Public Speaking, Finding Your Voice, Ninth Edition- Michael Osborn

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Really great book on public speaking. Interesting and engaging.

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  • Why You Need This New Edition

    1. Finding your voice theme:The new subtitle for this edition focuses on a theme that has been implicit in thebook from the beginning: Helping our readers develop as speakers and as people as they gain presentation skillsand confidence and discover causes that interest and engage them.This theme is evident in each chapter, from the opening scenarios that describe speakers in the process of finding their voice to the Final Reflectionssummary sections that connect the chapter content specifically to the process of finding your voice. A newFinding Your Voice boxed feature, which appears several times in each chapter, offers brief exercises and activities that challenge students to think about and apply key chapter concepts.

    2. Numerous new speeches:The ninth edition offers many new sample student informative, persuasive, and ceremonial speeches, some of which appear in full, with annotations at the end of chapters, and some of whichappear in Appendix B: Speeches for Analysis.

    3. Updated information and research:The new edition provides significantly revised discussions throughout,such as a review of newer presentation media including Prezi,VUE and other cutting-edge technologies, and thepotential pitfalls of computer-generated presentations such as PowerPoint in Chapter 10,Presentation Aids.

    4. Restored order of the two persuasion chapters: In response to reviewers requests, we have reorganized these two chapters, 14 and 15, to return to their original focus, first presenting the basic principles of persuasionand persuasive design strategies, and building to a discussion of reasoned persuasion and how to develop strongarguments to support a position.

    5. Streamlined coverage: While retaining the breadth and depth of coverage that our readers have valued overthe years, judicious editing throughout has eliminated extraneous discussions and outdated information, makingthe overall content more succinct and selective. Material has been reorganized and recast for greater clarityand to accommodate todays diverse learning styles, such as the former two chapters on Organizing andOutlining, which have now been combined into one concise chapter (Chapter 9).

    6. Enhanced design and study tools:This edition boasts a striking new design and photographs, and includes freshpedagogical aids. In addition to the running glossary at the bottom of each page, there is now a full glossary at the end of the book. A new feature, Your Ethical Voice, increases ethical sensitivity and points out ethical concerns.

    Here are 6 good reasons to give the ninth edition a close look!

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  • SpeakingPUBLIC

    FINDING YOUR VOICE

    Allyn & BaconBoston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River

    Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal TorontoDelhi Mexico City So Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

    NINTH EDITION

    Michael OsbornUniversity of Memphis

    Suzanne OsbornUniversity of Memphis

    Randall OsbornUniversity of Memphis

    with Kathleen J. Turner, Davidson College

  • www.pearsonhighered.com

    Editor-in-Chief, Communication: Karon BowersDirector of Development: Meg BotteonDevelopment Editor: Hilary JacksonAssociate Development Editor: Angela G. MallowesEditorial Assistant: Megan SweeneyMarketing Manager: Blair TuckmanMedia Producer: Megan HigginbothamProject Manager: Anne RiciglianoProject Coordination, Text Design, and Electronic Page Makeup: Nesbitt Graphics, Inc.Cover Design Manager: Anne NieglosCover Designer: Ilze Lemesis/T9Cover Images: Fancy Collection/SuperStock; Fenton/Shutterstock.ImagesManufacturing Buyer: Mary Ann GloriandePrinter and Binder: R.R. Donnelley/WillardCover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color/Hagerstown

    Copyright 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.Printed in the United States. To obtain permission to use material from this work, pleasesubmit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116, fax: (617) 671-2290. For informationregarding permissions, call (617) 671-2295 or e-mail: permissionsus@pearson.com.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataOsborn, Michael.

    Public speaking / Michael Osborn, Suzanne Osborn, Randall Osborn.9th ed.p. cm.

    ISBN-13: 978-0-205-77844-7 ISBN-10: 0-205-77844-5 I. Public speaking. I. Osborn, Suzanne. II. Osborn, Randall. III. Title.PN4129.15.O83 2012808.51dc22

    2010046660

    Printed in the United States of America1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DOW 13 12 11 10

    Allyn & Baconis an imprint of ISBN-13: 978-0-205-77844-7

    ISBN-10: 0-205-77844-5

    AIE ISBN-13: 978-0-205-00009-8AIE ISBN-10: 0-205-00009-6

  • This edition is dedicated to the memory of Keith Kennedy and Michael Leff, two colleagues of exceptional ability with whom we shared much joy

    and the challenges of building a communication program at the University of Memphis from the civil rights era up to recent times.

