Processes of Life

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Processes of Life. Levels of Organization. The human body is organized in several levels, from the simplest to the most complex. . . Cells – the basic unit of life Tissues – clusters of cells performing a similar function - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Processes of Life

  • The human body is organized in several levels, from the simplest to the most complex. . .Cells the basic unit of lifeTissues clusters of cells performing a similar functionOrgans a group of tissues that perform one specific functionOrgan Systems groups of organs that perform a specific function in the human bodyLevels of Organization

  • The Circulatory SystemPurpose: to deliver oxygenated blood to the various cells and organ systems in your body so they can undergo cellular respirationMajor Organs:Heart the major muscle of the circulatory system that pumps blood through its four chambers. The heart pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs, where it gets oxygenated, returned to the heart, and then pumped out to the rest of the body

    Arteries carry blood away from the heart and to the major organs of the body

    Veins carry blood back to the heart away from the major organs of the body

    Capillaries small blood vessels that connect arteries to veins (so tiny that blood moves through them in single file)

  • BloodThe cells that flow through the circulatory systemRed Blood Cells -contain hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen and nutrients throughout the bodyWhite Blood Cells (leukocytes) - function with your immune system to help fight infectionPlatelets the bodys safety net - helps your blood clot and stops bleeding woundsPlasma - clear , yellow substance that is made almost completely of water and contains many different chemicals

  • The Respiratory SystemPurpose: to provide the body with a fresh supply of oxygen for cellular respiration and remove the waste product carbon dioxideMajor Organs:Nose internal entry and exit point for airPharynx serves as a passage way for both air and food at the back of the throatLarynx your voice box

    Diaphragm- the muscle that causes you to breath

    Lungs the major organ of the respiratory system.

    Alveoli- Alveoli are tiny air sacs in the lungs. In the alveoli, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the blood, getting rid of the carbon dioxide and giving the oxygen to the red blood cells to be delivered to all of the muscles and organs.

  • The Digestive SystemPurpose: to break down food into chemical nutrients that body cells need for energy, growth, and repair.Major Organs:Mouth to chew and grind up food-- saliva also begins the chemical breakdownEsophagus pipe connecting mouth to stomachStomach breaks down foodSmall Intestine after digestion is complete, the broken down food molecules enters the small intestine where it is absorbed into the bloodstream

    Large Intestine removes water from the food particles and gets the waste ready for excretion

  • Liver is reddish brown in color and is divided into four lobes of unequal size and shape. The liver lies on the right side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm. The liver has many functions. Some of the functions are: to produce substances that break down fats, convert glucose to glycogen, produce urea (the main substance of urine), make certain amino acids (the building blocks of proteins), filter harmful substances from the blood (such as alcohol), storage of vitamins and minerals (vitamins A, D, K and B12) and maintain a proper level or glucose in the blood. The liver is also responsible for producing cholesterol. It produces about 80% of the cholesterol in your body.

    Pancreas Completes the job of breaking down protein, carbohydrates, and fats using digestive juices of pancreas combined with juices from the intestines.-Secretes hormones that affect the level of sugar in the blood.

  • The Skeletal SystemPurpose: to provide structure and support to the human bodyMajor Organs:bones- are where new blood cells are generated (in the marrow), and require the mineral calcium for strength.cartilage- spongy connective tissue that cushions the ends of many bones*The skeletal system includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage.*We have 206 bones in our body.

  • The Muscular SystemPurpose: works with the skeletal and nervous system to produce movement, also helps to circulate blood through the human bodyMajor organs of the Muscular Systemmuscles- support and move your body. Voluntary- you can controlInvoluntary- you cant control, work automatically (ex: Heart)tendons- flexible bands of fibrous tissue that attach muscle to boneligaments- similar to tendons, but connect bone to bone and help stabilize joints Brain Pop Video

  • The Nervous SystemPurpose: enables you to sense your environment and react to it (use of all five senses).Major Organs:brain control center of the body, where all processes are relayed throughspinal cord sends instructions from the brain to the rest of the body and vice versanerves conduct impulses to muscle cells throughout the bodysynapse- connection between nerve cells

  • Lets ReviewWhich systems work together to provide the bodys cells with oxygen?A. circulatory and digestiveB. respiratory and digestiveC. respiratory and circulatoryD. respiratory and nervous

