Objectives: Students will be able to: 1. Identify plant parts, where seeds come from and how they grow. 2. Determine what plants need to survive 3. Recognize how plants are a benefit to people and our planet.
Parts of the treeaxil - the angle between the upper side of the stem and a leaf, branch, or petiole. axillary bud - a bud that develops in the axil. flower - the reproductive unit of angiosperms. flower stalk - the structure that supports the flower. internode - the area of the stem between any two adjacent nodes. lateral shoot (branch) - an offshoot of the stem of a plant. leaf - an outgrowth of a plant that grows from a node in the stem. Most leaves are flat and contain chloroplasts; their main function is to convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy (food) through photosynthesis. node - the part of the stem of a plant from which a leaf, branch, or aerial root grows; each plant has many nodes. Label the two lower nodes (the first and second nodes) on the plant diagram.
Parts of the treeroot - a root is a plant structure that obtains food and water from the soil, stores energy, and provides support for the plant. Most roots grow underground. root cap - a structure at the ends (tips) of the roots. It covers and protects the apical meristem (the actively growing region) of the root. stem - (also called the axis) is the main support of the plant. tap root - the main root of some plants; the tap root extends straight down under the plant. terminal bud - a bud located at the apex (tip) of the stem. Terminal buds have special tissue, called apical meristem, consisting
Simple Leaf External Anatomy Diagram
axil - the angle between the upper side of the stem and a leaf or petiole. lamina - the blade of a leaf. leaf apex - the outer end of a leaf; the end that is opposite the petiole. midrib - the central rib of a leaf - it is usually continuous with the petiole. petiole - a leaf stalk; it attaches the leaf to the plant. stem - (also called the axis) the main support of the plant. stipule - the small, paired appendages (sometimes leaf-life) that are found at the base of the petiole of leaves of many flowering plants. vein - one of the many vascular structures on a leaf. Veins provide supports for the leaf and transport both water and food through the leaf.
Activities: What is a seed? 1. Look inside a seed. A. Soak a lima bean in water over night. Use a hand lens to examine the outside of the seed. Try to peel off the seed covering. Split the seed in halves. Look for the parts showing the chart. Draw the bean. Write the names of the parts of the seed. Students will look inside seeds to discover the beginning of a plant, and will discuss elements that plants need to grow. Objectives: Students will look inside a seed to discover the beginning of a plant Students will discuss elements that are important for plants to grow - air, water, food Materials: beans; soak in water overnight magnifying glasses illustration of lima bean with baby plant inside divide children into cooperative groups, if desired Part 2 - ziploc bags, wet paper towels
Plan: Motivation: How does a plant begin? Ask students for thoughts and predictions. How does a seed turn into a plant? Tell them that scientists make predictions and study things to find answers to their questions. Today you are going to be a scientist. Activity: Give each student a seed, lima bean, that has been soaked in water so it is easier to open. Show them how to open the seeds carefully. (They fall apart, so you must be gentle!) Ask students to see if they can find out how a seed turns into a plant. After looking on their own, have them help friends find out why. Have them talk about it with their groups as they look. Make sure every child sees a baby plant. Closure: Come back to the carpet and have students discuss their conclusions. Show the illustration of the parts of a seed including the baby plant, seed coat, and plant food. Extending the Activity: Now that we know where a plant begins, can it grow where we left it? What does it need to grow? What are some things that you need to grow? Water, food, sunlight - we don't know for sure, so we are going to be scientists again to find the answer to our questions.
Parts of the seed
embryo - developing plant still inside the seed. The embryo has cotyledons (embryonic leaves), a root cap, a food source and a plumule (shoot). hilum - the scar on a seed coat at the location where it was attached to the plant's stalk during development micropyle - the small pore in a seed that that allows water absorption root (hypocotyl) - the part of the stem of a sprouting plant that is above the root and below the stalk of the cotyledon (seed leaves) seed coat (testa) - seed coat is the outer, protective layer covering the seed seed leaf (cotyledon) - the embryonic leaf within a seed plumule - the shoot of a embryo
cotyledon - (also called seed leaves) the embryonic leaf within a seed. Dicots (plants like the bean plant above) have two cotyledons. first true leaves - the first two leaves of the plant that emerge from the cotyledon. These leaves are the first to begin the process of photosynthesis. hypocotyl - the part of the stem of a sprouting plant that is above the roots and below the stalk of the cotyledons. primary root - the main, thick part of the root (and the first part to grow). secondary root - small roots that grow from the primary root seed coat - the outer, protective layer that covers the seed. It is shed after the bean sprouts.
