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  • 8/18/2019 psychology lecture slide


    Introduction to Psychology

    Course title: Introduction to Psychology

    Course code: Psy 101

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    On completion of this lecture the students will

    be able to understand how Psychology has

    gained the status of a social science going

    through different periods of history.

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    Definition of Psychology

    The word of psychology is derived from tworee! words "Psyche and #ogos$

    Psyche means "%oul&%pirit&'ind$ and #ogos

    means "(nowledge$ Psychology stands for the !nowledge of


    Psychology is the science of mind and behavior 

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    Subject Matter of Psychology

    %ub)ect 'atter of psychology is *+,+C

     * stands for *ffect

    , stands for+ ,ehavior -Overt and Covert


    C stands for+ Cognition

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    Historical background of Psychology

    The roots of Psychology can be traced bac!

    to some half million years. Primitive people

    assumed that behavior was caused by the

    presence of good and evil souls . People have been interested in the behavior

    of other people throughout history so that

    roots of psychology may be found in

    philosophy/ religion/ and science.

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    e can divide history period into two periods

    Pre scientific period

    Scientific period

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    Pre scientific period

    %ome of our modern ideas of mind came

    from ancient reece. Term Psychology was

    derived from the ree! word Psyche2 -soul

    and logos2 -!nowledge. It eventually came tomean the "study of the mind$

    Pre scientific period can be divided into three

    sub periods .

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    i) Greek period

    ii) Middle ages

    iii) Islamic period

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    Greek period

    %ome early ree! philosophers regarded Psyche asa substance. This substance was thought to controlthe body. %ome ree! philosophers are:

    Hippocrates (430 B.C) ree! physician

    3ippocrates thought that personality was made up offour temperaments and these temperaments wereinfluenced by the presence of "humors or fluids$ inthe body. The problem of interest to the early ree!philosophers was the relationship between "mind$and body.

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    Greek period

    Plato(4!"#34" B.C)

    3e stressed the controlling influence of soul

    or mind.

    3e postulated the theory of mind bodydualism and held the view that as long as the

    soul remains in the body/ the man is alive/

    and when it leaves the body/ the man dies.

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    Greek period

    $ristotle-456+477 ,.C

    8e)ected the Plato2s theory and suggested that mindis a function of the body itself )ust as vision is afunction of the eye.

    3is concept of mind as a function of bodily processeswas an important step in the direction of ma!ingPsychology a science.

     *ttention turned/ eventually/ from pure speculation

    about the mind to the study of organism.

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    Middle ages


    3e was influenced by Plato and *ristotle2s thoughts.

    3e tried to understand religious beliefs through

    reasoning. St. $%g%stine(3&4#430)

    ,eing a Christian philosopher/ he believed that

    human being is interaction of soul and body.

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    Middle ages

    3e was founder of introspective method.

    3e thought that an individual can understand

    his own inner feelings.

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    Islaic Period

    If the ideas of modern Psychologists about

    mental health are assessed/ we come to

    !now that these are based on the views of

    Islamic philosophers and thin!ers. The 'uslim philosophers described the

    principles of life in the light if 9uran and the


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    Islaic Period

    3ere a brief description of 'uslim

    philosophers may be added into the history of


    $lk%ndi('03#'"3) 3e was a great *rab philosopher. 3e believed

    that our souls have originated from od2s

    soul. *ccording to him/ our real happiness

    lies in the reason and spiritual life.

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    Islaic Period

    3e tried to combine religion and philosophy

    as both see! reality philosophy focuses on

    theoretical aspects whereas religion stresses

    upon actions. $l# arai -5;0+

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    od is immortal and above all human

    thoughts. >arabi was influenced by the

    teachings of Plato and *ristotle.

    In#e#Sina -

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    Only the 3uman mind possess reason and

    intelligence. 3e said that physical illness

    could be treated with medicine but mental

    illness could be treated psychologically withreligion.

    3e thought that body had no lin! with mind

    body perishes but mind remains alive.

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    Imam G*a+ali -10=5+1111

    3e wrote a number of boo!s on religion.

     *ccording to him those obsessed with love of

    od and treading the right path do notcontact mental disorders. Therefore / he also

    instructed people to follow the right path.

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    3e said that / this world is a place of actionsand hard wor! and no body was allowed toremain idle in life. 3e viewed that man wasrecogni?ed by his actions.

    3e stressed upon children2s education. 3esaid children2s capabilities must be assessedfor proper education. 3e thought that mental

    diseases were caused by negative emotionalproblems and one should get rid of them.

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    $llama Bin ,*ald%n -1447+160@

    3e proposed the theories of social

    psychology and eAplained human beliefs /

    pre)udices / attitudes and other sub)ectmatters.

     *ccording to him / religion influences human

    mind and whole life.

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    S*a* -ali lla* - 1;07+1;@4

    3e wrote many boo!s and made a deep study of

    human mind and behavior. 3e discovered the causes

    of mental disorders and treated them .

     *ccording to him conflict goes on between positive

    and negative forces within human mind and healthy

    personality develops only by stri!ing balance b&w the

    two. If irrational ideas are in eAcess/ mental health is


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    Scientific Period

    This period may be divided into two sub


    /. enaissance Period

      >ollowing are the important figures of thisperiod:


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    rancis Bacon [email protected][email protected]

    3e was founder of modern science. 3e

    separated science from religion and

    philosophy. 3e proposed several theoriesupon education/ habits and human


    3e emphasi?ed the importance of

    observation instead of speculation.

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    Descartes !"#$%&"%#'(:

    3e thought organism as complicated

    mechanism which could be activated by light/

    sound and other stimuli.

     *lthough he had a very inadeBuate conceptof the structures and functions of the nervous

    system/ his study of the human organism

    brought fresh insight to psychology.

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    )ohn *ock !"%+,&"-'.(:

    3e believed we were born with empty mind in

    the world/ li!e blan! slates upon which all of

    life2s eAperiences could be written .

    Other influences on early psychology camefrom biology and physics.

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    /harles Dar0in !"1'$&"11,(:

    In his boo!$ The Origin of %pecies$ in 15=

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    Herann 2on Helholt3 !"1,'&"1$.(

    3e 'easured the speed of nerve impulse and

    set forth a theory of color vision for our

    perception and for musical tones.

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    Paul 4roca !"1%'(

     * >rench physician identified a part of the

    brain -still called ",roca *rea$ wor!ing as

    control centre for speech.

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    5eber !"-$#&"1-1( :

     *bout the middle of 1

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    6echner !"1%%(:

    3e loo!ed into mathematical connection

    between the physical and psychological


    >or the first time it had been demonstratedthat psychological phenomenon could be

    Buantified and investigated with scientific