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Positive and Negative Liberty

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Text of Positive and Negative Liberty

History of Political Thought

H I S T O R Y

O F

P O L I T I C A L T H O U G H T

POSITIVE & NEGATIVE LIBERTY

1IndividualLIBERTYSocial ControlBorn unfree and unequal2Berlin (1909-1997)3Central question in politics:

obedience

and

coercion

3Positive freedom4What, or who, is the source of control or interference that can determine someone to do, or be, this rather than that?

Freedom as self-mastery4IndividualLIBERTYSocial ControlBerlin - Freedom?5Where lies the frontier?

Health care6

6ONE true purpose: rational self-directionUniversal patternConflict = rational vs. irrationalObedience to rational law = freedom(?)Despotism = freedom?Leninism8

8Positive freedom9

9Freedom as self-mastery:

Slave to no man:

not to another man&not to yourselfPositive freedom10Reason (high-nature)vs.Passion (low-nature)

Man of Reason = director of life

Man of Passion = slave to naturePositive freedom11Passions12

Daniel Ginns,Addiction Pyramid(2012)13Freud (1856-1939)

Liberation through psychoanalysis14Marcuse (1898-1979)

Liberation from affluent societyNegative freedom15What is the area within which the subject a person or group of persons is or should be left to do or be what he is able to do or be, without interference by other persons?

Freedom from interferenceLeviathan ch. 21:

LIBERTY, OR FREEDOME, signifieth (properly) the absence of Opposition; (by Opposition, I mean externall Impediments of motion;)

16Negative freedomIndividualLIBERTYAbsence of social control= anarchyNegative freedom17IndividualLIBERTYSocial ControlBerlin - Freedom?18Where lies the frontier?

Liberty equality, fairness19

19Critical remarks:

Highly modern doctrine

Negative liberty not prerequisite for individual flourishing

Liberty not incompatible with autocracyNegative freedom

-Economic libertarian

-adviser to Ronald Reagan

The welfare trap

What are his arguments against interference by the state?

22Friedman (1912-2006)Absolute negative freedom?

IndividualLIBERTY23FriedmanIndividualLIBERTYSocial ControlPositive vs. Negative freedom24Where lies the frontier?

Berlin - Freedom?25

Acceptance of pluralism and temporality of values-deliberate behind a veil of ignorance26Rawls (1921-2002)

27Original position

28Original position