- Psychologists do more than just wonder about human behavior: they conduct RESEARCH.
Psychologists do more than just wonder about human behavior: they conduct RESEARCH.
<ul><li><p>Psychologists do more than just wonder about human behavior: they conduct RESEARCH</p></li><li><p>Two Types of Research Used in PsychologyApplied Research clear and practical reasons and uses for research</p><p>If a psychologist was trying to come up with a new behavior therapy to stop heroin use, it would be applied research</p><p>Basic Research no immediate, real-world uses but explores interesting questions</p><p>Studying the differences between cultures and physical beauty is an example of basic research</p></li><li><p>Things that make research scientific Research Must Be Replicable Must be able to be copied by others to get similar reliable data the best and most reliable studies are replicated over and over</p></li><li><p>Things that make research scientific Research Must Be Precise Meaning research has to be to the point and easily understood To be precise psychologists use Operational Definitions a definition of terms so basic that when others read your study they know exactly what you are looking for or measuring Try to capture the essence of the concept so that others can observe it Example if you are trying to measure sense of humor how would you make it precise? presence of more laughter, more smiling, greater number of laughs at jokes</p></li><li><p>Operational DefinitionsExplain what you mean in your hypothesis.How will the variables be measured in real life terms.How you operationalize the variables will tell us if the study is valid and reliable.Lets say your hypothesis is that chocolate causes violent behavior. What do you mean by chocolate?What do you mean by violent behavior?</p></li><li><p>What can cause research to go wrong??What exactly do I mean by bias??</p></li><li><p>Bias Any influence in research that unfairly increases the possibility we will reach a particular conclusion</p><p>Types of Bias Researcher Bias, Confirmation Bias, Experimenter Bias when researchers look for and accept evidence that supports their beliefs and ignore or reject evidence that prove false their beliefs</p><p> Participant Bias (or subject bias) when research participants respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed act how they think the researcher wants them to act</p><p> Hindsight Bias when researchers believe, after learning the outcome of research, that they knew it all along</p></li><li><p>Hawthorne Effectthe term is used to identify any type of short-lived increase in productivity Just the fact that you know you are in an experiment can cause change So even a control group may experience changes and affect results of experimentWhether the lights were brighter or dimmer, production went up in the Hawthorne electric plant.</p></li><li><p>2-*Scientific Method in PsychologyScientists develop theories through the scientific methodThe scientific method is the process used in psychology to discover knowledge about human behaviour and mental processes</p></li><li><p>2-*Scientific Method in Psychology (contd)The first step is to state the problemPsychologists must ask questions that can be answeredThe questions must be specific and defined in a clear way</p></li><li><p>2-*Scientific Method in Psychology (contd)The second step is to develop a hypothesisA hypothesis is an educated guess about the answer to the question that has been posedHypotheses often emerge from theory</p></li><li><p>2-*Scientific Method in Psychology (contd)</p><p>Step three is to design a studyResearchers must identify key variables and choose a suitable method for investigationResearchers also must consider how many participants will be required and who the participants will be</p></li><li><p>2-*Scientific Method in Psychology (contd)The fourth step is collect and analyze dataTechniques must be selected that do not bias the resultsStatistical methods help summarize the data that have been collected</p></li><li><p>2-*Scientific Method in Psychology (contd)</p><p>The fifth step is draw conclusions and reporting resultsResearchers report results to the scientific community by making presentations at conferences or by publishing their findings in a journal</p></li><li><p>2-*Experimental MethodPsychological research often takes the form of an experimentAn experiment is a procedure in which researchers systematically manipulate and observe elements of a situation to test a hypothesis</p></li><li><p>2-*Experimental Method (contd)A variable is characteristic of a situation or a person that is subject to change or that differs within or across situations or persons</p></li><li><p>2-*Experimental Method (contd)The independent variable is manipulated by the experimenterThe dependent variable is the behaviour or response that is expected to change because of the experimenters manipulation</p></li><li><p>2-*Experimental Method (contd)A sample is the limited number of people researchers select to be part of the experiment and who represent a larger group</p></li><li><p>2-*Experimental Method (contd)An operational definition is a definition of a variable in terms of the methods or procedures used to study that variableStudying defined as 20 minutes per day over three days is an operational definition</p></li><li><p>2-*Experimental Method (contd)Participants are the individuals who take part in an experiment and whose behaviour is observed and recorded</p></li><li><p>2-*Experimental Method (contd)The experimental group receives the independent variableThe control group is a comparison group who are tested on the dependent variable but do not receive the independent variable</p></li><li><p>3 Types of Research you will have to know!!!Descriptive ResearchCorrelational ResearchExperimental Research</p></li><li><p>Descriptive Research Any type of research that describes the who, what, when, where of a situation</p><p> NOT concerned with causes or how something works only about describing what is going onWhat is going on in this picture?We cannot say exactly, but we can describe what we see.This is calledResearch Type #1</p></li><li><p>3 Types of Descriptive ResearchThe Case Study</p><p>The Survey</p><p>Naturalistic Observation</p></li><li><p>Descriptive Research Type #1 The Case StudyWhere one person (or situation) is observed and studied in depth to gather information.What is the strength and weakness of using a case study to study a topic like this??For example, if I wanted to study personality and abnormal behavior how would a case study go about it??