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331 ISBN 978-0-6398390-0-4 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM AND COBALT MEDICAL ALLOYS MANUFACTURING BY 3D PRINTING N. Kazantseva 1* , P. Krachmalev 2 , I. Yadroitsev 3 , I. Ezhov 1 , A. Merkushev 4 , D. Davidov 1 1 * Institute of Metal Physics Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, [email protected] 2 Karlstad University, Sweden, [email protected] 3 Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa, [email protected] 4 Ural Federal University, Russia, [email protected] ABSTRACT The comparative study of the structure and mechanical properties of biocompatible Ti- 6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys manufactured by the 3D printing is presented. The occurrence of martensitic transformation in the both powder bed fusion using laser sintering (LS) alloys was found. The as-build LS Co-Cr-Mo samples had an unstable state. Two different metastable phases, namely hexagonal martensitic phase and the orthorhombic martensitic phase were found in the structure of the as-build LS Ti-6Al-4V samples. The mechanical properties, morphology and origin of the martensitic phases in 3D printed alloys in comparison with the conventional alloys are discussed. ___________________________________ *Corresponding author

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Page 1: RAPDASA 2019 PROCEEDINGS ISBN 978-0-6398390-0-4€¦ · d l ü l ÿ ÿ ü l ü l ÿ ÿ ÿ 6dpsohv zhuh surgxfhg e\ wzr(26,17 0 pdfklqhv (26 *pe+ htxlsshg zlwk dq \wwhuelxp ilehu odvhu

331ISBN 978-0-6398390-0-4

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM AND COBALT MEDICAL ALLOYS MANUFACTURING BY 3D PRINTING

N. Kazantseva1*, P. Krachmalev2, I. Yadroitsev3, I. Ezhov1, A. Merkushev4, D. Davidov1

1* Institute of Metal Physics Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia,[email protected]

2 Karlstad University, Sweden, [email protected]

3 Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa, [email protected]

4 Ural Federal University, Russia, [email protected]

ABSTRACT

The comparative study of the structure and mechanical properties of biocompatible Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys manufactured by the 3D printing is presented. The occurrence of martensitic transformation in the both powder bed fusion using laser sintering (LS)alloys was found. The as-build LS Co-Cr-Mo samples had an unstable state. Two different metastable phases, namely hexagonal martensitic phase and the orthorhombic martensitic phase were found in the structure of the as-build LS Ti-6Al-4V samples. The mechanical properties, morphology and origin of the martensitic phases in 3D printed alloys in comparison with the conventional alloys are discussed.

___________________________________

*Corresponding author

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1. INTRODUCTION

The rapid development of additive technologies using computer programs and their clearadvantage for medical purposes in comparison with traditional methods of manufacturingmaterials is of great interest among researchers now. The individual (personalized) medicine of future implies, among other things, the presence of a unique file for each patient with a 3D image of his organs, which can be used for correctly replace in case of their damage, which can significantly improve the patient's quality of life. The additive technologies using a laser is the most accurate additive method, which allows manufacturing complex metal constructionsreplicating parts of the human body. Because of that, biocompatible materials, which can be used in such constructions and manufactured by additive technology using laser sintering, areunder development and testing and requires basic scientific research now.

Powder-bed fusion (PBF) using the laser sintering (LS) method is the additive technology for 3D printing of the metal alloys. In the PBF process, powder is deposited in a layer by layer manner on a substrate [1]. It have been found that during laser melting when the temperature in the3D printed material may reaches 3000 K, significant residual tensile stresses arise in the LS sample [2]. As-built LS titanium alloys have a non-equilibrium state (martensitic phases) in comparison with the conventional cast materials [3].

Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys have been successfully used for over 70 years in medicine as orthopaedic implants due to their high biocompatibility, good combination of strength and fatigue resistance, low creep and high corrosion resistance [4]. Because of high strength and wear resistance, Co-Cr-Mo alloy also serves as a material for the manufacture of dentures [5]. Studies of the mechanical properties of the LS of Co-Cr-Mo alloys showed that their mechanical properties depend not only on the chemical composition of the used powder, but also on the conditions for the preparation and orientation of the sample to the direction of growth during its laser synthesis [5]. The density of LS Co-Cr-Mo alloy is very dependent on the parameters of the LS process. The maximum density 99.8% of the LS of the Co–Cr–Mo alloy was found in [6].

Additive technologies used laser sintering deal with rapid heating, melting, crystallization and high cooling rates of the material [2-5], all of these leads to the formation of non-equilibrium phases and heterogeneity of the structure and elemental composition of as-build material and can entail a change in the physical and mechanical properties of the product, and, consequently, damage and destruction of the product during its operation. Thereforestructural-phase studies of the LS manufactured alloys are relevant and necessary.

The purpose of this work was a comparative analysis of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the LS Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V biocompatible alloys.

1. METHODOLOGY

Two different Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Extra Low Interstitial (ELI)) atomized spherical powders with Grades 23 and 5 for medical purposes are suggested for 3D printer EOSINT 280M. We used both for this study. The powders had spherical shape with diameter from 10 to 30 m. The difference between Ti6Al4V ELI (grade 23) and Ti6Al4V (grade 5) is the reduction of oxygen content to 0.13 % (maximum) in grade 23. Nitrogen content in grade 5 (ELI) is less than 0.05 % and in grade 23 is less than 0.03 %. Co-Cr-Mo experimental medical powder was produced by Polema Company (Russia); the chemical composition of the powder is presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Chemical composition of Co-Cr-Mo powder, wt.%.Co Cr Mo Si Mn Fe66,64 26,8 5,35 0,31 0,27 0,25Ni S P O N C0,1 0,0015 0,03 0,029 0,14 0,082

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Samples were produced by two EOSINT M280 machines (EOS GmbH) equipped with an ytterbium fiber laser operating at 1075 nm wavelength. Horizontal building orientation of the samples was used for study. Two different laser scanning speeds of 1.2 m/s and 2 m/s, and two different powder layer thickness of 30 m and 60 m were used. A back-and-forth scanning by strips with a hatch distance of 100 m and argon atmosphere were applied to 3D titanium samples. A nitrogen atmosphere was used for manufacturing of LS Co-Cr-Mo samples.Reference sample was cut from a rod of an industrial medical alloy Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) (ASTM F136, Grade 5). The Co-Cr-Mo reference was produced by arc melting in a helium atmosphere fromthe same powder. Cast Co-Cr-Mo ingot with a length of 30 mm and diameter of 7 mm in was homogenized at 1150 C-30 min in vacuum. The transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction with Cu K radiation and step size of 0.01 , NanoTest nanoindentor were used for study. Density of 3D samples was measured by standard method using the Archimedes’ principle. Percentage of density was calculated in comparison with the ASTM F136 standard for Grade 5 and Grade 23 alloys. Samples for TEM were prepared by electro-polishing in a solution of perchloric acid and methanol.

2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

2.1. Ti-6Al-4V

The density of the LS sample manufactured from Grade 5 powder (Sample 2) with laser scanning speed 1.2 m/s and thickness of powder layer of 30 m was determined as 99.9%. Density for LS sample manufactured from Grade 23 powder (Sample 3) with laser scanning speed 2 m/s and thickness of powder layer of 60 m was determined as 99.6%.

According to the equilibrium phase diagram, Ti-6Al-4V alloy should have two-phase (HCP -phase + BCC -phase) (Fig 1).

Figure 1: Slice of ternary phase diagram for Ti-6Al-4V alloy [7]..

In this case, two-phase state was observed in X-ray diffraction pattern of reference sample.Absence of the (0002)hcp line in the X-ray diffraction pattern may be because of the large grains of this sample. X-ray diffraction pattern of both LS samples did not show the BCC diffraction line (Fig.2b). Additionally, a weak diffraction line in the angle position corresponding to the most intensive (110) diffraction line of orthorhombic -martensite wasdetected in diffraction pattern for Sample 2 (Fig.2b).

