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PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT TENSE TENSE ( P.P. ( P.P. T.) T.)

Present perfect rules

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Page 1: Present perfect rules

PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT TENSETENSE

( P.P.T.)( P.P.T.)

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Songs

U2

Creedence

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• I have climbed highest mountain I have run through the fields Only to be with you Only to be with you

I have run I have crawled I have scaled these city walls These city walls Only to be with you

But I still haven't found what I'm looking for ( 2X )

• I have kissed honey lips Felt the healing in her fingertips It burned like fire This burning desire

• I have spoke with the tongue of angels I have held the hand of a devil It was warm in the night I was cold as a stone

But I still haven't found what I'm looking for ( 2X )

I believe in the kingdom come Then all the colors will bleed into one Bleed into one Well yes I'm still running

You broke the bonds and you Loosed the chains Carried the cross Of my shame Of my shame You know I believed it

But I still haven't found what I'm looking for

I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For

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HAVE YOU EVER SEEN THE RAIN ?

• Someone told me long ago• There's a calm before the storm,

I know; It's been comin' for some time.When it's over, so they say, It'll rain a sunny day,I know; Shinin' down like water.

• CHORUS: I want to know, Have you ever seen the rain?I want to know, Have you ever seen the rainComin' down on a sunny day?

• Yesterday, and days before, Sun is cold and rain is hard,I know; Been that way for all my time.'Til forever, on it goes Through the circle, fast and slow,I know; It can't stop, I wonder.

• CHORUS

• Yeah!

• CHORUS

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The formula of P.P.T. is this :

Have ______________ Has Past participle

+

They have been to N.Y.She has eaten frog´s leg.You haven’t studied a lot.

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past participle

• see saw seen• buy bought bought

• go went gone• eat ate eaten

• come came come

• swim swam swum

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Contracted forms• I’ve

• You’ve

• He’s

• She’s seen a ghost

• it’s

• We’ve

• They’ve

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Interrogative form• You have traveled to Japan twice. (aff)

• Have you traveled to Japan twice?

(interrogative)

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Have you traveled to Japan twice?

• Yes, I have.

• No, I haven’t.

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Negative form

• I have visited the Taj Mahal.

• I have .... visited the Taj Mahal.

• I have NOT visited the Taj Mahal.

• I haven’t seen you for weeks !

• He hasn’t arrived home.

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Indefinite time

• We use PPT to indicate an action that happened in the past but we don’t know exactly when. ( indefinitive time ). The verb in Portuguese is in the past .

• Eg.:

• He has bought a car. ( When ? )

• They have been to Europe. ( When ? )

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Indefinite TimeIndefinite Time

I have been to New York. ( When ?? )

She has eaten frog´s leg. ( When ?? )

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An action started in the past

• We use PPT to indicate an action that began in the past and continues up to the present. (the verb in Portuguese is in the present).

• Eg.:

• I’ve lived in Limeira for three years.

• She has studied English since January.

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• I have worked here since last year.

( How long? )

• She has played tennis for 10 years.

( How long? )

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SINCESINCEFORFOR

I have studied here since 1.999.

I have studied here for 5 years.

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PRESENT PERFECT + PRESENT PERFECT + for, for, sincesince

Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its starting point, with since + a point in time.

Since + a point in time:since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o'clock.

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SINCE

I’ve ridden a bike since I was a child.

I’ve ridden a bike since I was 12.

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•She has lived here since 1980.

•We have taught at this school since 1965.

•Alice has been married since March 2nd.

•They have been at the hotel since last week.

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Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time

before now by considering its duration, with for + a

period of time.

For + a period of time:for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two

hours.

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FOR

They’ve been married for 1 year.

They’ve dated for 3 years.

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• She has lived here for twenty years.

• We have taught at this school for a long time.

•Alice has been married for three months.

• They have been at the hotel for a week.

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•Note:

• For and since can both be used with the past perfect.

• Since can only be used with perfect tenses, for can also be used with the simple past

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I’VE STUDIED ENGLISH SINCE...

FOR....

.

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An action just completed

• We use PPT to indicate an action that has just been completed.

• Eg.:

• He has just arrived.

• They have just finished their exercises.

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JUSTJUST

I have just finished my exercise.

He has just had lunch.

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A time not finished

• We use PPT to indicate an action that finished, in a time that hasn’t finished yet.( The verb in Portuguese is in the past )

• Eg.:

• I’ve been to the movies today.

• She has done the shopping this afternoon.

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This / TodayThis / Today

They are used to identify a time that began in the past and hasn’t finished yet.

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I have watched “ Harry Potter ” this year.

She has seen Tony this weekend.

I have been to school today.

Today she has studied a lot.

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I went to school this morning.

I have gone to school this morning.

Which one is correct?

?

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BOTH are correct !!