  • Lets ReviewWhich of the following shows the correct order from simplest to most complex level of organization?A. cell, tissue, organ, organ systemB. organ system, tissue, cell, organC. organ, tissue, organ system, cellD. organ, organ system, cell, tissue

  • Lets ReviewThere are many systems in the human body. Which system is responsible for breaking down food into chemical nutrients that body cells need for energy, growth, and repair.A. nervous systemB. digestive systemC. muscular systemD. respiratory system

  • Lets ReviewThe systems of the body perform functions that keep a person alive. What is the main function of the circulatory system?A. to deliver oxygenated blood to the various cells and organ systems in your body B. to remove food waste products from the bodyC. to process information from inside and outside the bodyD. to provide a framework for the body and protect its soft tissues

  • Lets ReviewThe lungs, nose, throat, and diaphragm make up which system of the body?A. digestive systemB. muscular systemC. nervous systemD. respiratory system

  • Inherited TraitsINHERITED TRAITS are those traits that are passed down from parents to their offspring. They are also called instincts.EX. In humans- eye color, hair color, skin color, freckles, dimples, etc. are all examples of inherited traits

  • What are some inherited traits?Inherited traits are things that are passed on that are specific traits. A tiger has stripes. A giraffe has a long neck. An elephant has a trunk. A snake has no legs.

  • What are some inherited traits?This family has an inherited trait. Can you tell what it is? They have brown hair.

  • What are some inherited traits?Some people have a genetic trait that creates indentations on their cheeks called dimples.

  • What are some inherited traits?Look at the elephants. What traits do they have in common?

  • Learned TraitsLEARNED TRAITS- are those traits that are acquired through experience (we are not born knowing how to do them).

    EX. Cheetahs hunt, kill and eat other animals. However, they must be taught at a young age HOW to survive and how to hunt.EX. In humans- we learned how to walk, bathe, and how to brush our teeth

  • Lets ReviewWhich is not an inherited behavior?A. dimplesB. readingC. frecklesD. brown eyes

  • Lets ReviewWhat are inherited behaviors called?A. old behaviorsB. recessive traitsC. environmentsD. instincts

  • Lets ReviewHow is hunting both learned and instinctive in animals?A. Animals learn to hunt.B. Animals have the instinct to hunt.C. Animals have the instinct to hunt but must learn hunting skills.D. Animals have the instinct to teach their young how to hunt.

  • Lets ReviewWhich is an example of a learned behavior?A. a snow hare turning white in the winterB. a deer standing still in headlight beamsC. a coyote eating new kinds of preyD. a person rolling his/her tongue

  • Parts of a PlantThe seedsThe flowersThe roots The stemsThe leaves

  • SeedsGrow new plantsFormed inside the ovarySurrounded by a hard seed coat

  • FlowersProduce seedsContain perfume and nectar to attract pollinators

  • RootsAnchor plants to soilAbsorb water and nutrients from soilStores food

  • StemsSupports a plant and enables its leaves to reach sunlight. Carry nutrients and waterResponsible for plant growth

  • LeavesIn charge of photosynthesis- making food for the plantVital in respiration and transpiration

  • Lets ReviewWhich of the following is the substance that enables a leaf to use sunlight to produce food?A. chlorophyllB. photosynthesisC. respirationD. transpiration

  • Where are seeds formed?A. In the flowerB. Inside the ovaryC. Outside the seed coat

  • Leaves are in charge of photosynthesis.TrueFalse

  • What do roots store?A. LeavesB. Soil and waterC. Food

  • CellsA CELL is the basic unit of structure and function in living things.Most cells are microscopic, which mean they can only be seen with a microscope.Flower CellOnion CellRed Blood Cell

  • Plant Cells

  • Plant CellsPlant cells have structures not found in animal cells. A thick cell wall helps support a plant cell. Plant cells also include CHLOROPLASTS, which make food for plant cells.

  • Animal CellsLike plant cells, animal cells have different sizes, shapes, and functions. They also have most of the same cell structures.

  • Cell Structures

    Cell StructureFunctionKind of CellNucleusDirects a cells activitiesPlant and animalChromosomeLocated inside the nucleus, contains information about the cell.Plan