Promoting Academic Listening and Speaking Skills with Adult ESL Learners. Betsy Parrish Hamline University NCTN Conference November 2012. Objectives. OBJECTIVES Today we explore. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Connecting ESL Classes to Career and Academic Goals
Promoting Academic Listening and Speaking Skills with Adult ESL LearnersBetsy ParrishHamline UniversityNCTN ConferenceNovember 2012
1Explore the impact of integrating language and content to challenge and engage students in listening, speaking, and pronunciation instruction.
Experience parts of lessons and classroom activities.
Assess activities for their value in teaching academic listening and speaking strategies.
Reflect on their use in your own settings.OBJECTIVESToday we explore2Objectives2DP Our objectives today are to discuss how and why we need to integrate academic and workplace skills from beginning levels of ESL. We will also be sharing examples of language skills and strategies learners need to be successful at work and school. 3Benefits of integrating language and contentMultiple options proposed (Snow et al., 1989; updated 2003)Benefits of collaborative tasks in content-based instruction (Swain, 2001)Gains in both accuracy and fluency (Burger & Chrtien, 2001)Represents most closely what mainstream/content courses demand (Early, 2001)3If we dont have a content-based course: (review models)How can we reap the benefits? Extended units on a themeHave both content and language objectivesPractice higher order skills and strategies that replicate what students will so in post-secondary settingsWhat do they have to do?
4Challenges/ObstaclesMany programs dont have resources to teach content-based courses.
Many ESL programs are not co-located with content-based courses.
Students in ESL classes have very different backgrounds, interested and experiences with content areas.5Possible SolutionCreate content-based units.Choose content that would appeal to a variety of learners.Integrate both content and language objectives.Include practice in skills and strategies needed for academic success.Language skills/strategies developmentNote-takingHigher-order thinking/Critical thinking
Others identified- see Johnson & Parrish (2010)
6Some identified gaps between ABE/ESL and Post-secondary instruction:BP My colleague, Kim Johnson, and I identified some gaps between what we are teaching in adult education programs and what learners need in order to be successful in post-secondary settings. We provide a full overview of our study and the results in TESOL Quarterly,
6ABE teachers rated the frequency at which a particular skill was included in classroom instruction
ABE/ESL transitions-level instructorsCollege faculty rated the importance of particular skills needed for students to be successful in their classes
8College instructors: developmental education, Health care and technical/tradesBP And we asked college instructors from developmental education, health care and technical/trades how important they felt those same skills were for success.89The disconnect between ABE/ESL and post secondary instruction
BP We surveyed transitions-level instructors about how frequently they taught a particular skill.82.6% of ABE/ESL sometimes or rarely addressed.While 44.7% of college faculty report it is very or extremely important.10Listening/Higher-order Thinking:Ability to synthesize information from lectures with other sources10BP We found the same thing with listening and higher-order thinking. Again, over 80% in ABE/ESL reported that the ability to synthesize information from lectures with other sources is sometimes or rarely addressed, while nearly half of college faculty deem the ability toemploy this skill to be very or extremely important.
82.6% of ABE/ESL sometimes or rarely addressed.While 44.7% of college faculty indicate it is very or extremely important.11Note Taking During Lectures
BP Finally, note-taking is another area that adult education teachers said they only sometimes or rarely work on this with students. Donna, you shared a powerful example with me of the benefits of working on note-taking with your students could you share that with us?11
Emphasis on group projects in college. Limited use of group projects in ABE/ESL
Teaching Listening SkillsBP Lets start with some examples for teaching listening skills.AcademicDirectionsLectures Interaction with classmates
Purposes for ListeningWorkplaceDirectionsMeetings Interaction with customers
DP The skills needed for school and work are the same; the contexts are just different. For example, in academic settings students listen to directions from the instructor on an assignment. At work, employees listen to directions from their supervisor, co-workers or customers, and then carry out their work responsibilities. The skills we teach and how we prepare students for either academic or career readiness cant begin at the advanced level.