I went to school this morning.

( now is more than midday, the morning has already finished !!)

I have gone to school this morning.

( now is still morning, it hasn’t finished yet !!)

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J ust E verA lreadyN everS inceF or Y et

Pay attention to these words :

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YETYET

Have you taken a shower yet ?

No, I haven’t taken it yet.

INTERROGATIVE

YET

NEGATIVE

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YET

• We use yet to show that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences.

• Has it stopped raining yet ?• Have you finished the homework yet ?• I’ve written the letter but I haven’t

posted it yet.

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ALREADYALREADY

I have already taken a shower.

AFFIRMATIVE

ALREADY

INTERROGATIVE

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ALREADY

• We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected.

• Don’t forget to post the letter ! I’ve already posted it.

• What time is Mark leaving ?He’s already gone.

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AlreadyAlready refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition.

• I've alreadyalready drunk three coffees this morning.(and you're offering me another one!)

• Don't write to John, I've alreadyalready done it.

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It is also used in questions:

•Have you alreadyalready written to John?

• Has she finished her homework alreadyalready?

Position:

alreadyalready can be placed before the main verb

(past participle) or at the end of the sentence:

• I have alreadyalready been to Tokyo.

• I have been to Tokyo alreadyalready.

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YetYet is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now

and now, (not) up to and including the present.

• Have you met Judy yetyet?

•I haven't visited the Tate Gallery yetyet.

• Has he arrived yetyet?

•They haven't eaten yetyet.

Position:YetYet is usually placed at the end of the sentence.

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Have you alreadyalready eaten lobster?

No, I haven’t eaten it yetyet.

Have you eaten shrimp yetyet?

Yes, I have alreadyalready eaten it.

MD

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EVEREVERNEVERNEVER

Have you ever ridden a horse?

I have never ridden a horse.

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EVER AND NEVER

• Have you ever studied German? No, I’ve never studied German.

• Has she ever been to the USA ? No, she has never been to the USA

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Have you ever seen a witch?

No, I haven’t.I’ve never seen a witch.

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Have you ever sung in a choir?

Yes, I have.

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The adverbs ever and never express the idea

of an unidentified time before now

Have you ever visited Berlin?

'Ever' is used

a. in questions. Have you ever been to England?Has she ever met the Prime Minister?

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b. in negative questions

Haven't they ever been to Europe? Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food?

c. and in negative statements using the

pattern nothing.......ever, nobody.......ever

Nobody has ever said that to me before. Nothing like this has ever happened to us.

d. 'Ever' is also used with 'The first time.... It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails. This is the first time I've ever been to England.

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'Never' means at no time before now, and is the same as not ..... ever:

I have never visited Berlin

BE CAREFUL!You must not use never and not together:

I haven't never been to Italy. I have never been to Italy.

Ever and Never are always placed before

the main verb ( past participle )

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To fail - failed - failed

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To dance - danced - danced ballet

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To drive - drove - driven

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To have - had - had

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To fly - flew - flown

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To receive - d - d

a love letter

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Chess set

To have - had - had

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wallet

To find - found - found

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To lose - lost - lost

Something valuable

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And there are more words...

Lately / Recently / for a while

I haven’t seen him lately.She has practiced tennis recently.You haven’t tried it for a while.

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... and more ,

Once / twice / 3 times / 4 times / etc.

We have fought once.

He has traveled to Chicago twice.

I have had a cold 3 times this year.

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Have you ever eaten PRETZELS ?

• No. I’ve never eaten pretzels.

• Yes, I have already eaten pretzels.

• No, I haven’t eaten pretzels. yet.

• Yes, I have just eaten pretzels.

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Let’s practice

• I have ________ some muffins.

(eaten/ate)

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• They have ________ a nice cocktail.

(drunk/drank)

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• Mr Jones has ______ nice book.

(read/readen)

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• We’ve _________ to the circus. (gone/went)

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• He’s _________ under the tree.

(slept/sleeps)

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• Have you ______ seen a mummy? (ever/yet)

• I’ve ______ eaten snails.

• (never/ever)

• Doug has _______ had his breakfast. (already/yet)

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• Have you finished your work ______? (already/yet)

• Have you _______ called Susan? (already/yet)

• Jack has ______ gone to work. (just/yet)

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Make up sentences...

• NEVER

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• ALREADY - AFF.

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• EVER

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• NEVER

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Simple Past Simple Past or or

Present PerfectPresent Perfect

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• Simple Past Completed events at a definite time in the past:

• Yesterday• Last Saturday• Last night• Last

weekend/week• Last month• Last semester• Last year

• Present Perfect Events with a time period up to the present:

• This weekend/week

• This month• This year• Recently• Lately• Today• Once/twice/three

times

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Compare these sentences

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• Have you ever had a picnic with friends ?

