THE MINISTRY OF PUBLIC EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN ANDIZHAN REGIONAL TEACHER – IN – SERVICE AND RETRAINING INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION STATE Chair of languages and literature Address: Khanabad Institution: Specialized school № 9 Done by: Azimova Kamola 1
transcription. The phonemic item dictation is useful in that it increases the students'
ability to recognize the sounds of a language and their contrasts, thereby
facilitating their accurate production. This dictation is an excellent way to teach
beginners to stop imposing the sound system of their native language upon the
sound system of English.
The second, the phonemic text dictation, is an extension of the phonemic item
dictation. It consists of the teacher reciting a passage which students phonetically
transcribe. The phonemic item dictation is valuable as a way to understand how
English sounds change in connected speech. Though it goes beyond the objectives
set for students in most ESL programs in the U.S., it is commonly used in English
departments in many foreign universities.
The orthographic item dictation is the dictating of individual words in isolation for
transcription, similar to the traditional spelling test. It is useful for reinforcing the
correlation between the spelling system and sound system of a language. In
English this correlation is more complex than it is in other languages (e.g., Spanish
and many Slavic languages), and so it is a worthwhile ESL/EFL exercise.
The dictation with the broadest learning possibilities is the orthographic text
dictation, in which students transcribe a unified passage. This is the classic
dictation exercise all foreign language teachers are familiar with. Besides
reinforcing the spelling/sound correlations of English, the orthographic text
dictation uncovers comprehension and grammatical weaknesses in learners which
the teacher can analyze and address in future lessons.
I will discuss the use and benefits of the orthographic text dictation in this paper.
Selecting a Dictation
The ideal dictation comes from a contemporary source of clear, standard English.
The subject matter of the text is up to the teacher; however, a lively, engaging text
livens up the exercise considerably. Because one of the goals of dictation is to
provide practice in understanding semantically unified speech, paragraph dictations
are best for most drills. At the high-beginning level, dictations should be
elementary statements that students have already studied, in simple, unified
paragraphs. At the intermediate level, dictations should also come from material
the students have already read, in longer, more developed paragraphs. At both of
these levels, dictations help to reinforce basic sentence structures and vocabulary.
At the advanced level, the goal is to force students to learn what they hear and
what they do not hear. Therefore, the teacher should dictate unfamiliar texts,
thereby making the students' experience of listening the primary aspect of the
In all cases, dictations must be selected according to the students' abilities, and the
usage and style should be similar to what the students are expected to produce on
their own in the course, both verbally and in writing. If one is teaching college
students who must become familiar with a prose style common to modern essays, a
passage from a writer such as William Zinsser, Malcolm Gladwell, or Phillip
Lopate might be appropriate.
A useful source for dictations at all levels is the class textbook itself. By using the
textbook, the teacher will avoid selecting material that is too different from the
language norms the students have been learning. By the same token, the selected
material will have (or should have) good examples of the language aspects the
class is dealing with in terms of grammar, vocabulary, spelling, and punctuation.
Delivering a Dictation
A good time to deliver a dictation is at the beginning of class. The reasons are to
focus the students on English right away, calm them down, and ensure punctuality.
For their transcriptions, I request that students use pencils and uniform notebooks
with lined paper. I also ask that they write their transcriptions on every other line,
so corrections can be marked between the lines if necessary.
Before beginning the dictation, the teacher writes on the board any proper nouns,
abbreviations (etc., e.g., i.e., and so on), acronyms, or foreign or specialized words 22
within the dictation that he or she has not previously explained. The teacher also
writes on the board the chosen spelling for any word that is commonly spelled in
more than one way (e.g., rock and roll/rock'n'roll).
To begin the exercise, the teacher reads the dictation through once, at normal
speaking speed. As stated earlier, it is recommended that the teacher select a
passage from the class textbook with which the students are already familiar (e.g.,
part of an essay, short story, or article). During this first reading, the students
should only listen.
The teacher then reads the dictation through a second time, at a slightly slower
speed. The students begin transcribing. The teacher stops after each phrase or
meaningful unit and also calls out punctuation, which the students must include in
their transcriptions. Occasionally a student will ask for a word or phrase to be
repeated; I will generally repeat any word or phrase once, if requested.
For any words the students cannot hope to transcribe, I tell them to leave a blank
and to continue with transcribing the dictation.
The teacher then reads the dictation through a third time at normal speaking speed,
again including punctuation. During this reading, the students check their work and
make any last changes.
After finishing the dictation and allowing the students a minute or two for final
corrections, the teacher instructs the students to stop. They then take out the source
material for the dictation and self-correct their transcriptions. Alternatively, the
teacher can have the students correct each other's dictations. Whatever the case, the
corrections should be in ink, in order to distinguish them from the transcriptions.