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35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

(110)orth

(110)bcc

(10-11)hcp

(0002)hcp

2

2 degree

1

3

(10-10)hcp

Figure 2: SEM image of Ti-6Al-4V powder Grade 23 (a); (b) X-ray patterns of the investigated Ti-6Al-4V samples: 1- reference; 2 – LS Sample 1;

3 – LS Sample 2.

Figure 3 presents the TEM images of the reference sample. Two-phase structure with plates of the HCP -phase and grains of retained BCC -phase is shown in Figure 3a. SAED pattern takenwith a large aperture from this region contains the ring reflexes of both HCP and BCC phase (Fig.3b).

Figure 3: TEM images of reference Ti-6Al-4V sample: (a) bright-field image; (b) SAED pattern to (a).

Figure 4 presents the diffraction of HCP -phase and -orthorhombic phase of Sample 2. The SAED patterns of Sample 3 show the diffraction of -phase only (Fig.5).

Figure 4: TEM images of Ti-6Al-4V Sample 2: (a) the bright-field image; (b) SAED pattern to (a).

(b)

(b)

101102

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Figure 5: TEM images of Ti-6Al-4V Sample 3: (a) bright-field image; (b) SAED pattern to (a).

High cooling rates in LS method resulted in the formation of twinning structure in Ti-6Al-4V LSsamples. The twining structure corresponded to the HCP tension twinning with {10-12} twin plane (Fig.6 - 7). Inside the twins, the stacking faults were found (Fig.6).

The obtained results are in good agreement with Zwicker data [8], where stacking faults are often observed inside {10-12} twins; diffuse scattering near the main reflections was observed in SAED pattern taken from such twin regions.

Analysis of the nature of twinning and a variant of the twinning plane in titanium alloys allowed characterizing the process of stress relaxation in a material. The four most commonly activated twinning systems were found in bulk Ti–6Al–4V: compression twinning {10-11} and{11-22}, tension twinning {10-12} and {11-21} [9]. Two variants of the {10-12} deformation twins have been found after a simple shear deformation applied on two-phase ( + ) Ti6Al4V bulk material [10]. {10-11} twins were found in Ti-6Al-4V alloys after high strain rate ( 5000/s) compression of cylindrical and hat-shaped specimens in a split Hopkinson pressure bar setup [11]. In titanium alloys, {10-12} twin plane has the lowest critical shear stress for twinning and because twinning along this plane can be easily activated under deformation [12]. Observation of the {10-12} tensile twins in LS samples allowed us to make a conclusion that during 3D printing process the formed specimen was under high stresses which initiated the twinning process.

Figure 6: TEM images of LS Ti-6Al-4V Sample 2, twinning HCP structure: (a) dark-field image taken with matrix reflex; (b) dark-field image taken with twin reflex; (c) SAED

pattern to (a).

(b)

100

101 110

203

103 (b)

100 nm

102

(10-1-2)

0-11-1m

1-101m1-2-10m

1-2-10t

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Figure 7: TEM images of Ti-6Al-4V Sample 3, twinning HCP structure: (a) dark-field image taken with HCP twin reflex; (b) SAED pattern to (a), zone axis [0001]HCP

Additionally, another type of twinning structure was observed in the LS Ti-6Al-4V Sample 2(Fig. 8). Thin acicular martensite plates with internal twins are shown in TEM images of this sample. Unlike the HCP twins in Figures 6 - 7, these internal twins were oriented across the needle-like plates (Fig. 8). The width of the inner twins was 10 - 20 nm. This type of twins wasfound only locally. Indexing of the SAED pattern taken from such twinning region correspondedto the orthorhombic twinning with the (110) orthorhombic twin plane (Fig. 8). The internal twin morphology was typical for the martensitic - phase [12, 13]. Figure 9 presents the results of high resolution transmission microscopic studies of the orthorhombic twin structure in Sample 2. The region of HCP phase (B) coexisted with the region of orthorhombic phase (A). The interplanar spacing calculated from HRTEM image of the region (A) corresponded to that in orthorhombic crystal lattice of -phase. Defects in the atomic rows were found in HRTEM images of both regions. Chemical analysis in STEM regime found the enrichment in vanadium in the region of orthorhombic twins (Fig.10).

