Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

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CEREBRAL PALSY 101. Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!. THE DEVELOPING BRAIN . Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!. Critical Periods of Brain growth 1 month neural tube 4 th month All the lobes and major divisions complete 1 year post-natal 2/3 adult size - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Benola power point.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

CEREBRAL PALSY 101

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

THE DEVELOPING BRAIN Critical Periods of Brain growth1 month neural tube4th month All the lobes and major divisions complete1 year post-natal 2/3 adult size2 years age 75% adult size5 years 90% adult sizePotential for Neurogenesis [new brain cell formation] (peaks in utero) and Synaptogenesis [new connection formation] (peaks by 5 years) continues throughout life.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES FOR A NORMAL CHILDPrimitive reflexes (disappear by 3-4 months)Neck control 3-4 months (earlier in African children)Sitting 5-6 monthsRolls 7 monthsCrawls 7-8 monthsStands with support 10 monthsWalks 12 monthsClimbs up and down stairs 20 months

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

CEREBRAL PALSY (CP)A group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing or infant brain.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

This is often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, cognition, communication, perception, behaviour or by a seizure disorder.It is reported to be the most common cause of motor deficiency in childhood both in developing and developed countries. CEREBRAL PALSY (CP)

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

CAUSESGeneralPremature babies particularly those who weigh less than 3.3 pounds (1,510 grams or 1.5kg) have a higher risk of CP than full-term babies.Falls and birth traumas occuring before, around or shortly after deliveryNigeria and Developing CountriesProblems during labour and delivery that lead to difficulty in establishing breathing at birth

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Excessively high bilirubin/jaundiceInfections (Intrauterine and Perinatal)Metabolic such as Hypoglycemia or Low blood sugarDeveloped CountriesExtreme prematurity Inborn Errors of MetabolismCAUSES

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

TYPES OF CPSpastic Cerebral Palsy: This causes stiffness and movement difficultiesDyskinetic Cerebral Palsy: This can be either Athetoid Cerebral Palsy leads to involuntary and uncontrolled movements or Ataxic Cerebral Palsy causes a disturbed sense of balance and depth perception

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Mixed Cerebral Palsy: This is a mixture of different types of cerebral palsy. A common combination is spastic and athetoid TYPES OF CP

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

FURTHER CLASSIFICATIONS OF CPClinical (spastic [too stiff], flaccid [too soft], extra-pyramidal [moving without control or abnormally positioned] and mixed).Anatomical (number body parts [limbs] affected) The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), a recently developed system, classifies children with CP by their age specific motor activity.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Based on the assessment of severity of CP in children 0-12 years of age based on their functional abilities rather than their limitations. It describes the functional characteristics in five levels, from I to V, with level I being the mildest.FURTHER CLASSIFICATIONS OF CP

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

ANATOMICAL DEPICTION OF CP

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

THE GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (GMFCS) Before 2 years 2-4 years 4-6 years 6-12 yearsLevel IManipulate objects with hands and walk independently Gets up from sitting without holding unto somethingCan climb stairsWalk indoors and outdoors, climb stairs.

Level IIBelly crawls, pull to stand on furniture and cruiseCan assume sitting position without assistance, walk with assistive deviceSitting with both hands free, walk short distances without assistive deviceWalk indoors or outdoors on level surface onlyLevel IIICan roll and creep forward on stomachw sit and require adult assistance to assume sittingWalk with assistive deviceWalk indoors or outdoors on level surface with an assistive mobility device.

Level IVCan roll independentlyAble to roll and creep, can sit when placed, but need both hands on the floor.Sit independently in a chair but minimal hand functionRely on wheeled mobility, may achieve self-mobility using assistive device

Level VLimited voluntary movements, no head controlRequires adult assistance to rollAll areas of motor functions are limited. Functional limitations in sitting and standing are not fully compensated for through the use of assistive device.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

DIAGNOSIS OF CPDelayed motor milestonesFisting after 5 months of ageInability to sit with support by 8 monthsInability to walk at age 15-18 monthsDiscrepancies between intellectual and motor developmentPersistent or evolving increase or decrease in muscle tone

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Head lag beyond 6 months of agePoor trunk control and balance Opisthotonic posturing and extensor thrustingDevelopment of DystoniaToe walking/scissoring of feetAbnormal motor or gait patterns DIAGNOSIS OF CP

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

MANAGEMENT OF CEREBRAL PALSY

A MULTI DISCIPLINARY APPROACH

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

ISSUES IN MANAGEMENTThe Stigma

The Fears

The Reality

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

STIGMAIn African culture, children are highly cherished for many reasons, principal amongst which is the hope that they will bring prosperity in future. Thus when a child is diagnosed as having a condition that diminishes such expectation, hopes are dashed and parents often go through a process that can be associated with grieving.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Next comes blame: Is it a curseEvidence of infidelity or witchcraftIs it hereditary STIGMA

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

CONSEQUENCES OF STIGMADenial of the childNeglect - A significant number of children are severely malnourishedSocial isolation: Many children are hidden away from other family members, friends and the community. Some are shipped of to live with distant relatives who are not in a position to provide proper care Infanticide: There are numerous recorded cases.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

THE FEARSWill it happen again? Who will bare the high cost of care?What is the duration of care?What quality of life is the child expect to have?What label will be placed on the child? i.e. Impaired, Disabled, Handicapped.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

