinktowardsthetypeofmaterialstobeused.Themethodshemay ormaynotuseinordertoconstructthebuilding.Itwillgiveacleardescription ofthematerials,example,thetypeofsandfortheconcretemustbewellgraded riversandorallthebrickjointsmustbegroutedwithmortarwithnoopenings betweenthebrickjoints. Contractdocumentation:Thesewouldincludetheconditionsofthecontractand willaddressissuesconcerningthe: Theextentoftheworktobedone Thestartandcompletiondatesofthecontract Accesstothesite Arrangementsforthestoringofmaterials Temporaryservicesonsiteintheformofwaterconnection,electricityand toilets. Thehealthandsafetyoftheworkersaswellasthegeneralpublic Thesearebutafewalthoughtherecouldbemanymoreissueswhichbe considered. Paymenttocontractors Abuildingcontractorispaidforworkcompletedandisneverpaidinadvance. Thesepaymentsareknownasinterimpayments.Inhugeprojectspaymentswill
  • bedoneonamonthlybasis,whereasinsmallerprojectspaymentsaredone duringthedifferentstagesasbuildingprogresses.Thesestageswouldbeagreed uponbythearchitectandbuilderwhenthecontractissigned.Thepaymentor certificatewillstatetheworkthatwascompletedandthematerialsthatwere used.Atypicalpaymentplanforanormalhousewouldbe: Atthecompletionofthefoundationuptofloorlevel; Thesuperstructureuptotherooflevel; Whentheroofiscompleted; Atthecompletionofthehouse Thefinalpaymentwillbewhenalldefectsarecompleted. Activity1.2 1. Whichimportantpointsmustbeconsideredintheconditionsofcontract? 2. Whatisthepurposeofthespecifications? 3. Atwhatstagesofacontractwillthebuildingcontractorbepaid?
  • UNIT 2 IDENTIFY DRAWINGS AND SYMBOLS USED ON A CONSTRUCTION DRAWING Bytheendofthisunityoushouldbeableto: Identifydrawingsintermsoftypeandapplicationforaconstruction process.(SO2AC1) Explainthekeyfunctionsofthedrawingintermsofthefinishedproduct. (SO2AC2) Identifythekeyusersofthedrawingintermsofworkresponsibilit