15Strategies that play an important role in listeningTeaching Adult ESL pg. 93Anticipating contentListening to confirm predictionsListening for gistListening for specific informationListening for details-intensive listeningMaking inferencesBP At school and work, our students need to listen selectively for particular words, phrases, or idea units; monitor their comprehension; and use a variety of clues to infer the meaning of unknown words. As teachers, we need to include practice with making and confirming predictions, listening for gist and for specific information.
Pierre: it would probably be good to have a page from book if possible. YES, THAT WAS OUR INTENT.1516
Interactive top-down and bottom-up processing
In top-down processing, the listeners background knowledge (of the topic, general world knowledge, and of how texts work) interacts with the linguistic knowledge drawn upon in bottom-up processing
(Graham and Macaro 2008, p. 748)17What we can do in classMake students aware of strategies they are using;
model selected strategies;
provide guided and structured practice of the new strategies;
include action planning, goal setting and evaluation.
(Graham and Macaro, 2008)
Teaching Oral Communication Skills
BP Students constantly need to employ a variety of communication strategies at work, school, as well as at home and in their communities.
AcademicOral presentationsClassroom participationSmall group work e.g., team projects
WorkplaceTrain new workersClarification questionsWork in teamsSocial interactionPurposes for SpeakingDP In academic and workplace settings, students need to speak for a variety of purposes. The skill is the same; the contexts are different. In school, students give oral presentations and work in small groups to do team projects. In the workplace, workers train new employees and work in teams. Social interaction is expected in both settings.20Nature of communicative speaking tasks
Teaching Adult ESL pg. 101BP Students need to manage spoken language, which can be highly unpredictable. They need to follow the direction of a conversation and ask for clarification. They need to make themselves understood, sometimes relying on compensation strategies, such as using gestures.
2021Why do we need to integrate pronunciation instruction?Meet the demands of jobs (Parrish, 2004)
Face the reality of NS attitudes (Munro, M.J., and Derwing, T.M.,1995).
Learners perceived need to become intelligible (Derwing, T.M., and Rossiter, M.J.,2002). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC 1995)GuidelinesHow frequently is English needed in the job? How complex is the language that is needed for the job? Would miscommunication have grave results? Is communication done under high-stress conditions? Is communication with one-time listeners, or would a listener have to time to become accustomed to the speakers accent?
Ask yourself those questions for each of the jobs below and see what you notice.
Restaurant serverNursing assistantManufacturing line operatorSupervisor in manufacturingDoctor Nurse
Dental Hygienist DishwasherHousekeeperTeacherLandscaper Truck Driver Receptionist
Teaching Adult ESL p. 109
24A focus on suprasegmentals(Field,2005; Hahn, 2004; Levis, 1999)Question intonationWord stressSentence stress-Emphatic and contrastiveReduced speechThought groupsWho is Muhammad Yunus ?
25The Nobel Peace PrizeWhat is the Nobel Peace Prize?Why do you think the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to someone for an economic development project?
What do I know?
What do I want to learn?
What did I learn?
Research on empowerment of women
Professor Fahima Aziz at Hamline University has been conducting research on the ways in which membership in the Grameen Bank has affected the lifestyles and well-being of women in rural Bangladesh.
These are some of the hypotheses she tested:
Participation by women in Grameen bank willlead to:greater decision-making powermore control over fertility decisionsdecision making for childrens marriages
Husband decides Wife decides Both decide God decides Dont know Row Total Grameen Bank Loan Recipients 1 19 57 2 79 Non-Grameen members 28 6 33 11 78 Group A Fertility Decision: Number of Children30Groups presentations
Create new groups of 4 (one member from each of the original groups). Present your findings and your graph to your classmates.
Summarize the findings
Considering ALL of the information you have gathered from your classmatesIn which area was there the greatest improvement in the lives of women as a result of membership in the Grameen Bank? How do these results compare to your own predictions? Were there any developments that surprised you? If so, what?
