History of Political Thought
H I S T O R Y
P O L I T I C A L T H O U G H T
POSITIVE & NEGATIVE LIBERTY
1IndividualLIBERTYSocial ControlBorn unfree and unequal2Berlin
(1909-1997)3Central question in politics:
3Positive freedom4What, or who, is the source of control or
interference that can determine someone to do, or be, this rather
Freedom as self-mastery4IndividualLIBERTYSocial ControlBerlin -
Freedom?5Where lies the frontier?
6ONE true purpose: rational self-directionUniversal
patternConflict = rational vs. irrationalObedience to rational law
= freedom(?)Despotism = freedom?Leninism8
9Freedom as self-mastery:
Slave to no man:
not to another man¬ to yourselfPositive freedom10Reason
Man of Reason = director of life
Man of Passion = slave to naturePositive freedom11Passions12
Daniel Ginns,Addiction Pyramid(2012)13Freud (1856-1939)
Liberation through psychoanalysis14Marcuse (1898-1979)
Liberation from affluent societyNegative freedom15What is the
area within which the subject a person or group of persons is or
should be left to do or be what he is able to do or be, without
interference by other persons?
Freedom from interferenceLeviathan ch. 21:
LIBERTY, OR FREEDOME, signifieth (properly) the absence of
Opposition; (by Opposition, I mean externall Impediments of
16Negative freedomIndividualLIBERTYAbsence of social control=
anarchyNegative freedom17IndividualLIBERTYSocial ControlBerlin -
Freedom?18Where lies the frontier?
Liberty equality, fairness19
Highly modern doctrine
Negative liberty not prerequisite for individual flourishing
Liberty not incompatible with autocracyNegative freedom
-adviser to Ronald Reagan
The welfare trap
What are his arguments against interference by the state?
22Friedman (1912-2006)Absolute negative freedom?
ControlPositive vs. Negative freedom24Where lies the frontier?
Berlin - Freedom?25
Acceptance of pluralism and temporality of values-deliberate
behind a veil of ignorance26Rawls (1921-2002)