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Page | 1 CONTENT PAGE Introduction 2 Day 1 4 Day 2 7 Day 3 10 Day 4 13 Day 5 16 Reflection 19 Materials 22

principles of english language teaching

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this is my report of school based experience in Terengganu. this task is to look for the principles of English language teaching through a week observation

Text of principles of english language teaching

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Introduction 2

Day 1 4

Day 2 7

Day 3 10

Day 4 13

Day 5 16

Reflection 19

Materials 22

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This is a journal of my School-Based Experince on the 16th to 20th August 2009 at

Sekolah Kebangsaan Bukit Sawa, Terengganu. I have chosen the school because I

heard the education system in Terengganu is very good and it makes me feel interested

to see how the system works.

Following that, I need to complete the given assignment from the lecturer

throughout my School-Based Experience. I have to work closely with my coordinating

teacher and look for the types of communicative activities used by the teacher, analyse

teacher’s instructional language and questioning techniques. Also, I have to compare

teacher’s and learner’s roles and identify effective classroom management. Lastly, I

have to collect samples of remedial and enrichment activities and write journals based

on the observations.

All of the reports are based on my experiences at the school through

observations, interviews, references and discussion with all the school’s members. I

hope this journal could helps me in order to be a good-quality teacher one day.

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DAY 1: Observing English Language Class

Date : 16th August 2009

Day : Sunday

I have sought permission from an English Language teacher and I was allowed

to observe standard three students in 3 Bestari class. It is the best standard 3 class

among the four classes in the school.

It was an hour period lesson and I looked at the types of communicative activities

used by the teacher in the classroom and teacher’s instructional language and

questioning techniques. I sat at the back of the classroom so that I could see the

teaching and learning process clearly. Also, I took some pictures and interviewed the

teacher for the records what I have observed.

The lesson started at 11 am with the topic ‘Plants’. Teacher started the induction

set with questions and answers session. She asked the students about plants and their

experiences with it. Students’ responses were really good and they love to share their

own stories with the class. Then, she showed a picture of a chili plant and described

clearly about it. She told about the structure of the plant, the colour, the habitat and the

use of it.

After that, teacher divided students into five groups and asked them to draw and

labeled the chili plant on the mahjong paper given with the group members. Teacher

gave students 15 minutes to complete the task. Then, a representative of each group

presented the task and explained about their drawings and share with the class


Later, teacher distributed exercise paper about plants to each student and they

were encouraged to complete the exercise with their peer. They were allowed to

discuss in pair or in groups. After they have done the exercise, teacher discussed the

answer with the whole class and let the volunteers to answer each and every question.

Finally, the class dismissed after a short closure.

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On the whole, I could see that the teacher used many types of communicative

activities. In example, questions and answers session, group work and pair discussion.

The students engaged actively in all the activities and they seem like to enjoy the

lesson. In addition, the teacher’s instructional language was very simple and easy to

understand. Teacher used simple English words and tried her best to used very limited

Bahasa Melayu words. She only used Bahasa Melayu words to translate some complex

English words. The teacher used the simplest way of questioning techniques. She

asked the questions that the answers were very familiar with the students. It is because

she wants students’ responses as many as they could and to encouraged them to

involve in the communication.

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DAY 2: Observing for teacher’s and learner’s roles

Date : 17th August 2009

Day : Monday

On the second day, I get permission to observed standard 4 Cerdas. At this time,

I looked for teacher’s and learner’s roles through teaching and learning process. I have

interviewed the teacher and recorded the data’s through lesson observation form and

captured pictures.

During the observation, I noticed that the teacher used two teaching strategies in

her lesson which is teacher-oriented and learner-centered strategy. Teacher-oriented

strategy was shown at the introduction session of the lesson, teacher referred English

text book and started to teach the topic entitled ‘Sports’. Teacher read the

comprehension dialogue and explained to the students. At this time, teacher is a

controller and performer while the student is the listener or audience. Also, there was

only one way of communication during this time.

Learner-centered strategy was proven when lesson activities started. During the

activities session, teacher asked the student to get in a group and read the dialogue.

Then, they have to choose a representative for their group to make a role-play based on

the dialogue. At this time, teacher’s role was as an observer and a facilitator who

observes and helps students during the role-play. On the other hand, students’ role was

as a performer, presenter and controller. They performed actions as in the dialogue;

they presented their acting creativity and controlled the situation. At this time, there was

two ways of communication process because teacher also helped students in the role-


As a result of my observation, both the teacher and the learners’ roles were

important during the teaching and learning process. This is because both sides have to

play their own role effectively so that both sides could achieve their goal. In this class

situation, the teaching and learning process take place effectively because I could see

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the students were enjoyed doing all the activities and the teacher said she reached her

learning outcomes that day.

