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Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction.............................................. 2 1.1 History of flakes...............................................2 1.2 Objectives of the Project.......................................3 1.3 Recipes for Baked pumpkin Flakes................................3 1.3.1 Methods 1...................................................3 1.3.2Method 2.....................................................4 1.4 Plan of Work....................................................4 Chapter 2: Literature Review.........................................5 2.1 The History of Pumpkins.........................................5 2.2 Scientific Classification.......................................5 2.2.1 Plant Description...........................................6 2.3 Planting Time...................................................6 2.3.1 Reasons for Failure of Pumpkin seeds to germinate...........6 2.4 Nutritive Value: Pumpkin Nutrition..............................7 Figure 1: Pumpkin Nutrition Facts.................................7 2.5 Types of Pumpkins...............................................8 2.6 Harvesting Time.................................................9 2.7 Storage Time...................................................10 2.8 Association of Pumpkins with Health Issues.....................10 Chapter 3: Methodology.............................................. 10 3.1 Statement of the Problem.......................................10 3.2 Problems Associated With the Launch of Pumkin Flakes...........11 3.3 Research Questions.............................................11 3.4 Research Vision, Mission and Objectives........................11 3.4.1 Mission....................................................11 3.4.2 Vision.....................................................11 3.4.3 Research Objectives........................................11

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Table of ContentsChapter 1: Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 2 1.1 History of flakes .................................................................................................................................. 2 1.2 Objectives of the Project..................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Recipes for Baked pumpkin Flakes...................................................................................................... 3 1.3.1 Methods 1..................................................................................................................................... 3 1.3.2Method 2 ....................................................................................................................................... 4 1.4 Plan of Work........................................................................................................................................ 4 Chapter 2: Literature Review ........................................................................................................................ 5 2.1 The History of Pumpkins ..................................................................................................................... 5 2.2 Scientific Classification ........................................................................................................................ 5 2.2.1 Plant Description .......................................................................................................................... 6 2.3 Planting Time ...................................................................................................................................... 6 2.3.1 Reasons for Failure of Pumpkin seeds to germinate .................................................................... 6 2.4 Nutritive Value: Pumpkin Nutrition .................................................................................................... 7 Figure 1: Pumpkin Nutrition Facts........................................................................................................ 7 2.5 Types of Pumpkins .............................................................................................................................. 8 2.6 Harvesting Time .................................................................................................................................. 9 2.7 Storage Time ..................................................................................................................................... 10 2.8 Association of Pumpkins with Health Issues ..................................................................................... 10 Chapter 3: Methodology ............................................................................................................................. 10 3.1 Statement of the Problem ................................................................................................................ 10 3.2 Problems Associated With the Launch of Pumkin Flakes ................................................................. 11 3.3 Research Questions .......................................................................................................................... 11 3.4 Research Vision, Mission and Objectives .......................................................................................... 11 3.4.1 Mission....................................................................................................................................... 11 3.4.2 Vision ......................................................................................................................................... 11 3.4.3 Research Objectives ................................................................................................................... 11 3.4.4Specific objectives ...................................................................................................................... 12 3.5 Problem Justification......................................................................................................................... 12 3.6 Benefits of Conducting Research ...................................................................................................... 12

4.0 Desk Research....................................................................................................................................... 12 4.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................. 12 4.2 Procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 13 4.0 Qualitative Research ............................................................................................................................. 13 4.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................. 13 4.2 Population and Sampling. ............................................................................................................. 14 4.3 Procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 14 5.0 Quantitative Research ........................................................................................................................... 14 5.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................. 14 5.2 Population and Sampling .................................................................................................................. 14 5.3 Procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 15 5.4 Research Schedule ............................................................................................................................ 15 5.5 Research Budget ............................................................................................................................... 16 6.0 Finding and Analysis of Research ........................................................................................................ 17 6.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 17 6.2 Results of Focus Group Discussion.................................................................................................... 17 6.3 Results of Quantitative Survey .......................................................................................................... 17 6.3.2 Availability of Pumpkins in Kenya ............................................................................................ 18 6.3.3 Percentage of People who Like Pumpkins ................................................................................. 19 6.3.4 Why People Dislike Pumpkins .................................................................................................. 19 6.3.5 The Factors Consumers consider in purchasing a breakfast meal ............................................. 20 6.3.6 Would you prefer indigenous nutritious .................................................................................... 21 6.3.7 What percentage of people would purchase Commercial pumpkin flakes ................................ 22 7.0 Recommendations and Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 23 8.0 References ............................................................................................................................................ 24

Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 History of flakes

As part of their strict vegetarian diet, which excluded alcohol, caffeine and tobacco, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, a strict Adventists and superintendent of the Battle Creek Sanitarium, served various meals, dull in taste, believing spicy, hot foods encouraged sexual appetites. Most meals consisted of wholesome wheat, rice, oat and corn dishes, Kellogg believing the greatest of human ills began in the bowels and that a strict vegetarian diet with a plethora of fiber and water worked to cleanse impurities and poisons from the body. He further believed that all sexual acts aside from those used for procreation, including masturbation, were sinful. Tending to the inmates in his care, Kellogg accidentally overcooked a batch of wheat, making it stale. Nevertheless, the batch nor the money would not to be wasted. Dr. Kellogg and his brother, Will, processed the batch as usual. But the batch formed flakes instead of dough sheets as a result. The tasty cereal was quite the hit in the Sanitarium, propelling the two men into business shortly thereafter. Corn Flakes(r), named Granose at that time, was registered for a patent in April of 1894. While today, nobody can imagine cereal boxes without the prize or gimmick, Corn Flakes(r) was the pioneer in this type of marketing. The company offered their popular box with a Funny Jungleland Moving Picture Booklet in the early 1900s to boost sales. This project is aimed at producing similar flakes but cooked from locally available alternative food materials . Pumpkins were choosen for their nutrition and ease of preparation into great tasting crispy flakes 1.2 Objectives of the Project 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To determine the nutritional value of flakes made from pumpkin flake To create a market for locally available items (pumpkin). To come up with more affordable products in the market. To add varieties of flakes in the market To determine whether flakes made from pumpkin are sweeter than those made from cornflakes. 6. To examine the life span of storage of pumpkin. 1.3 Recipes for Baked pumpkin Flakes 1.3.1 Methods 1 Wash the pumpkin Cut the pumpkin into unequal portions Place them on a greased baking tray

Bake for 40 minutes at 80 degrees until dry 1.3.2Method 2 Wash the pumpkin Boil the pumpkin Peel the pumpkin Drain all the water used in boiling Mash the pumpkins Make to desired shape Place them on greased baking tray Bake for 40 minutes at 80 degrees centigrade. Let them cool and pack them for shipment.

1.4 Plan of Work Date Time 4/11/2011 3hrs Place KIST library Remarks Wrote the objectives of the study. Came up with Region to carry out the research. Wrote the literature review Wrote the introduction Concluded writing the introduction Completed writing the literature review Formulated the questionnaire to be used and focus group questions used in chapter 3 Started working on chapter 3 by giving the method used in the data Collection and the objectives of collecting data Field work to collect data for questionnaires. Went to the field to the field to gain more data. Organized a focus group discussion

20/01/2012 24/01/2012

5hrs 5hrs

KIST library KIST Library KIST ICT centre K.U Library

3/02/2012

6hrs

10/02/2012

5hrs

KIST Library

18/02/2012 25/02/2012

8hrs 7hrs

KIST Compound KIST Compound

28/03/2012 5/03/2012

3hrs 6hrs

9/03/2012 15/03/2012

2hrs 5hrs

30/03/2012

3hrs

15/05/2012 18/05/2012

2hrs 8hrs

at KIST restaurant. KIST Library Completed recording the data collected from the field KIST Library Started chapter four where the data KIST ICT Centre was analyzed and the findings recorded KIST Library Concluded work on chapter 4 KIST Library Wrote Chapter five where the researcher gave her recommendation and problems of the study KIST Library The research/Project was clarified by Staffroom the supervisor first at the library then later by the staff. KIST Library Corrected the research and took it for clarification. Ruiru Town Gave out the research for typing and binding and was submitted to the supervisor for marking.

Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 The History of Pumpkins A pumpkin is a round shaped fruit that range in size from less than 1 pound (0.45 kilograms) to over 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms), they are mostly orange or yellow on the outside, on the inside it contains the seeds and pulp which are both edible. In Kenya pumpkins are widely grown for subsistence use and sometimes for selling on local markets, and are used recipies with other foods. The name 'pumpkin' in Australia generally refers to the broader category called winter squash in North America Pumpkin is derived from the Greek word pepon, which means alarge melon", the British later adapted to "pumpkin as we use it today. There is no well defined history for Pumpkins, although they are thought to have originated in North America. The first recorded evidence of growth of pumpkins was among the Aztec of Mexico between7000 and 5500 BC, were found in Mexico. Pumpkins are a squash-like 2.2 Scientific Classification Pumpkin is classified under Cucurbit -like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds). It commonly refers to cultivars of any one of the species Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita mixta, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita moschata, and is native to North America

2.2.1 Plant Description Since some squash share the same botanical classifications as pumpkins, the names are frequently used interchangeably. In general, pumpkin stems are more rigid, prickly, and angular (with an approximate five-degree angle) than squash stems, which are generally softer, more rounded, and more flared where joined to the fruit. Pumpkins generally weigh 48 kg with the largest (of the species C. maxima) capable of reaching a weight of over 34 kg. The pumpkin varies greatly in shape, ranging from oblate to oblong. The rind is smooth and usually lightly ribbed. Although pumpkins are usually orange or yellow, some fruits are dark green, pale green, orange-yellow, white, red and gray. Pumpkins are monoecious, having both male and female flowers on the same plant. The female flower is distinguished by the small ovary at the base of the petals. These bright and colorful flowers have extremely short life spans and may only open for as short as a day. The color of pumpkins is derived from the orange pigments abundant in them. The main nutrients are lutein and both alpha and beta carotene, the latter of which generates vitamin A in the body. 2.3 Planting Time Pumpkins need a lot of moisture in the soil to grow and thus have to be planted when the rains are frequent and high in intensity. 2.3.1 Reasons for Failure of Pumpkin seeds to germinate 2.3.1 1. Seeds are washed Away Probably the most common cause is when seeds wash away. This happens when seeds are not planted deep enough and irrigation or rain washes them up from the ground and away, where they fail to germinate or catch because they are no longer in the soil. To prevent this, farmers should make sure that seeds are planted at the recommended depth for that type of pumpkin to protect them from heavy rains, over-watering, and other washes of water that can cause them to wash away. 2.3.1 .2. Seeds Freeze Another common seed killer is freezing. Planting too early or when hard frosts come through after planting can result in the seeds freezing and dying. Sometimes this is also caused by improper seed storage in the off season. 2.3.1 .3. Seed Coatings and Casings Breached Sometimes the things done to the seed before its planted can harm it, causing it to lose nutrients or internal moisture and thus die. Usually this is damage to the coating or casing of the seed. Often this is caused by scarring due to rough handling or bad packaging or it can be because the soil is too rough or the soaking was too long, causing the casing to get too soft.

Preventing this is just a matter of being more careful with the seeds. Keeping them in proper containers and using proper handling to be sure they are not harmed will keep this problem from happening. 2.3.1 .4. Seed Predators Sometimes, seeds in the garden fall prey to predators who eat them. Birds and squirrels are the most common culprits, but other animals can also endanger seed survival. They eat or dig up the seeds while looking for other food like insects or worms. Even common house cats digging in the garden to poop can destroy seeds. Prevention is a matter of keeping these animals out of your garden. Several techniques are available for this. 2.3.1 5. Seeds Planted Too Deep Finally, this problem is caused by the gardener getting overzealous with the planting and pushing the seeds in too deep. The seeds will sprout and germinate, but their stalks and leaves will fail to reach the surface and gather much needed sunlight before the seed pod runs out of nutrients and dies. 2.4 Nutritive Value: Pumpkin Nutrition The bright orange color of pumpkin shows that pumpkins are loaded with important antioxidants and beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is one of the plant carotenoids converted to vitamin A in the body. In the conversion to vitamin A, beta carotene performs many important functions in overall health of individuals. Current research indicates that a diet rich in foods containing beta-carotene may reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer and offers protect against heart disease. Beta-carotene offers protection against other diseases as well as some degenerative aspects of aging. Figure 1: Pumpkin Nutrition Facts (1 cup cooked, boiled, drained, without salt) Calories 49 Protein 2 grams Carbohydrate 12 grams Dietary Fiber 3 grams Calcium 37 mg Iron 1.4 mg Magnesium 22 mg Potassium 564 mg Zinc 1 mg Selenium .50 mg Vitamin C 12 mg Niacin 1 mg Folate 21 mcg Vitamin A 2650 IU Vitamin E 3 mg

