Qin [Chin] Dynasty, 221- 206 B.C.E. Established Chinas first empire Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E) Legalist rule Bureaucratic administration Centralized

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Slide 2 Slide 3 Qin [Chin] Dynasty, 221- 206 B.C.E. Established Chinas first empire Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E) Legalist rule Bureaucratic administration Centralized control Military expansion Book burnings targeted Confucianists Buried protestors alive! Built large section of the Great Wall Slide 4 Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Army Slide 5 Slide 6 Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Soldiers & Cavalrymen Slide 7 Cavalry Slide 8 Individual Soldiers Slide 9 The Details of an Individual Soldier Slide 10 Individual Tombs Slide 11 The Great Wall with Towers Slide 12 The Eastern terminus of the Great Wall, Shanhai Pass Slide 13 Slide 14 Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. People of the Han original Chinese Paper invented [105 B.C.E.] Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many Buddhism introduced into China Expanded into Central Asia Slide 15 Han Roman Empire Connection Slide 16 Chang an The Han Capital Slide 17 Liu Sheng Tomb (d. 113 BCE) His jade suit has 2498 pieces! Slide 18 Emperor Wudi, 141-87 B.C.E. Started public schools. Colonized Manchuria, Korea, & Vietnam. Civil service system bureaucrats Confucian scholar-gentry Revival of Chinese landscape painting. Slide 19 Han Artifacts Imperial Seal Han Ceramic House Slide 20 Ceramics, Later Han Period Slide 21 Trade Routes of the Ancient World Slide 22 Multi-Cultural Faces -- People Along the Silk Road Slide 23 Ruins of Jiaohe, Turphan depression. Han dynasty outpost in Central Asia Slide 24 Slide 25 Sui Dynasty, 581-618 C.E. Land Equalization System land redistribution. Unified coinage. Grand Canal constructed. Established an army of professional soldiers. People were overworked and overtaxed! Slide 26 The Grand Canal Slide 27 The Grand Canal Today Slide 28 Slide 29 Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. Imperial examination system perfected. Liberal attitude towards all religions. Spread of Buddhism in China Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries. Japan, Korea, Persia Slide 30 Tang Government Organization Slide 31 Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. New technologies: Printing moveable print Porcelain Gunpowder Mechanical clocks More cosmopolitan culture. Reestablished the safety of the Silk Road. Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia. Slide 32 Empress Wu Zetian, 624-705 The only female Empress in Chinas history who ruled alone. Searched for outstanding individuals to attract to her court. Construction of new irrigation systems. Buddhism was the favored state religion. Financed the building of many Buddhist temples. BUT She appointed cruel and sadistic ministers to seek out her enemies. Slide 33 Foot-Binding in Tang China Broken toes by 3 years of age. Size 5 shoe on the right Slide 34 Foot-Binding in Tang China Mothers bound their daughters feet. Slide 35 Foot-Binding in Tang China For upper-class girls, it became a new custom. Slide 36 The Results of Foot- Binding Slide 37 Slide 38 Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books. Magnetic compass makes China a great sea power! Slide 39 Song Peasant Family Slide 40 Rice Cultivation Began Under the Song Slide 41 Song Rice Cultivation Slide 42 Slide 43 Mongolian Steppes Slide 44 Xinjiang Region Typical Uygher [Mongol] Yurt Slide 45 Mongol Invasions Slide 46 Mongol Warriors Slide 47 Mongol Archer Slide 48 Gold Saddle Arch Mongols, 13c Slide 49 Gold Saddle, Front View Mongols, 13c Slide 50 The MONGOLS [Golden Horde] Temujin --> Genghis Khan [Universal Ruler] 1162 - 1227 from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plains of Central Asia] Slide 51 The MONGOLS [Golden Horde] Genghis Khans Tax Laws: If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity. If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children. If you do not have children, we will take your wife. If you do not have a wife, we will take your head. Used cruelty as a weapon some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction! Slide 52 Mongol Nobleman, late 13c Slide 53 Robe of a Mongol Nobleman, early 14c Slide 54 Yuan Golden Bowl, 13c Slide 55 The Extent of the Mongol Empire Slide 56 Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E. Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294] Pax Mongolica [Mongol Peace] Tolerated Chinese culture but lived apart from them. No Chinese in top govt. posts. Believed foreigners were more trustworthy. Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China. Marco Polo Slide 57 Marco Polo (1254- 1324) A Venetian merchant. Traveled through Yuan China: 1271-1295 Black Stones [coal] Gunpowder. Noodles. Slide 58 Marco Polos Travels Slide 59 Yuan Porcelains & Ceramics Slide 60 Yuan Dynasty, 1279- 1368 C.E. The Black Plague was spread by the Mongols in the mid-14c. Sent fleets against Japan. 1281 150,000 warriors Defeated by kamikazi [winds of the gods] Kublai Khan experienced several humiliating defeats in Southeast Asia late in his life. Slide 61 Chinas last native imperial dynasty! Slide 62 The Forbidden City: Chinas New Capital Slide 63 Revived the Civil Service Exam Slide 64 Ming Cultural Revolution Printing & Literacy Cheap, popular books: woodblock printing. cheap paper. Examination system. Leads to explosion in literacy. Leads to further popularization of the commercial market. Culture & Art Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things: Literature. Painting. Ceramics. Opera. Slide 65 Ming Silver Market Spanish Silver Convoys Triangle route: Philippines to China to Japan. Silver floods Chinese Market: Causes devaluation of currency & recession Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas. Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe. Helps fund conquest of New World Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade. Slide 66 Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 C.E. Golden Age of Chinese Art Moderation Softness Gracefulness Three different schools of painting developed. Hundreds of thousands of workers constructed the Forbidden City. Slide 67 Ming Emperor Tai Zu (r. 1368-1398) Slide 68 The Tribute System Slide 69 Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) Ming Treasure Fleet Each ship 400 long & 160 wide 1371-1435 Slide 70 Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) Chinas Columbus? Slide 71 Admiral Zheng Hes Voyages First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men]. Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didnt go on this trip]. Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men]. Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men]. Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419 Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422 Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered ship builders and sailors to stop work. Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433 Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restore peaceful relations with Malacca & Siam 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the return trip. Slide 72 1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, Chinas favorite port. Slide 73 Ming Porcelain / Ceramics, 17c 18c Slide 74 Ming Vases, 18c Slide 75 Ming Carved Lacquer Dish 15c Slide 76 Ming Scroll Painting Travellers in Autumn Mountains Slide 77 Ming Painting Taoist Scholar Slide 78 Ming Painting Birds and Flowers, 16c Slide 79 Ming Painting and Calligraphy, early 16c Slide 80 Imperial Chinas Impact on History Removed religion from morality. Beginnings of political philosophy through which a ruler must prove he/she is legitimate. Mandate of Heaven Secular law. Valued history The Dynastic Cycle