Evaluating Student Transcriptions
Periodically throughout the term, the teacher should collect the notebooks to
evaluate the kinds of errors being made. Evaluating transcriptions will require care
in terms of distinguishing between comprehension errors and spelling errors.
Comprehension errors include both phonological mistakes and grammatical 23
mistakes. A phonological mistake would be the spelling of the
word physics as fyzics; a grammatical mistake would be transcribing Yesterday he
worked as Yesterday he work. We can define spelling errors as those that would
likely be made by a native speaker (e.g., receive/recieve)
From this data the teacher can gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of
each student. Lessons can be prepared to address errors made by a majority of the
Dictation is a valuable language learning device that has been used for centuries.
Although linguists have not completely understood how it facilitates language
acquisition--it would be extremely difficult to isolate the language competencies
that are employed--many have attested to its pedagogical value. One of the 20th
century's most influential linguists, Leonard Bloomfield (1942), strongly endorsed
the use of dictation as a learning device. Today, many methodologists are at least
inclined to agree with Finocchiaro's (1969) summary of its value: "[Dictation]
ensures attentive listening; it trains pupils to distinguish sounds; it helps fix
concepts of punctuation; it enables pupils to learn to transfer oral sounds to written
symbols; it helps to develop aural comprehension; and it assists in self-evaluation."
Report on article discussion
Title: TBL and PBL: Two learner-centred approaches
Facilitator: Azimova K.
Participants: Abdullayev H.Qodirova M.Soipova K.Tog’ayeva N.
Introduction This report is on the process of the article discussion which was held in
Teacher – in – service and retraining institute of public education state. There were all together 5 participants, me and 4 other colleagues of mine whose names are mentioned above.The chosen article and time given
I chose the article “TBL and PBL: Two learner-centred approaches” by
Katherine Bilsborough. It was offered for discussion in the group. We all think all
that two days would be enough to get ready for the orally ideas.
Key points of the articleIn this article the author touched many problems which can be faced by
many teachers, having experimented with the PPP (Presentation, Practice,
Production) approach turn to more learner-centred approaches where the needs of
the learner are central to the lesson content. Two such approaches are given in this
article TBL (Task-Based Learning) and PBL (Project-Based Learning).
How we felt about the article
All participants read the article with great interest and enthusiasm. We all found it extremely important for us. We agree on the time and the place of the discussion. The following questions were introduced in order to analyses the article thoroughly:
- Do you find the article interesting? Why? / Why not?
- Speak about the role of the teacher in TBL and PBL approaches.
Main issues raised in the discussionWhile discussion all participants of our group came to following
The advantage of TBL over more traditional methods is that it allows
students to focus on real communication before doing any serious language
analysis. TBL focuses on students’ needs by putting them into authentic
communicative situations and allowing them to use all their language resources
to deal with them.
Advantage of this approach is that learners are exposed to a wide
variety of language and not just grammar
TBL is not the best method to use with beginners, since they have
very few language resources to draw on to be able to complete meaningful tasks
PBL project work involves real life communicative situations,
analyzing, deciding, editing, rejecting, organizing, delegating and often
involves multi- disciplinary skills which can be brought from other subjects.
Both TBL and PBL focus primarily on the achievement of realistic
objectives, and then on the language that is needed to achieve those
objectives. They both treat language as an instrument to complete a given
objective rather than an isolated grammar point or lexical set to learn and
They give plenty of opportunity for communication in authentic
contexts and give the learner freedom to use the linguistic resources he/she has,
and then reflect on what they learned or need to learn.
Finally, teachers often use a combination of TBL, PBL and traditional techniques such as PPP. Some teachers use TBL and PBL as a small part of a more conventional approach. As always, the important thing is to use what works best
for you and your learners.
E N T R Y VII
( for this party we need 9 participants and 5 volunteers from auditory )
K: Ladies & gentlemen! Welcome to the party. I’m Kamola & I have many friends
from English speaking countries. They say that they also have many spring
holidays. Now, they will tell us about one of them. Let’s invite them to scene with
John: Hi! I’m John. I’m from England
Max: Hello, everybody. My name is Max. I’m an American.
Sarah: Oh, nice party. I’m Sarah & I’m from Canada.
Alex: Hi, I’m Alex. I came here from Australia .
Jack: Hello! My name is Jack. I’m from New Zealand.
K: About which holiday u r going to tell us?
A: About Easter. Easter is one of the religious holidays.
M: We celebrate Easter on the first Sunday that occurs after the first full moon.
This year we’ll celebrate it on twenty fourth of April. We’ll have a lot of fun this
day. Especially children.