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DAY 3: Observing Classroom Management

Date : 18th August 2009

Day : Tuesday

The third day observation was to find out how a teacher manages her classroom

for learning and the different teaching styles. On the day, I get the opportunities to

observe standard 5 Pintar.

Before the class begun, all the students were line up outside the classroom

because the class was at 7.45 am which was after the school bell rang. After they have

done their prayer, they entered the classroom, cleaned up the class and sat at their own

places. Then, teacher entered the classroom and prepared for the lesson. Suddenly,

there was a sound of a phone ringing, “ring ring”. The entire student looked for the

sound and then teacher asked what the sound was. Actually the topic of the lesson of

the day was ‘Getting Connected’ and that was how the teacher gained the pupil’s

attention. Then, teacher explained and gave an overview about the topic.

After that, teacher asked students to take out their ‘E-Book’ or an electronic book

and searched for the topic. Students followed the instruction and read the

comprehension dialogue on the topic. Then, teacher read the dialogue and the whole

students imitated her. Later, teacher called some volunteers to act a role-play in front of

the class. One boy and one girl volunteered themselves to be in the play. The lesson

continued with a group discussion about the topic. Teacher divided students into four

groups and they had to discuss with the group members about the advantages and

disadvantages of telephone. Students were allowed to move around the class and

chose their own working area. They could sat at the back of the classroom, had their

group circle or any kind of discussion style they had preferred. They used their E-book

to access the resources and teacher moved around the class to observe and monitored

the discussion progress. Also, teacher helped and support students who were weak and

work slowly than the others. She explained clearly to them about what they have to do

and get the peers who are work more quickly to help the weak ones. Not only that,

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teacher told the students to raised up their hand if there was any inquiries and came

over to the teacher to get the explanation.

After the discussion time, teacher asked the group representative to present their

group work in front of the class. After all the group had presented their task, teacher

asked all the student to sat at their own places and kept all the apparatus or materials

like the e-book, mahjong paper and marker pens. Then, teacher let the monitor

collected all the group’s tasks and asked them to put it on the class wall. Later, teacher

had a short closure by giving a feedback about their group work and gave reward to the

best group presentation. Lesson ended with a reminder from the teacher to students to

complete their E-book exercise and students lined up outside the class to go to the

computer lab for the next lesson.

Based on my observation, the teacher was able to manage the inappropriate

behavior. It had shown when some of the students were talking during the lesson.

Teacher called the students’ name and asked them what they were talking about. They

automatically stopped talking and focus at the lesson. Also, the teacher gave a

compliment and a reward (sticker) to students who showed a good behavior during the

class. That was the way of the teacher to encourage positive behavior in the classroom.

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DAY 4: Techniques in Teaching Language Skills

Date : 19th August 2009

Day : Wednesday

On the fourth day of my School-Based Experience, I get the chance to observe

Puan Baki Setia English lesson. The purpose of the observation was to see her

techniques in teaching language skills.

As a result of the observation, I noticed that she is a good quality teacher. The

way she brought herself to class was very confident and organized. Her voice projection

was very loud and clear and that was made her looked very sure in her presentation.

Also, she kept an eye contact with all her students to make sure they were focused and

listened to the lesson.

In addition, she asked question frequently and used facial expression and body

movements while teaching. In the other hand, she looked very assertive and care about

the students’ needs. She marked any student who looked confused and not understand

what had she taught and repeated again until the student understood. Not only that, her

production stages looked systematic because she stood in front of the class, at the

center where every student could saw her. Sometimes, she moved around the class to

monitor the students at the back. Also, her presentation time was organized very well

and she could control all her students in a time.

The topic of the lesson was ‘Animal and Us’ and the students were learning

about ‘Pet’. Puan Baki Setia integrated all the four language skills which were listening,

speaking, reading and writing in her lesson. She started the lesson with reading skill

where all of the students read the comprehension text in their E-book. Then, she used a

radio and let the students hear to a dialogue and animals sounds. She asked the

students about the dialogue and sounds they heard and let the students to guess what

the sound was. Later, she got back to the comprehension dialogue and called three

students to read out loud the dialogue. After that, she discussed about the

comprehension dialogue with the students and explained to them what all was about.