</p></li><li><p>Case StudiesA detailed picture of one or a few subjects.Tells us a great storybut is just descriptive research.Does not even give us correlation data.The ideal case study is John and Kate. Really interesting, but what does it tell us about families in general?</p></li><li><p> Can study a behavior in depth and get quality info on that case</p><p> The results of the case study are usually not generalizable to the rest of the population.</p><p> One persons case would not be a valid representation of the whole populationWeaknessStrength</p></li><li><p>Descriptive Research Type #2The SurveyUses interviews or questionnaires to gather information like attitudes and beliefs</p><p>The Good Allows generalizationCheap and anonymousCan get a diverse and large populationHas both pros and cons when used</p></li><li><p>Survey Method: The BadSocial Desirability Bias Give socially acceptable answers not truthVolunteer BiasPeople who volunteer may not be representative of whole populationProblems with wording and answer optionsHow accurate would a survey be about the frequency of diarrhea?</p></li><li><p>Descriptive Research Type #3 Naturalistic ObservationObserving and recording behavior in natural environment No interacting with subjects at all just an observertaking the lab into the fieldWhat are the benefits and detriments of Naturalistic Observation?+ = natural behavior- = observers may see different things- = cant control the environment or outside factors</p></li><li><p>Field TripWe will stay together as we walk around the school grounds. We are to stay quiet and observeThere is nothing special set up, I just want you to LOOK</p></li><li><p>How many signs in the hallway?How many paw prints around the school?How many times did you see the word Huskies?How many cars in the parking lot?Did a plane fly over?How many people did you pass?</p></li><li><p>Correlational Research Explores relationships or links (correlations) between variables</p><p> Example mothers smoking during pregnancy is correlated with increased risk of SIDS in babies</p><p>Descriptive Research - - - describes Correlational Research - - - links or relationships between thingsResearch Type #2</p></li><li><p>Correlational Research#1 Thing to remember in Correlational ResearchCorrelation does not equal causation!!!!!</p><p>It is important to understand that CR does NOT say that one variable causes another but rather that they are somehow relatedThere is a correlation between ice cream and murder rates. Does that mean that ice cream causes murder?For ExampleRemembercorrelation does not equal causation!!!!!</p></li><li><p>We may not be able to determine cause, but we can measure the strength of a relationshipRelationship of variables is measured using correlation coefficientA statistical measure (a number) of strength of relationship of variables (ex. Ice cream and murder rates)Can vary -1.00 to +1.00 (more on this later)</p><p>Correlations or relationships can go in two directionsPositiveNegative </p></li><li><p>Types of CorrelationPositive CorrelationThe variables go in the SAME direction.Negative CorrelationThe variables go in opposite directions.Studying and grades hopefully has a positive correlation.Heroin use and grades probably has a negative correlation. </p></li><li><p>Experimental ResearchExplores cause and effect relationships by manipulating and measuring variablesEating too many Onions causesBad BreathResearch Type #3</p></li><li><p>How do we explore cause and effect??Form a Hypothesis a testable prediction</p><p>Pick Population The group who you are experimenting onFirst by Random Selection Then randomly assign them to one of two groups- control group those who do not receive the experimental treatment- experimental group those who do receive the experimental treatment </p><p>Operationalize the Variables Identify Independent and Dependent VariableWe set up, design, and run an ExperimentOperationalization Exercise</p></li><li><p>Independent VariableFactors that are manipulated in an experimentThe variable that should cause something to happen</p><p>Dependent VariableThe variable that should show the effect of changing the IV </p><p>the way you can figure this out is Ifthen If = IV then = DV</p><p>- If students study for a quiz before going to sleep, rather than in the morning, then they will get higher test scores</p><p>Experimenters try to hold everything else constant so that the independent variable is the cause of the observed effects but this doesnt always happen because of</p></li><li><p>Independent VariableWhatever is being manipulated in the experiment.Hopefully the independent variable brings about change.</p><p>If there is a drug in an experiment, the drug is almost always the independent variable.</p></li><li><p>Dependent VariableThe dependent variable would be the effect of the drug.Whatever is being measured in the experiment.It is dependent on the independent variable.</p></li><li><p> Extraneous or Confounding Variablesvariables that you dont count on that could change or influence the DV you want to check for these to make sure they dont mess up what you are looking for with the IV </p><p>Determine the type of experiment: Blind vs. Double Blind- blind participants are kept in the dark about purpose or about hypothesis- double-blind both the participants and researcher are kept in the dark - placebo an inactive pill that has no known effect (sugar pill)</p><p>Gather Data</p><p>Analyze Results</p></li><li><p>20 students randomly assigned to experimental groupWear headphonesdaily in study hallAverage grades atthe end of the quarter40 students randomly selectedAll Study hall students(population)Average grades atthe end of the quarterNot allowed to wear headphonesin study hall20 students randomly assigned to control groupHypothesis students who are assigned to wear headphones in study hall will have higher average grades at the end of the quarter than those banned from wearing headphonesSampleIVDVDV</p><p>*********5*5*5*7*7*7*11*11*11*11*11*11*15*********************</p></li></ul>