K: Very strange word “Easter”. What does it mean?
S: The name Easter is thought to come from the word "Eastre," the name of
mythological goddess which is the goddess of spring and fertility. “Eastre’s”
festival was celebrated on the day of the vernal equinox.
K: What is the vernal equinox?
Jack: The vernal equinox occurs on March the twenty first, when the sun is
directly over the equator. Marking the beginning of spring in this day many people
celebrate the return of warm days and sunshine
John: As other nations the ancient Saxons celebrated the return of spring with a
festival of their goddess of spring, Eastre.
K: Who is it?
( The Easter Bunny comes to scene)
Alex, Jack, Max, John altogether:
"Oh! here comes Peter Cottontail,
Hoppin' down the bunny trail,
Happy Easter day"
John: It is The Easter Bunny.
All together: Hi, bunny!
E.B: Hello everybody, I’m The Easter Bunny! I brought you many presents:
different coloured eggs and sweets!
M: The Easter Bunny is the symbol of the holiday. The symbol originated with the
festival of Eastre. The goddess, Eastre, was worshipped by the Anglo-Saxons
through her earthly symbol, the rabbit.
K: The Easter Bunny talked about coloured eggs. What does it mean?
A: The Easter Egg is also the symbol of Easter. The exchange of eggs in the
springtime is a custom that was centuries old when Easter was first celebrated by
S: You see, From the earliest times, the egg was a symbol of birth in most cultures.
Eggs were often wrapped in gold leaf or colored brightly by boiling them with the
leaves or petals of certain flowers.
K: I can’t understand one thing. Why the symbols of the Easter exactly bunny &
Jack: for this question we can answer by this legend.
Story teller: Once, in ancient times in winter lunar goddess Eostre was walking in
the forest and she found wounded bird, whose wings had become frozen by the
Eostre: Oh, poor little bird. What’s happened to you?
Bird: I’m wounded, my wings are frozen, I’m dying. Please, help me….
E: Don’t cry little bird, I’ll change you into a rabbit and you can more easily
survive the winter.
(goddess changes bird into hare )
B: Oh, I’m a rabbit now. I feel better and warmer, thank you Eostre. But I’m still a
bird and I can give you eggs. I’ll decorate my eggs and I’ll give them to you as my
thanks to you. Take them, Eostre.
(rabbit will give the eggs and they leave the scene)
John: Today, children hunt colored eggs and place them in Easter baskets along
with the modern version of real Easter eggs those made of plastic or chocolate
K: You said that children hunt eggs? But how?
E.B: I love children very much and I like to play with them. On Easter morning the
children go to search the eggs that I have hidden while they are asleep. The
searching may continue out of the house. Older children help the young children.
And I’ll give prizes to the child who finds the most eggs.
M: Easter egg hunts can are also part of a community's celebration of holiday. The
eggs are hidden in public places and the children of the community are invited to
find the eggs.
E.B.: Let’s play hunting egg with the students sitting here. I invite 5 students to
K: Oh, that’s great! Who wants to participate?
( students come to scene, they’ll tell their names, their eyes will be closed with
(Easter Bunny will hide the eggs)
E.B.: OK, students. I’ve hidden ten coloured eggs & you must find them. To the
Student which find the most eggs I have a sweet prize. 3,2,1 begin!
( students will bring the eggs which they hunted and Bunny will give the prize to
the winner )
A: Bunny, we can offer another game to students with their hunted eggs.
E.B.: Oh, yes! You are talking about an Easter Egg Roll.
K: What kind of game is it?
John: The rules of an Easter Egg Roll are to see who can roll an egg the greatest
distance or can make the roll without breaking it.
S: Maybe the most famous egg rolling takes place on the White House Lawn.
Hundreds of children come with baskets filled with brightly decorated eggs and
roll them down the famous lawn, it is a great fun.
E.B: begin my dears! I have another chocolate for winner.
(game will be passed)
K: Ok, dear guests we had very good time and a lot of fun. Thank you all of them.
Submitted by: Abdullayev Xurshid Azimova Kamola
Qodirova Mavluda Soipova Komila
The humanistic view of education strongly proposes that learners must
always be involved in the teaching learning process, right from when the
'facilitator' plans the teaching to when she or he tests them. Involving the learners
gives them the much needed boost and propels them to take responsibility for their
What I want to share here is that something as dull and difficult as teaching
vocabulary can become extremely interesting and rewarding if learners teach
Vocabulary is one area, which requires constant attention at all levels of the
English program offered to them. Input is given to the learners in the form of
reading practices and through word banks on each topic that is covered. However,
my learners often complained that their vocabulary remained very weak.