Sprouting bean Germination
Science Activities - Plant Germination (From Seed to Plant ) Plant beans, lentils or grass seeds in a small container and let your children watch them grow. Bean seeds will germinate in damp cotton wool, which makes the stages of germination easy to observe. Place one bean in a dark cupboard for a few days and let the children see what happens. Stop watering another one and observe the results.
Seeds come in all shapes and sizes. 2. Most plants come from seeds. Display seeds that come from all kinds of plants: acorns, poppies, carrots, lettuce, rice, watermelon, nuts, etc.A. Measure the bulk of different kinds of seeds. Do an estimating activity allowing the children to guess which seeds will fill more of a small cup. (Sunflower, watermelon and marigold seeds are great for this project because they are easy to handle). B. Some seeds grow from other plant parts (tubers). Onions makes parts that turn unto bulbs and new plants. The bulbs are the part we eat. Show the children some of the foods that we eat that are bulbs. (potato, onions etc.) C. Show the children a lunch box and a peanut. Ask them what the two things have in common. Explain that the shell of the peanut is the box and the inside is the lunch. D. Create seed collages. E. Roast pumpkinseeds.
How do seeds travel? 3. The wind, animals (bury and or deposit seeds by their droppings) are just some of the ways seeds travel. C. Have the children take off their shoes and then go on a hike around the school or park. When you get back to class, have the children examine their socks to see what kind of seeds are stuck to the socks. What do seeds need to grow? 4. Lead a discussion by starting with "What do children need to grow?" Then, ask the students what they think plants might need.A. Sprout a seed in a jar/clear plastic cup with wet paper towels. A bean seed works great for this. B. Put some of the seeds in a windowsill to sprout. Put others in a dark corner. Discuss with the children, which of the seeds they think will grow the best. Check and show the children periodically. C. Have the children estimate how long it will take the seeds to germinate. Chart the growth of the seedlings after they sprout. Plant them in the soil when they become too large for the jar. I have potted them in the past, and made houseplants out of them.
Discuss the job of the root system. A. Pass around enough straws and paper cups for each child.B. Tell the children they are the plants and the straws are the roots. This is a great explanation for the next experiment. C. Bring in celery or a carnation and show the children the power of the roots. D. Add colored water to a glass with the celery/carnation in it, and watch for the next few days as the celery/carnation changes colors. You might pre-start one to show what will happen. E. Let the children pantomime plant growth.
Plant Parts We Love to Eat. People and animals eat the fruits of some plants and the seeds of some, and the leaves of others. Chart on the chalkboard the different parts of plants that people can eat. Then let the children fill in as many foods that they can think of. Imagine a world without plants. What would we eat? Write a story. People Need Plants. E. What benefits do people and animals get from plants? Let the children brainstorm the many 'things' we get from plants. Fibers, food, medicine, wood, fuel, paper, etc.F. B. Have the children fold a blank piece of white art paper into eight squares. Let the children illustrate eight different things they know we get from plants. G. Graph all the items that the children have put on their charts. Tally which items are the most common, unusual, etc.
The Flower: The flower is the reproductive unit of some plants (angiosperms). Parts of the flower include petals, sepals, one or more carpels (the female reproductive organs), and stamens (the male reproductive organs). The Female Reproductive Organs: The pistil is the collective term for the carpel(s). Each carpel includes an ovary (where the ovules are produced; ovules are the female reproductive cells, the eggs), a style (a tube on top of the ovary), and a stigma (which receives the pollen during fertilization). The Male Reproductive Organs: Stamens are the male reproductive parts of flowers. A stamen consists of an anther (which produces pollen) a