It gives me immense pleasure to express my feelings of heart for Ms. Priyanka Bhardwaj Faculty of KRCHE College, Narela for her unflinching interest, visionary interaction, constant encouragement and innovation to complete the task of standardized test.My special acknowledgement is due to Dr. Sonia Anand (Principal), KRCHE College, Narela for grooming us in the manner that enabled me to do justice with my work.At last once again I would like to thanks Ms. Priyanka Bhardawaj for her support in this test at each and every point of place I found problem.
5.Introduction of the standardized testMeaning and definition of TestCharacteristics of a good test Types of TestMeaning and definition of standardized test Meaning and definition of a teacher made test Difference between standardized and teacher made testImportance of standardized test
Introduction of personality Meaning and definition of personalityPersonality theory by Eysenck
Introduction of EPQ-R TestAimDiscription of the testEPQ-R Scale SampleReliability of scaleValidityMaterial required For the TestPrecautionsScoringResult tableInterpretation
EPQ-R TestSampleScoring of raw scoreResult tableInterpretation
Chapter - 1
Introduction of psychological standardized test
1.1 MEANING AND DEFINITION OF TEST
Meaning of TestA test or examination is an assessment intended to measure a test-takers Knowledge, skill, aptitude, Physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs). A test may be administered orally, on paper, on a computer, or in a confined area that requires a test taker to physically perform a set of skills. Tests vary in style, rigor and requirements. For example, in a closed book test, a test taker is often required to rely upon memory to respond to specific items whereas in an open book test, a test taker may use one or more supplementary tools such as a reference book or calculator when responding to an item. A test may be administered formally or informally. An example of an informal test would be a reading test administered by a parent to a child. An example of a formal test would be a final examination administered by a teacher in a classroom or an I.Q. test administered by a psychologist in a clinic. Formal testing often results in a grade or a test score. A test score may be interpreted with regards to a norm or criterion, or occasionally both. The norm may be established independently, or by statistical analysis of a large number of participants.
Definition of Test
A procedure intended to establish the quality, performance or reliability of something especially before it is taken into widespread use.A short written or spoken examination of a persons proficiency or knowledge.An event or situation that reveals the strength or quality of someone or something by putting them under strain. ---------- Oxford English Dictionary
1.2 CHARACTERSTICS OF A GOOD TEST
The test is an examination to reveal the relative standing of an individual in the group with respect to intelligence, aptitude, achievement or personality. In simple language a test is a systematic procedure for comparing the behaviour of two or more children. In the words of Robert, L.Ebel,TO reach without feedback of teaching.
Reliability: reliability implies accuracy and consistency in behaviour. Therefore a test must be measured accurately and consistently. According to the Freeman, The term reliability refers it the extent to which it gives a test it internally and extent to which it gives consistent result on testing and retesting. A reliable test should yield essentially the same score when administered twice to the same sample of the populations. A test should also rate the same candidates at the same score even it is examine by the same or different examiners at the same time or the different times. The difference in the score should be negligible.
Validity: A test is said to e valid if it actually measures what is supposed to be measured. According to kolesnik, A valid test is one which measures the traits & qualities that are intended to be measured. Cronbach has also define validity as, Validity is the extent to which a test measures what is supposed to measure. Validity is an important characteristic of a good test. Reliability is the necessary condition for validity but validity is not necessary condition for reliability. In other words if test is valid. It will be reliable also.
Comprehensiveness: A good test should be capable of measuring all factual knowledge all skills that a child has acquired in particular subject. A test is comprehensive to the degree to which it sample sufficiently widely in to subject it is said that a test should be comprehensive enough to be valid.
Diagnostic: A good test must be diagnostic. It means it should diagnose the weakness and strength of the children. So that remedial teaching may be possible.Norms: Norms are the average performance of the group in a test and it is based on average achievement or capacity of the whole group. Norms indicate the present achievement. The interpretation of test score cannot be possible without norms. It is used to compare the achievement among the children. Norms are calculated in the form of age, grade, percentile and standard score.Clearness: The direction given should be brief and definite so that children may avoid wrong performance due to miss understanding of direction. The language of the test items should be simple understandable and definite.Discrimination: A good test must pick out good and poor students from a population or a group. Each item of a test must discriminate between good and poor children. If an item is answered by an equal number of intelligent and poor student. It has no discriminating value. But if only intelligent children are able to an item and most of the children miss it. It has highly discriminating value. After the discrimination and score test, each item of the test is analyse to calculate the level of difficulty. The process of analyzing the test item is known as item.Usability: A good test is that which is convenient and practicable for both the teacher and student. A good test should be easy, attractive and interesting. The language of the test should be simple and clear
1.3 TYPE OF TESTAchievement Test
Standardized test Teacher made test
Subjective test Objective test
Oral Written Practical
Recall Type Recognition Type
Simple Recall Fill in the blanks
Multiple True/False Matching Analogy Classificationchoice type type typetypetype1.4 MEANING AND DEFINITION OF STANDARDIZED TESTMeaningA standardized test is one for which norms have been established. Norms are achievement or a typical score which measures achievements. Standardized test can be used anyone. It is given to a large population and scores are given definite expectancy. These are not simple to construct. They are prepared by experts. The content, administration, scoring, interpretation of these get fixed on standardized for a particular age group or grade with the help of statistical techniques so that precisely same test may be given to the students of that age group or grade of different times and places. But teachers are less concerned with these test.DefinitionA standardized test is a test for which the procedure apparatus in scoring have been fixed so precisely that the same test can be given at different times and places. By GRONBECKBy combining the definitions we can say that standardized test is test that is administer and scored in a continents or Standard manner. It is administered under controlled conditions that specify when, how and to how to children respond to questions. It provides an assessment of individuals mastery of a dom of knowledge or skill.
1.5 MEANING AND DEFINITION OF TEACHER MADE TEST
Meaningthese test are prepared by the teacher to study the content snd degree of students progress. These provide immediate feedback for the teacher and motivates the students. They provide the information which are the basis of students progress. This helps to measure achievement of students from time to time. These test may be oral, practical or written. Teachers are more concerned with these tests. They are constructed to measure outcomes directly related to classroom specific objectives and particular class situation.DEFINITION Teacher made test are tests that are planned, assembled, written or otherwise prepares by teacher for use with particular particular group of students.
1.6 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STANDARDIZED AND TEACHER MADE TESTS
S.NoStandardized TestTeacher-made test
9)Standardized test are concerned with the whole field of knowledge or ability test.
In standardized test norms are giving for various groups of persons on