PORTFOLIO COMMITTEE ON TRADE AND INDUSTRYBriefing by SunSpaceBart Cilliers & Ron Olivier1 September 2009www.sunspace.co.za
ObjectivesBrief overview of satellitesCurrent & future industry developmentsOur role in local and international space industrySumbandilasat what is it and what is it good for?International space treatieswww.sunspace.co.za
Satellites overviewGeostationary satellites GEOMain suppliers: Thales Alenia Space (Fr), EADS Astrium (Fr), Lockheed Martin (Usa), Ball Aerospace (Usa), Boeing (Usa), etcMarket cap: Mainly publicly listed from around 4 to 100 billion US $Satellites costs: From around 0,25 to 1 billion US$ Medium earth orbit satellites MEOMain suppliers: Same as above + few othersSatellites costs: Vary widely according to sizeLow earth orbit satellites LEO Main Suppliers: SSTL (Eng), SunSpace (RSA), Satreci (Kor), Astrotech (Usa), SpaceDev (Usa), etcMarket caps: Mainly privately owned from around 4 to 100+ million US$Satellites costs: From around 1 to 250 million US$ according to size www.sunspace.co.za
LEO satellite overviewLarge Imaging LEO satellitesSome examples: Pleiades , Spot 5 (All Fr), Orbview, Ikonos, Quickbird (all Usa), Ofeq (Isr), Kompsat (Kor), Cartosat (Ind).Weight: 900 to 2850 kgPerformance: 0,41 to 5m GSD (Multispectral)Estimated cost: 200 to 500 million US$ Small and medium LEO satellitesSome examples: RapidEye (Ger), Nigeriasat -2 (Eng), Alsat-2 (Fr), DubaiSat (Kor), Sumbandilasat (RSA)Weight: 85 to 230 kgPerformance: 5-6.25m Ground Sampling Distance (Multispectral)Estimated cost: 8 to 50 million US$Cubesatswww.sunspace.co.za
Space Industry DevelopmentsInternational LEO satellite industry structureCountries with space heritage provide in their own needs & those who require accessSunSpace is building upon its South African heritage with the objective of entering the developing world market with further productsWhy small LEO? Affordable access to space - existing heritageComplex technical challenges without the cost of large programsCurrent developmentsDeveloping world is waking up to small satellite possibilitiesFuture expectationsGrowing international demand for small satellites TACSAT as example
SunSpace our roleInternational small satellite industryMany countries competing for developing world small satellite ordersSunSpace competing as part of team RSA Local space industrySunSpace is part of a large number small RSA companies that contribute to local space effort SunSpace provides both small satellite hardware and software as well as expert training for small satellite design, development testing and operations engineers.Government supportThe international competition is won only as a national team effortwww.sunspace.co.za
SumbandilasatWhat is it?84 kg earth observation satellite with a multispectral imaging of 6.25m GSD at 500km. Can see the same point in RSA every 3-4 days.Pathfinder objective is to increase scientific and engineering knowledge in space systems Satellite contains some heritage, some newly developed systemsWhat is it good for?Designed and tested for operational use provide scientifically useful images if operating as per design specifications Images will provide further scientific information for assessing ground cover, agricultural crop analysis, forestry composition analysis, water analysis and land use applicationsProvide clear indication of progress in RSA technical design, manufacturing and operating capabilities to the international communitySignal for high level technical expatriates to return to our country
Satellite Control IssuesGEO (we do not operate there)Mandatory requirement for safe removal of satellite from orbit. Safe removal applies also to the GTO and the insertion rocketsSafe removal mechanisms built into the satellite designProof of operation for safe removal mechanisms required before launch MEO (we do not operate there)Removal requirements are not stringent or enforcedNo parked orbital slot in relation to terra locationLEO (Yes, we operate here)No mandatory controlTechnical expertise required to launch into an unoccupied orbitwww.sunspace.co.za
Other Controls in Space (1)Some local controls for spaceMissile Technology Regime NPC (DTI), Prohibits and controls the transfer of technologies in spacecraft for use in intercontinental ballistic missilesWassenaar Arrangement NCACC (DOD),Control and tracks specific technologies used in spacecraft to prohibit their re-use in conventional arms such as other missiles or targeting systemsCouncil on Space Affairs (DTI), ICASA (DOC)Controls the launch of all spacecraft from South African soil and South African spacecraft from other countries.
Other Controls in Space (2)International LEO Orbit IssuesThe UN COPUOS is trying to introduce legislation to limit or eliminate LEO space debris, but accept that existing debris cannot be removed because:There is too much debris comprised of separation hardware and spent rocket final stages and the like.There is no affordable existing system that could be used to remove the existing debris.The UN COPUOS accordingly is concentrating on promoting the responsible use of space as the only practical means to limit or avoid the proliferation of space debris. The most important items of space debris to be avoided is the following:Since the titanium tanks used for hydrazine do not burn up upon re-entry, they have to be completely vented (emptied) at end of life to avoid contamination when they fall back to earth as hydrazine is extremely poisonous.The use of nuclear reactors to power satellites in LEO orbit are now regarded as irresponsible space use in the extreme. Most responsible nations will not launch any LEO satellite with a nuclear reactor power source. Nuclear power sources are the only possibility for outer space exploration missions where insufficient solar energy is available.
Other Controls in Space (3)UN COPUOS treatiesLEO orbit space bodies are difficult to regulate without international cooperation forums such as the UN COPUOSAccess to international markets for satellite manufacturers such as ourselves depends on our country being seen as a responsible space userUN treaties provides internationally recognised platform for responsible use by guarding against misuse of orbits, launches and provide legal cover for when space debris lands on ones soil Recommendation on UN treatiesSunSpace gives its unqualified support to the 2 UN treaties namely the Liability Convention and the Registration Convention under consideration and urges Parliament to ratify both!www.sunspace.co.za
RSA taking over in Baikonurwww.sunspace.co.za
Thank youAny Questions?www.sunspace.co.za