Figure 8: TEM images of LS Ti-6Al-4V Sample 2, orthorhombic twinning: (a) dark-field image taken with matrix reflex; (b) dark-field image taken with twin reflex; (c) SAED

pattern to (a)-(b).

(b)

10-10m

10-10t

01-10m

(10-12)

(b)

100 nm

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Figure 9: TEM images of LS Sample 2, HRTEM mode: a- region of the orthorhombic twins (A); region of HCP phase (B).

Figure 10: TEM images of LS Sample 2, EDS analysis in STEM mode, region of the orthorhombic twins.

In Ti-6Al-4V alloy, solubility of vanadium, which is -stabilizer, was found to be about 2 wt.% in the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) phase [8]. The saturated martensite transforms

-phase when the concentration of vanadium in is less than 4.27 at% (4.65 wt.%) [8]. Supersaturated phase with orthorhombic crystal lattice can contain 5.45-8.0 wt.% V [8]. The -stabilizer enriched of HCP crystal lattice orthorhombic martensite may be formed in titanium alloys with -stabilizer elements after aging in + region followedby quenching [13 - 15]. In Ti-6Al-4V, - phase formation occurred after several hours of an isothermal treatment [15]. The orthorhombic martensite in LS Ti-6Al-4V sample demonstrated non-uniform composition of 3D printed sample.

2.2. Co-Cr-Mo

The density of the 3D printed Co-Cr-Mo alloy was reported to be strongly dependent on the parameters of the laser [16]. The presence of refractory molybdenum leads to the formation of non-melted powder particles or pores in the material, which reduced the properties [6]. The maximum density of the LS of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was 99.8% [17]. The measured density of the obtained LS Co-Cr-Mo sample was 8.25 g / cm3. Compared to density of the ASTM F1537 alloy (8.29 g / cm3) [17], the resulting density of the LS Co-Cr-Mo sample was 99.6%. The average

A

B

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chemical composition of the LS Co-Cr-Mo sample determined by SEM-EDS is presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Chemical composition of LS Co-Cr-Mo sample, wt.%.Co Cr Mo Si Mn Fe62,75 27,26 7,39 0,51 0,85 1,23

The SEM image of an initial Co-Cr-Mo powder and results of the X-ray study of the LS and reference samples are presented in Figure 11. Maximum size of the powder particles was about

50 m. The X-ray diffraction patterns of investigated Co-Cr-Mo samples show the presence the diffraction lines of the FCC -phase. The diffraction lines of HCP -phase, intermetallic phases,and carbides are not found. The cubic texture with the strong intensity of (200) diffraction lineis presence in reference Co-Cr-Mo sample.

38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 560

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000(200)

2 degree

1

2

(111)

d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o

d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o

d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o

d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o

d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o

d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o d e m o

Figure 11: SEM image of Co-Cr-Mo powder (a); (b) XRD patterns of the

investigated Co-Cr-Mo samples: 1- reference; 2 – LS sample.

The FCC -phase with the micro twins was observed in the Co-Cr-Mo reference sample (Fig. 12).The dark-field images taken with the twin reflection is presented in Figure 12a, the twinning plane was the {111} type (Fig.12b). Large FCC twins and areas of the HCP phase were not detected.

Figure 12: TEM images of Co-Cr-Mo reference sample: ( ) dark-field image taken in FCC twin reflex, (b) SAED pattern to (a), zone axis [110]FCC, twinning plane (-111)FCC.

