Presentation_ID 1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Chapter 4: Network Access

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  • Slide 1
  • Presentation_ID 1 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Chapter 4: Network Access
  • Slide 2
  • Presentation_ID 2 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential 4.1 Physical Layer Protocols
  • Slide 3
  • Presentation_ID 3 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network
  • Slide 4
  • Presentation_ID 4 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network (cont.)
  • Slide 5
  • Presentation_ID 5 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Getting it Connected Network Interface Cards Connecting to the Wireless LAN with a Range Extender
  • Slide 6
  • Presentation_ID 6 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Purpose of the Physical Layer The Physical Layer
  • Slide 7
  • Presentation_ID 7 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Purpose of the Physical Layer Physical Layer Media
  • Slide 8
  • Presentation_ID 8 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Purpose of the Physical Layer Physical Layer Standards Standard Organization Networking Standards ISO ISO 8877: Officially adopted the RJ connectors (e.g., RJ-11, RJ-45) ISO 11801: Network cabling standard similar to EIA/TIA 568. EIA/TIA TIA-568-C: Telecommunications cabling standards, used by nearly all voice, video and data networks. TIA-569-B: Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces TIA-598-C: Fiber optic color coding TIA-942: Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers ANSI 568-C: RJ-45 pinouts. Co-developed with EIA/TIA ITU-T G.992: ADSL IEEE 802.3: Ethernet 802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) 802.15: Bluetooth
  • Slide 9
  • Presentation_ID 9 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Physical Layer Fundamental Principles Media Physical Components Frame Encoding Technique Signalling Method Copper Cable UTP Coaxial Connectors NICs Ports Interfaces Manchester Encoding Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) techniques 4B/5B codes are used with Multi-Level Transition Level 3 (MLT-3) signaling 8B/10B PAM5 Changes in the electromagnetic field Intensity of the electromagnetic field Phase of the electromagnetic wave Fiber Optic Cable Single-mode Fiber Multimode Fiber Connectors NICs Interfaces Lasers and LEDs Photoreceptors Pulses of light Wavelength multiplexing using different colors A pulse equals 1. No pulse is 0. Wireless Media Access Points NICs Radio Antennae DSSS (direct-sequence spread-spectrum) OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) Radio waves
  • Slide 10
  • Presentation_ID 10 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Bandwidth
  • Slide 11
  • Presentation_ID 11 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Throughput
  • Slide 12
  • Presentation_ID 12 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Types of Physical Media Gigabit Ethernet Interfaces SHDSL Interface Management Ports FastEthernet Switch Ports USB Mini-B Connector USB Type A Connector
  • Slide 13
  • Presentation_ID 13 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential 4.2 Network Media
  • Slide 14
  • Presentation_ID 14 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Copper Cabling Characteristics of Copper Media
  • Slide 15
  • Presentation_ID 15 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Copper Cabling Copper Media Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Coaxial Cable
  • Slide 16
  • Presentation_ID 16 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Copper Cabling UTP Cable
  • Slide 17
  • Presentation_ID 17 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Copper Cabling STP Cable Foil Shields Braided or Foil Shield
  • Slide 18
  • Presentation_ID 18 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Copper Cabling Coaxial Cable
  • Slide 19
  • Presentation_ID 19 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Copper Cabling Cooper Media Safety
  • Slide 20
  • Presentation_ID 20 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential UTP Cabling Properties of UTP Cabling UTP cable does not use shielding to counter the effects of EMI and RFI. Instead, cable designers have discovered that they can limit the negative effect of crosstalk by: Cancellation Varying the number of twists per wire pair
  • Slide 21
  • Presentation_ID 21 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential UTP Cabling UTP Cabling Standards
  • Slide 22
  • Presentation_ID 22 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential UTP Cabling UTP Connectors
  • Slide 23
  • Presentation_ID 23 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential UTP Cabling Types of UTP Cable
  • Slide 24
  • Presentation_ID 24 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential UTP Cabling Testing UTP Cables After installation, a UTP cable tester should be used to test for the following parameters: Wire map Cable length Signal loss due to attenuation Crosstalk
  • Slide 25
  • Presentation_ID 25 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fiber Optic Cabling Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber-optic cabling is now being used in four types of industry: Enterprise Networks Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and Access Networks Long-Haul Networks Submarine Networks
  • Slide 26
  • Presentation_ID 26 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber Media Cable Design
  • Slide 27
  • Presentation_ID 27 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fiber Optic Cabling Types of Fiber Media
  • Slide 28
  • Presentation_ID 28 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fiber Optic Cabling Network Fiber Connectors
  • Slide 29
  • Presentation_ID 29 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fiber Optic Cabling Testing Fiber Cables
  • Slide 30
  • Presentation_ID 30 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber versus Copper Implementation IssuesCopper MediaFibre Optic Bandwidth Supported 10 Mbps 10 Gbps10 Mbps 100 Gbps Distance Relatively short (1 100 meters) Relatively High (1 100,000 meters) Immunity To EMI And RFI Low High (Completely immune) Immunity To Electrical Hazards Low High (Completely immune) Media And Connector Costs LowestHighest Installation Skills Required LowestHighest Safety Precautions LowestHighest
  • Slide 31
  • Presentation_ID 31 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Wireless Media Properties of Wireless Media Wireless does have some areas of concern including: Coverage area Interference Security
  • Slide 32
