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Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

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Page 1: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Political Reform and Reaction to

IndustrializationEurope, the Ottoman

Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Page 2: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Industrial Order 1850-1914

• Industrial Development continued

• Governments developed new functions

• Rise of socialism changed political conditions

• Urban growth continued; improved living conditions

Page 3: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Europe

• Increased voting rights– Benjamin Disraeli– Cavour and Bismarck– US Civil War ended sectional rights and abolished slavery

– France increased voting rights

• Most Western nations had a parliamentary system where basic liberties were protected and political parties contested peacefully for office

Page 4: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reactions to Industrialization

• Socialism• Utopian Socialism• Utilitarianism• Marxism; Communism• Unionism

Page 5: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Europe

• Western Settler Societies– Search for new markets and raw materials

– Transportation and communications improved

– Superior weapons– Massive emigration spread western culture

Page 6: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Western Settler Societies

• Migration– Increased as Europeans went to the US, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and South Africa in search of cheap land and better economic opportunities

– Served as a new labor force– Most migrants were free agents although some were indentured servants

Page 7: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Western Settler Societies

• Three British colonies– Established parliamentary governments, vigorous commercial

economies, European cultural patterns– Dependent on British economy– Canada

• Friction between British rulers and French inhabitants• Formed a federal system• Majority of French lived in Quebec

– Australia• 1788, lived among indigenous hunting and gathering population• Agricultural development and discovery of gold

– Spurred population growth and economy

• Federal system developed in 1900

– New Zealand• Missionaries and settlers moved into Maori territory• Maori defeated by the 1860s• Generally good relations • Developed strong agricultural economy and parliamentary system

Page 9: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reaction and Reform

• Questions of change and reform– Alteration of traditional society

• Ottoman Empire– In decline, less unified– Decrease in trade

• Atlantic trade• Dependent on foreign loans and goods• Capitulations (special rights and privileges)

Page 10: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reaction and Reform

– Mahmud II• Reform

– Organized more effective army and system of secondary education

– Built new roads, telegraph lines, and postal service

– Tanzimat era (1839-1879)» Law reform based on French legal system» Public trials and equality overtook religious law

• Reaction– Sultan Adbul Hamid (1878-1908)

Page 12: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reaction and Reform

• Russia vs. Ottoman Empire– Similar

• Autocratic, multiethnic, multilingual, and multicultural

• Czars supported by Russian Orthodox Church and noble class, sultans also supported by Muslims and noble class

• Peasants majority of population– Serfdom a guarantee of social stability

– Different• Russia vastly expanded its territory• Russian military out of date (Crimean War)• Russian government pushed to modernize

Page 13: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reaction and Reform

• Russia– Emancipation of the serfs

• Alexander II in 1861• Zemstvos--1864

– Elected representatives subordinate to the czar

– Encouraged industrializtion• Trans-Siberian railroad (handout)

– Peasant rebellions and industrial worker strikes

» Reduced working hours; but outlawed unions and strikes

Page 14: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reform and Reaction

• Russia– Anti-government protest

increased• Intelligentsia

– Land and Freedom party assassinated Alexander II 1881

– Era of Repression• End of government reform

– Extensive military spending• Defeated by Japan in 1904-1905

– Protests continued• January 1905

– Bloody Sunday, aka Revolution of 1905

• Created the Duma

Page 16: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reform and Reaction

• China– Rebellions

• Taiping Rebellion– Hong Xiuquan

» Believed he was brother of Jesus Christ» Social reform movement 1850s» Taiping Tianguo (Heavenly Kingdom)» Gained large territory

– Internal disputes allow Qing to defeat army (10 year struggle)» Bloodiest civil war in history

Page 18: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reform and Reaction

• Japan-the Meiji Restoration– The most radical reforms and changes•Emerged as a world power

– Younger generation •Wanted to undermine the daimyos, overthrew the shogun and advance modernization

– 1868 restoration of the emperor•Named “Meiji” or “Enlightened One”

– Called both a revolution and a restoration

Page 19: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reform and Reaction

• Japan-the Meiji Restoration– Modernization

• Early reforms• Dissolution of the Samurai• 1877 Civil War

– Powerful outside technology (guns)– Momentum shifts to national army

– Political reconstruction• Political parties formed• New constitution 1889• Limited the right to vote based on property

Page 20: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

Reform and Reaction

• Japan-the Meiji Restoration– Rapid industrialization and modernization

• Modern infrastructure and military• Defeated the Chinese and Russians in war• Began building an empire in the Pacific• Industrial revolution by non-Europeans

Page 21: Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan

The End