2.5 Types of Pumpkins 2.5.1 Amish Pie Is a soft creamy orange in color, and the shape resembles a large apple. They are a good quality baking pumpkin and store well. They grow to quite large sizes, however average ones weigh less than 10 pounds. 2.5.1 Baby Bear One of the most popular pumpkins. They have Long handles and just the right size for little hands. This pumpkin is excellent to use for an individual "pumpkin bowl" to serve soups, stews and chili. The seeds are semi-hull-less and are excellent roasted. 2.5.1 Baby Boo These are a tiny little pumpkin , that are white in color. If not protected from the sun after they have been harvested they turn a soft yellow in color. They don't store as well as other pumpkins. 2.5.1 Baby Pam Sugar Pie Sugar Pies are the modern baking pumpkin. Used to bake pies, their skin is very thin, the flesh is sweeter and substantially finer grained than a jack-o-lantern type pumpkin (they were bred for thick rinds and stability when carved . . . not eating!). It is also quite dry which makes for a more stable pie. Sugar pies guarantee very delightful results when baked. 2.5.1 Cushaw Green and Gold They look like a bowling pin and have a long neck. Some are straight, some are crooked. They come in different color combinations. Some are cream with gold stripes, others are cream with green stripes. They have a lightly golden flesh. They are good as an ingredient, or excellent just plain with butter. They are used as mashed potato substitute. They have a very refined pleasing texture, and as a bonus are good keepers. 2.5.1 Jarrahdale This is a native of Australia whose strain has been preserved by amateur seed savers. Even so it is difficult to find. The golden-yellow flesh is medium sweet, string-less and is a very good quality for baking. It is desired for decorating due to it's unusual slate-green color, deep ribs and drum shape. The skin is quite hard, so use caution when cutting this one open. 2.5.1 Kakai This pumpkin has a very unusual coloring, and an even more unusual treat inside. It is orange in color with dark green ribs. The shell is quite hard and fairly smooth. The real treat is the seeds

inside. They are hull-less, and absolutely fabulous roasted. They can be a bit tricky to grow, but are well worth the effort. 2.5.1 La Estrella This is an unusual looking pumpkin. It's skin is a blend of dreamsickle orange and a soft gray green. The fruit is fairly small. On average they weigh about 5 pounds. 2.5.1 Fairytale This is an old time pumpkin from France. It is deeply ribbed and has a very smooth hard surface. It is dark green in color when immature, and as it cures it turns a gorgeous deep mohagony. It is fine grained and well suited for pies. It's true name is: Musque De Provence.

2.5.1 Full Moon These pumpkins are huge like a Big Max, only they are white in color. These are wonderful to decorate with, but again are bland and watery when used in baking. 2.5.1 Halloween in Paris A French pumpkin that is yellow all the way through and has good taste for cooking. It can be a bit on the watery side, so be sure to concentrate your puree before adding it to your recipe. 2.5.1 Hooligan These little guys are tiny and soooo cute. They are a light gold in color with dark orange speckling between the ribs. They are edible and make great little individual soup serving bowls. 2.5.1 Howden These are a staple in our area for a standard well adapted Jack-o-lantern. They are deep orange in color, have upright thick walls and sturdy handles. They make a perfect traditional carving pumpkin. Howdens are quite susceptible to powdery mildew, so be sure to keep an eye on them if you plant some in your garden. 2.6 Harvesting Time Pumpkins can be harvested whenever they are a deep, solid color (orange for most varieties) and the rind is hard. If vines die prematurely from disease or other causes, harvest the mature fruit and store them in a moderately warm, dry place until when you need to cook them. Cut pumpkins from the vines carefully, using pruning shears or a sharp knife and leave 3 to 4 inches of stem attached. Snapping the stems from the vines results in many broken or missing