  • Presentation_ID 32 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential IEEE 802.11 standards Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi. Uses CSMA/CA Variations include: 802.11a: 54 Mbps, 5 GHz 802.11b: 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz 802.11g: 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz 802.11n: 600 Mbps, 2.4 and 5 GHz 802.11ac: 1 Gbps, 5 GHz 802.11ad: 7 Gbps, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHz IEEE 802.15 standard Supports speeds up to 3 Mb/s Provides device pairing over distances from 1 to 100 meters. IEEE 802.16 standard Provides speeds up to 1 Gbps Uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide wireless broadband access. Wireless Media Types of Wireless Media
  • Slide 33
  • Presentation_ID 33 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Wireless Media Wireless LAN Cisco Linksys EA6500 802.11ac Wireless Router
  • Slide 34
  • Presentation_ID 34 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Wireless Media 802.11 Wi-Fi Standards Standard Maximum Speed Frequency Backwards Compatible 802.11a 54 Mbps5 GHzNo 802.11b 11 Mbps2.4 GHzNo 802.11g 54 Mbps2.4 GHz802.11b 802.11n 600 Mbps2.4 GHz or 5 GHz802.11b/g 802.11ac 1.3 Gbps (1300 Mbps) 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz 802.11b/g/n 802.11ad 7 Gbps (7000 Mbps) 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 60 GHz 802.11b/g/n/ac
  • Slide 35
  • Presentation_ID 35 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential 4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols
  • Slide 36
  • Presentation_ID 36 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Purpose of the Data Link Layer The Data Link Layer
  • Slide 37
  • Presentation_ID 37 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Purpose of the Data Link Layer Data Link Sublayers Network Data Link LLC Sublayer MAC Sublayer Physical 802.3 Ethernet 802.3 Ethernet 802.11 Wi-Fi 802.11 Wi-Fi 802.15 Bluetooth 802.15 Bluetooth
  • Slide 38
  • Presentation_ID 38 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Purpose of the Data Link Layer Media Access Control The Data Link Layer
  • Slide 39
  • Presentation_ID 39 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Purpose of the Data Link Layer Providing Access to Media
  • Slide 40
  • Presentation_ID 40 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Layer Formatting Data for Transmission
  • Slide 41
  • Presentation_ID 41 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Layer 2 Frame Structure Creating a Frame
  • Slide 42
  • Presentation_ID 42 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Layer 2 Standards Data Link Layer Standards Standard organization Networking Standards IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control (LLC) 802.3: Ethernet 802.4: Token bus 802.5: Token passing 802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) 802.15: Bluetooth 802.16: WiMax ITU-T G.992: ADSL G.8100 - G.8199: MPLS over Transport aspects Q.921: ISDN Q.922: Frame Relay ISO HDLC (High Level Data Link Control) ISO 9314: FDDI Media Access Control (MAC) ANSI X3T9.5 and X3T12: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
  • Slide 43
  • Presentation_ID 43 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Topologies Controlling Access to the Media
  • Slide 44
  • Presentation_ID 44 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Topologies Physical and Logical Topologies
  • Slide 45
  • Presentation_ID 45 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Topologies Physical and Logical Topologies (cont.)
  • Slide 46
  • Presentation_ID 46 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential WAN Topologies Common Physical WAN Topologies
  • Slide 47
  • Presentation_ID 47 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential WAN Topologies Physical Point-to-Point Topology
  • Slide 48
  • Presentation_ID 48 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential WAN Topologies Logical Point-to-Point Topology
  • Slide 49
  • Presentation_ID 49 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential WAN Topologies Half- and Full-Duplex Half-Duplex Full-Duplex
  • Slide 50
  • Presentation_ID 50 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential LAN Topologies Physical LAN Topologies
  • Slide 51
  • Presentation_ID 51 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential LAN Topologies Logical Topology for Shared Media
  • Slide 52
  • Presentation_ID 52 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential LAN Topologies Contention-Based Access CharacteristicsContention-Based Technologies Stations can transmit at any time Collision exist There are mechanisms to resolve contention for the media CSMA/CD for 802.3 Ethernet networks CSMA/CA for 802.11 wireless networks
  • Slide 53
  • Presentation_ID 53 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential LAN Topologies Multi-Access Topology
  • Slide 54
  • Presentation_ID 54 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential LAN Topologies Controlled Access CharacteristicsControlled Access Technologies Only one station can transmit at a time Devices wanting to transmit must wait their turn No collisions May use a token passing method Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) FDDI
  • Slide 55
  • Presentation_ID 55 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential LAN Topologies Ring Topology
  • Slide 56
  • Presentation_ID 56 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Frame The Frame
  • Slide 57
  • Presentation_ID 57 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Frame The Header
  • Slide 58
  • Presentation_ID 58 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Frame Layer 2 Address
  • Slide 59
  • Presentation_ID 59 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Frame The Trailer
  • Slide 60
  • Presentation_ID 60 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Frame LAN and WAN Frames
  • Slide 61
  • Presentation_ID 61 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Frame Ethernet Frame
  • Slide 62
  • Presentation_ID 62 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Frame Point-to-Point Protocol Frame
  • Slide 63
  • Presentation_ID 63 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Frame 802.11 Wireless Frame
  • Slide 64
  • Presentation_ID 64 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Data Link Frame 802.11 Wireless Frame Protocol Version field: Version of 802.11 frame in use Type and Subtype fields: Identifies one of three functions and sub functions of the frame: control, data, and management To DS field: Set to 1 in data frames destined for the distribution system (devices in the wireless structure) From DS field: Set to 1 in data frames exiting the distribution system More Fragments field: Set to 1 for frames that have another fragment Retry field: Set to 1 if the frame is a retransmission o...

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