• Did you have a picnic last weekend ?

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• Have you ever eaten snails ?

• Did you eat snails last night ?

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Have you ever tried seafood ?

Did you eat seafood yesterday ?

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Have you ever eaten frog’s leg ?

Did you eat frog’s leg last week ?

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Have you ever had dinner at the restaurant with a friend ?

Did you have dinner at the restaurant last night ?

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Have you ever tried snails ?

Did you try snails last weekend ?

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Have you ever visited New York ?

Did you visit New York last year ?

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Have you ever eaten an American breakfast ?

Did you eat an American breakfast in Los Angeles last vacation ?

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• Have you ever kissed someone in public ?

• Did you kiss someone in public last weekend ?

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• Have you ever been to a drive-in movie ?

• Did you go to a drive-in movie last Saturday ?

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• Have you ever driven an old car ?

• Did you drive an old car last month ?

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Let’s PracticeLet’s Practice

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Use: Present Perfect

• Have you ever had an American breakfast ?

• Have you ever had eggs and bacon for breakfast ?

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Use: Simple Past

• Did you visit Rio de Janeiro last year ?

• Did you travel to Rio on your last vacation ?

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Use: Present Perfect

• Have you ever played a musical instrument ?

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Use: Present Perfect and Simple Past

• Have you ever been to Rome ?

• Did you visit Rome on your last vacation ?

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Use: Simple Past

• Did you have a barbecue at home last holiday ?

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Use: Present Perfect

•Have you ever fried an egg ?

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Use: Simple Past

• Did you drive your father’s car yesterday ?

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Use: Present Perfect

• Have you ever traveled by plane ?

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Write down the sentences. Use present perfect. Example:

Snoopy / climb / onto his house. Snoopy has climbed onto his house.

1 Brian / play / football

2 Susan / read / her new book

3 I / find / some money in the street

4 Mr and Mrs Baker / have / an accident

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5 Tom Davis / win / the volleyball match

6 Alison Brown / lose / the swimming match

7 Mr Martin / make / breakfast for the boys

8 The girls / bring / some wood for the fire

9 The Snows / buy / a van for their holidays

10 Mrs Black / wash / the dishes

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11 The dog / eat / bone.

12 Fred / write / a letter.

13 The singer / sing / a song.

14 My friend and I/ meet/ the famous actor.

15 Titanic / sink / in the ocean.

16 The teachers / teach / the lesson.

17 The players / play / recently.

18 The cat / scratch / the sofa.MD

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SIMPLE PASTSIMPLE PAST

OROR

PRESENT PERFECTPRESENT PERFECT

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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1. I ______________a great film yesterday. (see)

2. ________________a new car? (you ever buy)

3. Sue ______________the flu last winter. (have)

4. A few days ago we ______to his uncle. (drive)

5. They ____ bingo Wednesday afternoon. (play)

6. _________the bus to get there. (already take)

7. Last week my rabbit ___________away. (run)

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8. We ________________a lot last Sunday. (do)

9. ___________________to India? (she ever be)

10. I _______________him last Monday. (meet)

11. She __________________yet. (not wake up)

12. I _______her since last Thursday. (not meet)

13. Bob _______________well last night. (sleep)

14. I _____a letter from her two days ago. (get)

15. They ________ in Germany. (already arrive)

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EXERCISES P.P.T.SINCE - FOR

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1 I haven't been to Italy____________ 10 years.

2 She has lived in Paris _____________January.

3 Jim has studied__________ three hours. Now he is tired.

4 My friend has been ill __________a long time.

5 I haven't seen him____________ Easter.

6 He hasn't had a holiday __________last summer.

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7 The pilots have been on strike___ two months.

8 We've had terrible weather ________Saturday.

9 I've known Tom __________1990.

10 He hasn't done any work _________a month.

11 We have had this car _________1998.

12 We have been here __________ two hours.

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13 She hasn't written _________Christmas.

14 Carol hasn't eaten meat ___________ages.

15 We worked in his office _______three years.

16__________ how long have they lived here?

17 Nobody has seen him _________ last Friday.

18 It has been foggy ___________ some days.

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ARE YOU EXPERIENCED ?

• Extra paper

Page 104: Present perfect rules

PPT – drills

• DrillsPPT#1.doc – exercises ( word )

• Present perfect – exercises ( word )

Page 105: Present perfect rules

sites

• http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/pres_perf.htm

• http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/presentperfect.html

• http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/2527/presentperfect.html

• http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/present-perfect-simple

Page 106: Present perfect rules

• http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/prperf1.htm

• http://www.learnenglish.be/EX_gram2_prpe.htm

• http://www.eclecticenglish.com/grammar/PresentPerfect1A.html

• http://www.english-4u.de/grammar_exercises.htm