"handles." Pumpkins without stems usually do not keep well. Wear gloves when harvesting fruit because many varieties have sharp prickles on their stems. Avoid cutting and bruising the pumpkins when handling them. Fruits that are not fully mature or that have been injured or subjected to heavy frost do not keep. Store in a dry building where the temperature is between 50 and 55F. 2.7 Storage Time Pumpkins are very durable and can be stored for a very long time without going bad or drying up, on condition their stalk is not cut off. 2.8 Association of Pumpkins with Health Issues Pumpkins are loaded with vitamin A and fiber, and low in calories. Research shows that diets rich in carotenoids, which are abundant in pumpkins, improve glucose metabolism in diabetics. According to Trudy Scott, CN, vice president of the National Association of Nutrition Professionals, serving pumpkin with a healthy form of fat lowers the glycemic effect and enhances the absorption of carotenoids. Try roasting pumpkin with olive oil and a dash of sea salt and pepper. Proteins from pumpkin rinds inhibit the growth of certain microbes, including Candida albicans, which causes vaginal yeast infections, diaper rash, and other health issues, according to a 2009 study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Make a hearty pumpkin souproasted rind and allso Mom and baby can stay infection-free. Pumpkin puree can cure irregularity and mild constipation in dogs and cats, says Marcia Martin, DVM, a homeopathic veterinarian in Mobile, Alabama. Add to your pets food 1 to 2 teaspoons of pumpkin puree for every 15 pounds of body weight. Chapter 3: Methodology 3.1 Statement of the Problem Price is the not the only factor used by consumers to make the final Decision whether to buy or not to purchase a food. Pumpkins for a long time have been overlooked as components of recepies in Kenyan Homes and food businesses. This project intends to come up a resecepy for preparing delicious Pumpkin Flakes, but the consumption and marketing of the Pumpkin flakes may become problematic due to attitudes about consumption of Pumpkins.

3.2 Problems Associated With the Launch of Pumkin Flakes 1. Most people believe pumpkins are food for the poor peopl. 2. Preparation methods for Pumpkins most of the time end up with a mashed puree that is undesirable to most people. 3. Most cooks are not Up to the task of preparing good pumpkins recepies.

3.3 Research Questions Is there market viable enough for commercialization of Pumpkin Flakes? What are the attitudes towards meals containing Pumpkins? How can the attitudes about pumpkins be Changed?

3.4 Research Vision, Mission and Objectives 3.4.1 Mission The mission of this research is to make sure that the final product (pumpkin flakes) is popular among many people and issues of its negative image does not affect its consumption. 3.4.2 Vision To provide well analyzed and interpreted information that can enable the smooth roll out of Pumpkin flakes as commercial products and consequently ensure that the flakes quickly establishes dominance in the breakfast market and holds it for many years (Burns and Bush 2010). 3.4.3 Research Objectives The main objective of the study will be to provide market information that will enable the smooth roll-out of Pumpkin flakes as commercial products and it consequent success in the market.

3.4.4Specific objectives 1. Establish the average number of person who like the pumpkin Flakes at KIST. 2. Find out what are the taste preferences of people who like the pumpkin flakes. 3. Find the source of negative attitudes on Pumpkins. 4. To find out which methods can be used to effectively market the Pumpkin flakes. 5. To establish which is the best serving combination for the pumpkin flakes.

3.5 Problem Justification Modern Consumers have a yearning for healthy and sophisticated breakfast item. Pumpkin Flakes if prepared to the best quality, taste great market and are marketed properly can become market successes. This research aims at providing information that can be used to come up with pumpkin flakes that have the three qualities above.

3.6 Benefits of Conducting Research 1. The researcher can establish the demand of the flakes in the general population. 2. The researcher can establish the best serving combination and taste for the Pumpkin flakes.

4.0 Desk Research 4.1 Purpose Available sources of information on Pumpkin and Pumpkin flakes will be examined and analyzed to refine the objectives and enables the researcher know the kind of information the research will be focused on getting. Desk research will enable the compilation and analysis of

similar recipes and other competing products (Lev, Brewer and Stephenson 2004, pp 24). The aims of the Desk research will be a) Types of Pumpkin that can be chosen for preparation of pumpkin flakes. b) Establish suitable methods for preparing pumpkin flakes. c) Establish attitudes associated with pumpkin consumption. d) What are the other types of flakes in the market

4.2 Procedure The research will begin with visiting a supermarket and obtaining records from the relevant staff. Externally the research will look into previous market assessment of competitors in the food service industry (Sallant and Dillman 1994, pp 12).