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  • PART ONE The Foundations of Public Speaking 2

    1 Finding Your Voice 22 Managing Your Fear of Speaking 223 Your First Speech: An Overview of Speech Preparation 384 Becoming a Better Listener 60

    PART TWO Preparation for Public Speaking 80

    5 Adapting to Your Audience and Situation 806 Developing Your Topic 1067 Building Responsible Knowledge 1228 Supporting Your Ideas 1469 Structuring and Outlining Your Speech 168

    PART THREE Developing Presentation Skills 200

    10 Presentation Aids 20011 Putting Words to Work 22612 Presenting Your Speech 252PART FOUR Types of Public Speaking 278

    13 Informative Speaking 27814 Persuasive Speaking 30015 Building Sound Arguments 32816 Ceremonial Speaking 354APPENDIX A Communicating in Small Groups 379

    APPENDIX B Speeches for Analysis 393

    Brief Contents

    vii

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  • Contents

    What Public Speaking Has to Offer You 4Practical Benefits 5Personal Benefits 6

    Introduction to Communication 9The Tradition of the Study 9Knowledge of the Communication Process 12

    What This Course Asks of You 17Respect for the Integrity of Ideas and Information 18A Concern for Consequences 20

    The Fate of Public Discourse 21FINAL reflections

    1 Finding Your Voice 2

    2 Managing Your Fear of Speaking 22Understanding Communication Anxiety 25

    Managing Your Communication Anxiety 26Reality Testing 27Selective Relaxation 29Attitude Adjustments 30Cognitive Restructuring 31Visualization 31Putting It All Together 33

    Victory Over Fear 35FINAL reflections

    Managing the Impressions You Make 40Competence 40Integrity 41Goodwill 41Dynamism 43

    Preface xviiiResources xxivAcknowledgments xxviii

    PART ONE The Foundations of Public Speaking 2

    3 Your First Speech: An Overview of Speech Preparation 38

    ix

  • x Contents

    Preparing Your First Speech 44Step 1: Find the Right Topic 44Step 2: Focus Your Topic 45Step 3: Find Material for Your Speech 46Step 4: Design Your Speech 48Step 5: Outline Your Speech 50Step 6: Practice 51Step 7: Give It 54

    Introducing Yourself or a Classmate: An Application 54

    Exploration through Preparation 58FINAL reflections

    The Benefits of Effective Listening 62Listening in the Workplace 62Listening in the Classroom 63

    The Process of Listening 64Threshold Listening 64Critical Listening 64Empathic Listening 65Constructive Listening 65

    Effective Listening Behaviors 65Overcoming External Barriers 65Overcoming Internal Barriers 67

    Becoming a Critical Listener 70Do Speakers Support Their Claims? 70Do Speakers Rely on Credible Sources? 71Do Speakers Use Words to Reveal or Befuddle? 71What Strategies Do Speakers Use? 71

    Evaluating Classroom Speeches 73Your Role as a Constructive Listener 73Your Role as a Critical Listener 73Overall Considerations 74Evaluating Substance 75Evaluating Structure 75Evaluating Presentation Skills 76

    Your Ethical Responsibilities as a Listener 78

    The Golden Rule of Listening 79FINAL reflections

    4 Becoming a Better Listener 60

  • Contents xi

    PART TWO Preparation for Public Speaking 80

    Why Audience Analysis Is Important 82

    Understanding Audience Demographics 83Age 84Gender 85Educational Level 85Group Affiliations 86

    Understanding Audience Dynamics 88Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values 89Gathering Information about Attitudes 90Motivation 91

    Meeting the Challenges of Audience Diversity 96Apply Universal Values 97Use Speaking Resources Skillfully 97Avoid Language Pitfalls 99Avoid Rhetorical Land Mines 99

    Adjusting to the Communication Situation 101Time 101Place 102Occasion 102Size of Audience 103Context 103

    Keeping Your Audience in Mind 105FINAL reflections

    5 Adapting to Your Audience and Situation 80

    What Is a Good Topic? 108A Good Topic Involves You 108A Good Topic Involves Your Listeners 108A Good Topic Is One You Can Manage 109

    Discovering Your Topic Area 109Brainstorming 109Interest Charts 110Media and Internet Prompts 111

    Exploring Your Topic Area 112Mind Mapping 112Topic Analysis 113

    6 Developing Your Topic 106

  • xii Contents

    7 Building Responsible Knowledge 122Developing a Research Strategy 124

    Prepare an Overview 125Build a Bibliography 125Acquire In-Depth Knowledge 127Be Sure Your Information Is Up to Date 127Include Local Applications 128

    Acquiring Responsible Knowledge 128Drawing on Personal Knowledge and Experience 129Doing Research in the Library 130Doing Research on the Internet 131

    Evaluating Research Materials 134Evaluating Material from Library Resources 134Evaluating Material from the Internet 135

    Interviewing for Information 140Establish Contact 140Prepare for the Interview 141Conduct the Interview 141Record What You Learn 142

    Taking Notes on Your Research 142Preparing Source and Information Cards 143Taking Notes on Your Computer 144Know What Information to Record 144

    Your Substantive Voice 145FINAL reflections

    Refining Your Topic 115General Purpose 115Specific Purpose 116Thesis Statement 117

    An Overview of the Topic Selection Process 118

    The Great Chain of Communication 119FINAL reflections

    Facts and Statistics 148Framing Facts 148Developing Statistics 148Constructing Facts and Figures 149Testing Facts and Figures 150