Consequently, I tried a learner-initiated vocabulary building exercise which really
worked well. The best part is it does not require any preparation from the teacher.
The exercise is done throughout the quarter. The whole plan was divided
into steps. Each step is open to discussion and review.
Pupils create a 100 page personal dictionary for themselves. My pupils came up
with creative ideas like dictionaries in the shape of flower cutouts, Mickey Mouse's
face and butterflies etc. Some conveniently bought notebooks and decorated them.
This entire exercise motivated pupils and built-up their interest.
In each English class two pupils bring a word from the textbook (Fly High) with its
meaning to share with the rest of the class. If a word has several meanings and can
be used as a verb as well as a noun then that is also mentioned. They are also
supposed to tell the class what part of speech it is.
The pupils put the words and their meanings on the blackboard and the rest of the
class makes a sentence for each word. The words, their meanings, and the
sentences are then written down in the students' personal dictionaries. At the end of
the quarter the students display their dictionaries
The whole exercise is extremely rewarding; it does not take a lot of time and
students feel motivated and proud of not only the end product, their personal
dictionaries, but also of the words they bring to the class. Learner- initiated
vocabulary building exercise puts the onus on the students for learning.
Feedback on a trainer
Dear, Marifat opa
Thank you for letting me writing a feedback on your session, which was really
appreciated by your participants. I thought you worked very well; you were ready
for the session. I can see you are skilful, experienced and devoted teacher which
lets you become a good teacher as well. I want to comment on three points you
1. The language: You used clear, understandable language. It’s related to the
participants. I’ve noticed you know how conduct your session with your voice
projection. You made clear things with the help of them. I loved it.
2. Way of giving instructions. I think the successful fulfilling tasks in your
session came out from your giving clear, understandable and to the point
instructions in every case. Providing examples made them easy follow.
3. Using Body language. It’s difficult to keep always an eye contact with the
adult participants in our culture norms. There should be a balance. From you,
I’ve learnt how to keep an eye contact with adult participant in friendly way.
You used gestures in a proper way. It works for you, don’t change anything!
4. The rapport with the participants. Your interaction with participants is also
worth to speak. I underlined it for me. I decided to do it. You are patient with
all your participants and you gave a chance to speak to all of them. It created a
learning atmosphere. It’s a good motivation. Your encouragement led them for
future progress. At the end I want to take your attention to working with
authority. I really liked your voice. I think giving feelings to what you are
saying is a good idea for the trainers. What do you think do you agree with me?
I really enjoyed your session. I’m sure it’ll be beneficial for my job. At the end
of my words I’d like to thank to you for your interesting lesson. I wish you success
in your further development.
Sincerely, Kamola Azimova
Feedback on a teacher
Thank you for letting me to be observer of your lesson. I thought you worked
very well; you were ready for the lesson. I can see you are so energetic and skilful
teacher. I want to comment on three points you specified:
1. The language: your pronunciation is very clear and understandable. It’s related
to the participants. I’ve noticed you know how conduct your session with your
voice projection. You made clear things with the help of them. I loved it.
2. Using Body language. You used body language very effectively. It is very
important in learning young kids. It works for you, don’t change anything!
3. Your interaction with participants is also worth to speak. I underlined it for
me. I decided to do it. You paid attention to all your participants and you gave
a chance to speak to all of them. It created a learning atmosphere. It’s a good
motivation. Your encouragement led them for future progress.
I really enjoyed your lesson. I’m sure it’ll be beneficial for my job. At the end
of my words I’d like to thank to you for your interesting lesson. I wish you success
in your further development.
Sincerely, Kamola Azimova
As a participant in the programme, I learned that we have to update our
knowledge regularly, discovering the new methods and ways of teaching
English, using various methodology to motivate as well as increase the interest
of learners to the lesson. It is very useful to increase the students oral
speech. Because we the English language teachers in my home institution, were
using both traditional and non-traditional methods in our lessons. It proved to
As a teacher, I found the following useful:
Making non-traditional lessons
Using different learning styles
Allocating more time for games, role plays, stories, various handouts, etc.
in my lessons, which will be of great importance in motivating and
increasing the interest of students
Take into account the modern innovative methods in teaching English as
a second language
When I am back at work in my home institution, I will:
give sufficient information about the retraining programme to my
colleagues, organizing, if necessary, several sessions on the topics
provide my colleagues with good advice as to the methods and styles
of teaching English
use different methods of teaching which are learnt during the sessions
in organizing my classes
I understood that the requirements for teaching are changing rapidly. It
makes us all to look into the perspective of teaching English with other
positions and views. I will try to do my best on organizing my lessons and
make them so interesting, when I come back to my home institution.