4.0 Qualitative Research 4.1 Purpose In order to satisfy some of the exploratory objectives the qualitative research will be provide the researcher with detailed information. Focused group discussion will be used to find out and analyze attitudes towards pumpkins and the Pumpkin Flakes prepared (Curtis 2008, pp. 45). This phase of research will seek to find out the answer the following focus group question: How do people prefer the serving of their Pumpkin flakes? What is the preferable taste of their pumpkin flakes? How can the pumpkin flakes be improved? What is the texture of the flakes you were served?

4.2 Population and Sampling. The population will consist of the students of KIST (Smith and Napier 2002, pp 62). The population will be divided into the following group Group 1: Female students who study at KIST Group 2: Male students who study at KIST Group 3: Mixed male and female students of KIST.

4.3 Procedure The research team will make arrangement with the relevant authorities at KIST and select a group of students. The sample groups will be served with Pumpkin Flake. The team will then ask 4-6 questions that can elicit enough debate among the Students to be able to answer the questions of this phase of research.

5.0 Quantitative Research 5.1 Purpose This phase of research will use questionnaires which will be administered to students at KIST. The questionnaires will be administered in conjunction with KIST library where a respondent will pick the questionnaires at the counter of the Library (Ries and Trout 2000, pp 29). This part seeks to come up with the number of students that are potential customers of the pumpkin flakes.

5.2 Population and Sampling

The research decided to administer 200 questionnaires to female and male student of various ages who visit KIST library (Kotler and Armstrong 1999,pp. 16). The administering of questionnaires will be randomized with anyone allowed to pick and fill a questionnaire.

5.3 Procedure The research team will prepare the questions to be used in the questionnaires with emphasis on what the Quantitative research is supposed to achieve. The questionnaires will seek to find out the following What nutritional quantity per gram does a students wants his breakfast item to have? What is the most important feature of a breakfast one considers before deciding to consume one? Whether the customer would change his attitude toward pumpkin flakes? How popular are pumpkin flakes?

These among other factors are what the Quantitative statistics of the questionnaire in Appendix 1 will seek to provide. The questionnaire will comprise of mostly closed ended questions but a few questions will be open ended (Kennedy 2009,pp 6) The data will be analyzed through computer by use of frequency distributions including mean, median and quartiles (Whitehall Associates 2004, pp 13). Later the Data will be referenced to the whole Kenyan population by weighing it against the last census.

5.4 Research Schedule

Week 1-3 3-5 6 7 8 9 10-11 11- 13 15 18

Activity Desk research Qualitative fieldwork Desk/qualitative report ready Questionnaire Development Pilot( n=15) Quantitative stage(n=400) Data recording (coding) Analysis Presentation Proposal report ready

The research is going to take an estimated 18 weeks. Every week on Monday the research team will meet to evaluate the progress of the research and put together any additional plans to be integrated into the research during the week. 5.5 Research Budget Research Part Description Fees

Desk Research

12 hours for research executives 24 hours for research assistants shs1,000 to buy access for documents

sh 3,500

Qualitative Research Quantitative Research

Three focus groups 400 questionnaires administered

Sh 6,000 Sh 8,000

Total budget

Sh 17,500

6.0 Finding and Analysis of Research 6.1 Introduction The research took a month and found out some important issues surrounding the production and commercialization of pumpkin flakes. This chapter analyzes the findings of the research stage of this project.

6.2 Results of Focus Group Discussion From the focus group discussion the research found out the following They said the pumpkin flakes tasted very sweet and were very yummy. They also were very happy in finding a locally available alternative breakfast item. The male groups were found to be the most delighted by the flakes. The girls also suggested the flakes could be turned into snacks.

6.3 Results of Quantitative Survey

6.3.2 Availability of Pumpkins in Kenya

Are Pumpkins Available In Your Areaa10%

Yes No

90%

Figure 2: Availability of Pumkins The research found out that 90% of the respondent confirmed that pumpkins are available in many localities across Kenya

6.3.3 Percentage of People who Like Pumpkins

Do you Like Pumpkins

20% Yes No

80%

Figure 3: Popularity of Pumpkins The research found out that most people do not like pumpkins although they are among the most nutritious food in the country. Our survey at KIST found out that 80% of respondents said they do not like pumpkins while 20% said they liked pumpkins. 6.3.4 Why People Dislike Pumpkins People were found to dislike pumpkins for a number of reasons. 22% said they dislike pumpkins because their mother fed them with pumpkins monotonously when they were young. 28% of group interviewed confessed to disliking pumpkins because they are not fashionable. However, most people (50%) disliked pumpkin because they had been prepared poorly and thus the meal was of poor quality.