(b)

(b)

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In the Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, the phase transition from FCC -phase to HCP -phase was very slow due to the low chemical driving force, thus the metastable -phase was easily conserved at room temperature [18]. FCC-HCP transformation in bulk Co-Cr-Mo alloys can be achieved by plastic deformation, quenching from the FCC high-temperature region [19], or by isothermal aging at 800-850 C [20]. The two-phase + structure was found in the LS Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy in [21]. Phase composition and structure of Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy depended on the 3D printing regime [21].

Figure 13 shows a single-phase -region with a high density of twins. SAED patterns taken from such regions show the diffusion scattering, indicating a strained pre-transition state with high density of stacking faults.

Figure 13: TEM images of Co-Cr-Mo LS sample: (a) dark-field image taken in (002) twin reflex,(b) dark-field image taken in (-11-1) matrix reflex, (c) SAED pattern to (a-b), zone axis [110] ,

twinning plane (1-11).

Table 3 presents the values of Elastic modulus, microhardness and residual stresses obtained from nanoidentation and grain size measured from SEM studies of both LS Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo samples. Both LS Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo samples show high microhardness and high level of residual surface stresses.

Table 3: Mechanical properties and grain size of the investigated samples.

SampleElastic modulus,

EIT, GPaHIT, GPa Residual surface

stresses, MPaGrain size, m

Ti6Al4V, LPBFSample 1

113 5.6 300 150

Ti6Al4V, LPBFSample 2

149 6.3 1000 200

(b)

(c)

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Ti6Al4V (reference)

132 5.3 - 1

CoCrMo, LPBF296 6.3 1200 10-20

CoCrMo (reference)

295 5.1 - 1000

Structure and phase composition of alloys influence on their mechanical and physical properties. Structure and mechanical properties of 3D printing metals depend on the processes occurring in the material during 3D laser manufacturing. Absorption and transmission of laser energy, flow temperature and gradient in a molten pool, fast solidification because of the high cooling rate of the molten pool of the LS sample (up to 108 K/s), cycling heating, and thermal deformation of the sample under laser manufacturing may be considered in this case [3].Density of the material manufactured with the 3D printer EOSINT M280 depends on the selected mode of operation of the printer [3, 22]. This work shows that the mechanical properties of the LS Ti-6Al-4V samples are found to depend on their structure, phase composition and density. Sample 2, which has higher density compared with Sample 3 (99.9% for Sample 2 and 99.6% for Sample 3) and two martensitic phases, shows the lower elastic modulus, residual surface stress and grain size than Sample 3. The laser powder-bed fusion process includes rapid solidification of the molten alloy from high temperatures [23]. As well asrapid cooling, the LS material undergoes thermal cycling due to the layer-by-layer manner of manufacturing, so inner regions of a sample are heated and cooled several times [24]. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy can be considered a good example for detecting such thermo-cycling, because of the phase transition BCC phase to orthorhombic -phase which occurs at intermediate temperatures [25]. The martensitic structure influences mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V. Formation of HCP martensite, promotes the hardening, and the orthorhombic martensite leads to softening of the titanium alloys [14]. Presence the different martensitic structure in our two LS Ti-6Al-4V samples indicated that the laser parameters of 3D printer differed from each other and our samples were in different thermo-cycling conditions. This may explain why the orthorhombic -phase was not always found in LS Ti-6Al-4V samples [26-27].

Method of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) creates the high level of residual stresses in the LSmaterials. High levels of tensile residual stresses was found in both LS samples Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo; and the tensile twinning structure is also supports this fact.

3. CONCLUSIONS

The features of the laser powder bed fusion process, such as thermal deformation, fast cooling, laser parameters effect on the structure and mechanical properties of 3D printed alloys. High tensile residual stresses in the 3D printed samples, which arose from both the phase (martensitic) transformation and thermal deformation, are the features of the laser powder bed fusion process. Fast cooling of the printed layers and cyclic heating resulted in the metastable (martensitic) transformation. All of this showed that 3D printing materials werecompletely different from those obtained by conventional methods. Control the laser sintering parameters may allow one to obtain the different structure and properties in the same material.

This work was supported by Russian F -03-00084), State programs -A18-118020690196- - -118020190104-3).

The South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and ing

this research.

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