Something that surprised you about another cultureSentence stressTable 4.3
Content WordsThese are the words that carry the most meaning in the sentences. We stress these in natural discourseFunction WordsThese are the small words that are the glue of the sentences. We tend not to stress these words.NounsArticlesVerbsPrepositionsAdjectivesShort conjunctions (and, but)AdverbsAuxiliary verbsConjunctions (however, therefore)PronounsTeaching Adult ESL p. 113VenturesTransitionsp. 3
Integrate note-taking35DP Students must also listen for details. This guided note-taking task from Ventures Transitions gives students a structure to record main ideas and details under the appropriate headings and helps prepare them for the many lectures they may hear in postsecondary education courses. In the workplace, where do students take notes? They might take notes when they are given instructions and in meetings. I dont think we realize the importance of note taking until we hear it from our students, which I gave an example of earlier. The Ventures Transition teachers manual provides tips on how to teach note-taking to students.
Ventures 4, p. 97Combine listening and critical thinking
DP Students sat in groups of 4 to discuss Yolandas problem. They used this structured p/s template to write the problem, discuss solutions and consequences and then make a group decision on the best solution. Its important to structure p/s activities so that students stay on task.Yolanda was listening intently to her classmates suggestions. Here are some of the solutions students came up with: quit, make a duty list, talk to others and about 8 more. Students should be given opportunities to analyze problems and think of solutions and their consequences. This graphic organizer gives students a place to write possible solutions and the group's final decision.
Students should be given opportunities to analyze problems and think of solutions and their consequences.37Teaching Adult ESL Task 4.4Group ANowrouz in IranBastille Day in FranceHistory/origin of holiday Freeing of Bastille PrisonFrench Revolution 1789Special FoodFresh fruitWhite FishActivitiesMarchesMilitary marchesDances and musicClothesNew clothesGroup BNowrouz in IranBastille Day in FranceHistory/origin of holidayCelebrates start of springSpecial FoodEating outsideActivitiesVisiting FamilyGoing on picnicsJumping over fireClothesAnything red, white and blueTeaching Adult ESL pg. 96Use listening grid activitiesBP You can also create your own listening tasks using the ideas from Teaching Adult ESL. Listening to a short recorded talk and having students fill in an A or B grid works not only on listening for specific information; it also practices organizing and note-taking. Grids also introduce students to what they may see in the workplace on schedules or the tables and charts they will encounter in academic settings. Finally, it helps learners see how to categorize information. Finally, when the A and B students exchange what theyve understood, they practice valuable communication strategies such as asking for clarification. 3738Mingles
Teaching Adult ESL pg. 105BP For this mingle activity from Teaching Adult ESL, which could be used in a unit on health or to practice the simple present tense to talk about routines, students gather examples of home remedies from their classmates. Not only does this work on speaking skills; it practices note-taking as students record answers they hear from other students in class. Once they have gathered information from several other students, they can practice critical thinking skills as they compare and contrast suggestions; this may challenge their assumptions about suitable remedies. See how a task like this one can practice multiples academic and work readiness skills.
38Give learners tools/templates for organizing informationHelp learners recognize text types or genresAct as precursor to formal note-takingPromote deeper listening, thinkingProvide tools for building autonomy
Use them forPre-listeningWhile -listening tasksNote taking while listeningSorting and categorizing ideas, concepts, wordsPreparing for speaking to organize ideas
(Parrish and Johnson; 2010)
39Graphic Organizers39BP We have included many graphic organizers today, including mind maps, flow charts, timelines, charts and grids because they give students tools or templates for organizing information. They help learners recognize text types or genres. For example, a flow chart visually depicts that a text describes a process or a sequence of events. A Venn diagram gives a visual image of how a text shows similarities and differences between two things. Students will encounter these same graphic organizers in formal academic writing and in many work documents, so you are teaching them graphic literacy and print literacy at the same time. Graphic organizers act as precursors to more formal note-taking. They can also promote deeper understanding and deeper thinking about a text. All of these benefits build learner autonomy. My colleague and I provide several examples of how to use graphic organizers in any type of lesson in our 2010 CAELA Brief on promoting learner transitions to postseco...