    8 Supporting Your Ideas 146

  • Contents xiii

    9 Structuring and Outlining Your Speech 168Principles of a Well-Structured Speech 170

    Simplicity 170Order 172Balance 172

    Structuring the Body of Your Speech 173Selecting Your Main Points 173Arranging Your Main Points 174Developing Your Main Points 176Developing a Working Outline 177Adding Transitions 179

    Introducing and Concluding Your Speech 181Introducing Your Speech 181Concluding Your Speech 186Selecting and Using Introductory and Concluding

    Techniques 189

    Preparing Your Formal Outline 190Heading 190Introduction 192Body 192Conclusion 193Works Cited or Consulted 193Formal Outlines: A Caution 194

    Value of the Twin Disciplines 194FINAL reflections

    Testimony 152Framing Expert Testimony 152Developing Lay Testimony 153Constructing Prestige Testimony 154Designing Testimony: Other Considerations 156

    Examples 156Types of Examples 157Fashioning Powerful Examples 159Testing Your Examples 160

    Narratives 160Types of Narratives 161Building Narratives 162Testing Your Story 163

    Selecting and Combining Supporting Materials 165

    Developing a Strong Voice 167FINAL reflections

  • PART THREE Developing Presentation Skills 200

    The Advantages and Disadvantages of Presentation Aids 202Advantages of Presentation Aids 202Disadvantages of Presentation Aids 204

    Types of Presentation Aids 205People 205Objects and Models 206Graphics 208Pictures 211

    Presentation Media 212Traditional Media 212New Media 215

    Preparing Presentation Aids 218Principles of Design 218Principles of Color 220Making Presentation Aids 221

    Using Presentation Aids 222

    Ethical Considerations for Using Presentation Aids 223

    Amplifying Your Voice 225FINAL reflections

    10 Presentation Aids 200

    What Words Can Do 228What Makes the Spoken Word Special 228Shaping Perceptions 230Arousing Feelings 231Bringing Listeners Together 233Prompting Listeners to Take Action 234Celebrating Shared Values 235

    The Six Cs of Language Use 236Clarity 236Color 237Concreteness 238Correctness 239Conciseness 240Cultural Sensitivity 241

    11 Putting Words to Work 226

    xiv Contents

  • How Special Techniques Can Magnify Your Voice 241Using Figurative Language 242Changing the Order of Words 247Using the Sounds of Words to Reinforce Their Sense 248

    Give Me the Right Word 250FINAL reflections

    12 Presenting Your Speech 252The Power of Presentation 254

    Developing Your Physical Voice 255Pitch 256Rate 257Loudness 258Variety 260Vocal Problems 260

    Developing Your Body Language 262Facial Expression and Eye Contact 263Movement and Gestures 264Personal Appearance 265

    Developing Versatility in Presentation 266Impromptu Speaking 266Memorized Text Presentation 267Reading from a Manuscript 268Extemporaneous Speaking 270

    Developing Flexibility in Special Situations 272Handling Questions and Answers 272Making Video Presentations 274

    Practicing for Presentation 275

    Taking the Stage 277FINAL reflections

    PART FOUR Types of Public Speaking 278

    Informative Speaking: An Overview 280

    Forms of Informative Speaking 281Speeches of Description 281Speeches of Demonstration 282Speeches of Explanation 282

    13 Informative Speaking 278

    Contents xv

  • The Nature of Persuasive Speaking 302

    The Types of Persuasive Speaking 304Speeches That Focus on Facts 304Speeches That Address Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values 305Speeches That Advocate Action and Policy 306

    The Persuasive Process 308Awareness 308Understanding 309Agreement 309Enactment 310Integration 310

    The Challenges of Persuasive Speaking 311Enticing a Reluctant Audience to Listen 312Removing Barriers to Commitment 315Moving from Attitude to Action 316The Challenge of Ethical Persuasion 318

    Designs for Persuasive Speeches 319ProblemSolution Design 319Motivated Sequence Design 320Refutative Design 322Design Combinations 323

    The Case for Persuasion 325FINAL reflections

    14 Persuasive Speaking 300

    Helping Listeners Learn 284Motivating Audiences to Listen 285Maintaining Audience Attention 285Promoting Audience Retention 287

    Speech Designs 288Categorical Design 288Comparative Design 289Spatial Design 290Sequential Design 291Chronological Design 292Causation Design 293

    Rising to the Challenge of the Informative Speech 294

    Briefings: an Application 295

    The Informed Voice 297FINAL reflections

    xvi Contents

  • Reasoned Persuasion 330Building Evidence 330Developing Proofs 331

    The Master Form of Proof 338Definitions of Central Concepts 338Reasoning from Principle 339Reasoning from Reality 341Reasoning from Parallel Cases 342

    Avoiding Defective Persuasion 344Defective Evidence 344Defective Proof 346Defective Patterns of Reasoning 347Fallacies Related to Particular Designs 349

    Persuasion That Has Legs 350FINAL reflections

    15 Building Sound Arguments 328

    16 Ceremonial...