60% 50% 50%

40% 28% 22% 20% Poor Preparation Monotonous food in childhoos Is not fashionable

30%

10%

0% Why People Dislike Pumpkins

Figure 4: Reasons why people dislike pumpkins 6.3.5 The Factors Consumers consider in purchasing a breakfast meal The survey discovered there are a number of factors influencing an individual when they are making their purchasing decision for a breakfast item. 60% of purchase decisions are made because of the nutrition content and test of the breakfast item while 23% and 17% make their decisions based on price and availability respectively.

35% 30% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Purchasing Decision 23% Nutrition 17% Taste Price Availbility 30%

Figure 5 : Main factors influencing a purchasing decision for a breakfast item 6.3.6 Would you prefer indigenous nutritious 70% of respondents said they preferred to have an indigenous breakfast food item while only 30% wanted an indigenous food item in their breakfast

Preference of Indeginous Breakfast Item

30% Yes No 70%

Figure 6: Indigenous food preference 6.3.7 What percentage of people would purchase Commercial pumpkin flakes

Percentage of People who would purchase Pumpkin Flakes20%

Yes No 80%

Figure 7: Potential Pumpkin Flakes consumers 80% of the respondents reported that they would buy pumpkin flakes if they tasted good and were nutritious. 20% said they would not purchase pumpkin flakes no matter how they are prepared.

7.0 Recommendations and Conclusion Pumpkin flakes can be a source of nutrient for most Kenyan families as they start their day every morning. Food processing companies should take up the idea of commercially producing pumpkin flakes and marketing them as choice breakfast cereals for people who value nutrition but still want their food to taste great. The Kenyan government should encourage commercial growing of pumpkins as with the change in attitude through better preparation methods will see their demand increase. Restaurant too should take up pumpkins and come up with new methods of preparing them. Further research needs to be carried to find out how the negative attitudes surrounding pumpkin as a food can be eliminated.

8.0 ReferencesDelivering Customer Service. Moon, Y. & John, Q, 2003, Harvard College. Boston: Harvard business School Thinking outside the cup Fast Company, Overholt, A, 2004 [online] at: http://www.fastcompany.com retrieved on 8th April 2012. Kennedy, D. S. 2009.The Ultimate Marketing Plan: Find Your Hook. Communicate Your Message. Make Your Mark. Ohio: Adams Media. Principles of marketing, Kotler, P & Armstrong, G 1999 New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Tools for rapid Market assessments, Chicago: Oregon State University. Sallant,P. and Dillman, D. A., 1994, How to conduct your own survey, Lev,L., Brewer, L. and Stephenson,G. 2004, New York: John Wiley and Sons. Conducting Market Research Using Primary Data, Curtis, K. R., 2008, Reno: University of Nevada. Burns, A. C. and Bush, R, F., 2010, Marketing Research, Global edition, Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education. Positioning the battle of the mind, Ries, A & Trout, J. ,2000, New York: McGraw-Hill Food processing: innovation in the industry, Australian FoodStatistics, Smith, P. and Napier, K. 2002, pp. 1019. Food Science and Technology in Australia. Vickery, J.,1990, USA: Intl Specialized Book Service Inc. The Perfect Pumpkin: Growing/Cooking/Carving, Gail Damerow, 1997

Whitehall Associates 2004, Price Determination in the Australian Food Industry: A Report, Report prepared for the Department of Agriculture,Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra. Baked: New Frontiers in Baking, Matt Lewis and Renato Poliafito and Tina Rupp, 2008

Appendix 1: Sample Questionnaire 1. Are Pumpkins Available in your area? Yes/No 2. Do you like Pumpkins? Yes/No 20% 3. If No, Why? a) My mother overfed us with pumpkins 22% b) Pumpkins are not fashionable among my age group 28% c) The boiling method was always used. 50% 4. What is the most important factor you consider while purchasing a breakfast item? a) b) c) d) Nutritional Value and fibre content. 30% Taste. 30% Price. 23% Availability 27%

5. Would you prefer indigenous nutritious food type as the main item in your breakfast meal? Yes/No 70% 30% 6. Would you buy light well baked, great tasting and nutritious pumpkin flakes as your breakfast meal? Yes/No 80%l [email protected]