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The lesson continued with writing activity where student had to write a short essay

about their favourite pet.

In addition, grammar and vocabulary also integrated in her lesson. She

requested the students brought a dictionary every time during English lesson. That was

because she wanted her students to learn grammar and vocabulary on their own. They

were encouraged to search in the dictionary for the word that they do not understand.

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DAY 5: Types of Remedial and Enrichment Activities

Date : 20th August 2009

Day : Thursday

I have collected the samples of remedial and enrichment worksheets from the

teacher I have observed. The remedial and enrichments materials are for standard 5

students. I have compared and contrast both worksheets.


i. Both worksheets are based on students’ ability. Enrichment worksheet is for

students who learn quickly and remedial worksheet is for students who are

slower than others.

ii. Both worksheets are based on mastery-learning where the students have to

master every level from bottom to reach the top level.

iii. The reasons to complete the worksheets are to identify students’ ability, level of

understanding, their strengths and weaknesses.

iv. Teacher could use the worksheets as a testimony of students’ records of

achievements or failure, other than examination papers.

v. The worksheets are based on English syllabus and both are created by the


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Enrichment Remedial

i. Set for the high-flyer i. Set for the weak achiever

ii. The task is difficult and challenging ii. The task is easy and


iii. Helps to polish students’ strengths iii. Helps to enhance students’


iv. Difficulty level of task increase

when student mastered a level

iv. The exercise repeats until students

master the topic/level.

v. To encourage students to be more

interested in learning.

v. To teach strategies for coping with

future difficulties.

vi. Enhance a student’s education by

bringing new concepts to light or

using old concepts in new ways.

vi. To close the gap between the

students in the class.

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Five days of School-Based Experience in Sekolah Kebangsaan Bukit Sawa,

Terengganu have given me a lot of information, experiences, knowledge, skills, and

have changed my impression towards many things such as students’ ability, teacher’s

credibility, schools’ environment and school’s facilities.

I felt very happy and thankful because I have given the chance to observe and

learnt many things from the observations. I learned many things through the observation

and interviews on the first day. As a teacher, I have to know how to create the activities

for my students. Teacher should know the abilities of his/her students because not all of

them have the same abilities. Some of the students are weak and some are excellent.

Also, teacher should know how to make student involve actively in the teaching and

learning process so that the teaching and learning goals could be achieve.

On the second day, I could see the relationship or repo between the teacher and

her students. She tried her best to make the students engaged actively in the teaching

and learning process. Teacher’s role was as a coordinator, instructor, and sometimes

as a friend to the students. On the other hand, learner’s role was as a listener, an

audience, a performer and sometimes as a ‘teacher’ to the others. I have learnt that as

a teacher, I should know how to play my role in the class. I have to create the activities

creatively so that both sides (teacher and student) could play their role actively in class.

The third day of observation of standard 5 Pintar has changed a bit of my

impression towards school’s kids. My assumption was standard 5 students could

behave themselves appropriately in class because they were big enough. Actually, it

was wrong because it was not easy to control them! I learnt many things about

classroom management from the teacher that day. When the teacher walked in to the

class, automatically the class were soundless and everyone seem like were ready for

the lesson. I have asked the teacher how she copes with the students, and she said that

as a teacher we should be assertive and be strict to the students in the right way. Not

only that, I have noticed that the way of the teacher ‘keep in touch’ with the students

during the lesson were very good. She kept an eye-contact with the entire students in

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the class and always interacts actively with them. Also, she used a reward technique in

avoiding potential behavior problem.

My observation continued until the fourth day where I have to look for teacher’s

techniques in teaching language skills. Puan Baki Setia credibility is very good and

high-quality. I have learnt many things from her teaching and learning techniques. The

way she presented her lesson in the class was very organized and systematic. She

looked very confident with herself. Also, her voice projection, body language and facial

expression were excellent and interesting. So, as a teacher, I should follow her style of

presentation so that my lesson could be interesting and motivating.

As a result of my School-Based Experience, I was very surprised when the first

time I knew that each student in standard five could have their own ‘E-book’ or an

electronic book. They were using the E-book in their lesson without using a text book.

The E-book was given by The Ministry of State Education Terengganu to all the

standard five students in Terengganu started this year. The best part was it is free! How

lucky they are. I felt very thankful and excited during the five days in Sekolah

Kebangsaan Bukit Sawa because I have given the chance to learn many things from

head to toe. I hope I could apply all the experiences, knowledge and skills I have learnt

throughout the School-Based Experience later, when I have become a real graduated


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