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Pre AP Biology DNA Control Mechanisms

Pre AP Biology DNA Control Mechanisms. Francois Jacob (sitting) & Jacques Monod (standing)

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Pre AP Biology

DNA Control Mechanisms

Francois Jacob (sitting) & Jacques Monod (standing)

Operon Regulation

Promoter Promoter

DNA trpR

Regulatorygene

RNApolymerase

mRNA

Protein Inactiverepressor

Tryptophan absent, repressor inactive, operon on

mRNA 5¢

trpE trpD trpC trpB trpA

OperatorStart codonStop codon

trp operon

Genes of operon

E

Polypeptides that make upenzymes for tryptophan synthesis

D C B A

Operon Repressor

DNA

Protein

Tryptophan(corepressor)

Tryptophan present, repressor active, operon off

mRNA

Activerepressor

No RNA made

Repressor

DNA lacl

Regulatorygene

mRNA

RNApolymerase

ProteinActiverepressor

NoRNAmade

lacZ

Promoter

Operator

Lactose absent, repressor active, operon off

Operon and Inducers

DNA lacl

mRNA5¢

lac operon

Lactose present, repressor inactive, operon on

lacZ lacY lacA

RNApolymerase

mRNA 5¢

Protein

Allolactose(inducer)

Inactiverepressor

-Galactosidase Permease Transacetylase

Transposon - Basic

Insertion sequence

Transposase gene

5¢3¢

Invertedrepeat

3¢5¢

Invertedrepeat

Chromatin vs. Chromosomes appearance within the cell.

DNA Control stages in Protein Synthesis

Signal

NUCLEUS

DNA

RNA

Chromatin

Gene availablefor transcription

Gene

Exon

Intro

Transcription

Primary transcript

RNA processing

Cap

Tail

mRNA in nucleus

Transport to cytoplasm

CYTOPLASM

mRNA in cytoplasm

Translation

Degradationof mRNA

Polypeptide

CleavageChemical modificationTransport to cellular

destination

Degradation of protein

Active protein

Degraded protein

Post Translation Control of exons

Post translation control How many As on the tail?

ChaperoninProtein will stay in the cell

RERProtein will leave the cell