THE REALITY No quick fixes or magic cures. Care is multi-disciplinary.Process of care is long, requiring determination, patience and faith in the in-born (often times undiscovered) abilities of the child. Most therapies often require prolonged periods before appreciable differences can be seen. It is difficult to predict response to therapies.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

THE REALITY Most families go through different stages of grieving before finally accepting the diagnosis In Nigeria, without social security, the complete cost of care for a child with CP is borne by the parents In Nigeria and other African countries, most causes of CP can either be prevented or considerably reduced with improved Basic Health Care ServicesAs stakeholders, we should all be change agents and join in the advocacy for the rights of children living with cerebral palsy and other childhood disabilities

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

TREATMENT/MANAGEMENT OF CPCerebral palsy cant be cured, but early application of the right management options for the child often results in a marked improvement in the quality of life of an adult with CP. The earlier treatment begins the better chances children with CP will have in overcoming developmental disabilities or learning new ways to accomplish the tasks that challenge them.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

CP usually affects several areas of functioning and as a result, there is a requirement for several disciplines to be involved in managing the conditionIt is also preferable to have a pediatrician coordinate the activities of the multi-disciplinary care team in order to ensure an effective treatment outcome.

TREATMENT/MANAGEMENT OF CP

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT/MANAGEMENTDetermine severity of the disorder in order to arrive at an appropriate level of intervention that is required for proper managementEstablish clear indications and goals for each therapyEnsure that therapists and operators of intervention programs are well informed about the childs condition and that they also inform the physician of their activities

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Details of local intervention programs with details of eligibility, access and payment should be readily availableInclude parents in therapy sessions and encouraged them to incorporate what they learn into their childs daily activities.GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT/MANAGEMENT

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THE MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TEAMPediatricians - provide general care and coordinate the activities of other members of the Multi-Disciplinary Care TeamSurgeons provide specialist care and perform corrective surgeries.Occupational therapists- help manage fine motor activitiesPhysiotherapists- help manage gross motor movements

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Speech therapists - help improve speech and swallowing.Clinical Psychologists - provide emotional well-being as well as cognitive evaluation for school placement.Special need educators - provide the right kind of education for children with cognitive impairmentTHE MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TEAM

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

OTHER MANAGEMENT OPTIONSThe quality of life of children with CP clients can be greatly enhanced through the use of the following:Prosthetic devices such as braces and other orthotics Wheelchairs and rolling walkersIT devices such as computers, voice synthesizers and other accessories that can aid communication and mobility.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

WHAT PARENTS SHOULD DOGet diagnosis from appropriate specialists.Get informed so as to be in a better position to separate fact from mythIdentify available options for interventionGet involved with or start a support group. Get counselling.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

WHAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD DOProvide facilities and trained manpower for the effective management of CP and other childhood disabilitiesProvide support for families in terms of funding and affordable or subsidized medicationEnsure a disable friendly environment through the provision of accessible public transportation and public buildingsEnact laws to reduce stigma, discrimination, abuse, neglect, and violations of rights

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Train and deploy of a Medical Aids Corps of adequately trained young adults to run awareness campaigns on childhood disabilities and early detection/intervention techniques in rural communities.Establish Special Care Units for Childhood Disabilities in hospitals/health centers

WHAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD DOReaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Establish Counseling Units in hospitals and health centers to help families of children with CP to cope the realities of their situation.Organize regular Seminars and Conferences on CP and other childhood disabilities to serve as forums where affected families and interested members of the public can get better informed about CP related issues.

WHAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD DO

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Build capacity for all categories of Healthcare providers in the area of early intervention and modern trends in the management of CP and other childhood disabilities.Provide special medication and other management options like physiotherapy, for children with CP and other childhood disabilities.WHAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD DOReaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Train and deploy Special Needs Teachers and Careers in schools.Identify and document affected families in rural communities.Compile a register of relevant professionals for the management of childhood disabilities in each community.

WHAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD DO

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

CONCLUSION CP is the most common cause of movement disorders in children.It is also the most expensive childhood disability to manage.Some causes of CP can be prevented through the provision of adequate care for pregnant women and young children.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Families play a critical role in the provision of care for children with CP and other childhood disabilities and should be given the necessary financial, social and emotional support to carry out that responsibility Effort should be made and facilities put in place to help discover the hidden potentials of children with CP and other childhood disabilities CONCLUSION Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

THE WAY FORWARDHealthcare Professionals need to listen more and provide adequate as well as appropriate information to families.Relevant agencies should support Benolas effort to raise awareness about CP and other childhood disabilities to ensure that discussions continue even at the highest levels.

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

There is need for families and NGOs to come together to form larger support and advocacy groups for CP and other childhood disabilities.There is need for Government at all levels to rise to their responsibilities towards children with childhood disabilities and their families. THE WAY FORWARD

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

REFERENCES Parameter: Diagnostic Assessment of the Child with Cerebral Palsy: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society". Neurology 62 (6): 85163. PMID15037681.Benola CPI, (2013). Group 3 Syndicate Presentation at Benolas Two Day Round Table Meeting of Experts, Lagos.Benola CPI, (2013). Report of Roundtable Meeting of Experts on Effective Management of Cerebral Palsy in Nigeria, Lagos. Cerebral Palsy Childrens Hemiplegia and Stroke Association Report, (2012).

Reaching Out. Touching Lives. Adding Value!

Ejeliogu, E. (2013) Management of Cerebral Palsy in Nigeria: Paper delivered at Benolas Two Day Roundtable Meeting of Experts on CP, Lagos. Lesi, F.E.A. (2013). Cer...

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