Plagiarism and Contract ... Regular Keynote Speaker on academic ghostwriting, essay mills and contract

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  • 1@DrLancaster #contractcheating

    Plagiarism and

    Contract Cheating

    in Higher Education

    Presented by Dr. Thomas Lancaster at University of Montenegro on Tuesday 8 November 2016 @DrLancaster

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    Plagiarism and Contract Cheating Workshop Objectives

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    Interactive Workshop - addressing

    What does academic integrity mean within teaching, learning and assessment – and how can we ensure that students are completing their courses with integrity?

    How does plagiarism and contract cheating research inform how we teach and assess?

    What are the continuing challenges for teachers and researchers within the plagiarism and contract cheating fields?

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    Yes – This Is An Interactive Workshop!

    Twitter Please tweet observations, comments, quotes, photos, discussion topics @DrLancaster #contractcheating

    Live Please join in the discussion, ask questions and contribute ideas

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    My Background For The Academic Integrity Workshop

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    My Background

    Associate Head for School of Computing Electronics and Mathematics at Coventry University, United Kingdom

    Principal Lecturer with particular interests in student employability, research methods and social media marketing

    Research Active, publishing on student cheating, plagiarism prevention and plagiarism detection since 2000

    Regular Keynote Speaker on academic ghostwriting, essay mills and contract cheating

    Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy

    Part of the Coventry University team representing the European Network for Academic Integrity (ENAI)

    Working with Codio 2016

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    A selection of my recent presentation slides are archived on my SlideShare account

    (the slides from today’s workshop are also available on SlideShare)

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    The Wider Background For This Academic Integrity Workshop

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    Three Projects

    The workshop has come about due to three developments:

    European Network for Academic Integrity (ENAI)

    Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe (IPPHEAE)

    South East European Project on Policies for Academic Integrity (SEEPPAI)

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    European Network for Academic Integrity (ENAI)

    A newly formed consortium of 12 European partners, with opportunities for further institutions and individuals to join

    Lead partner and administrator is Mendel University in Brno

    Aims to develop resources and materials supporting and promoting academic integrity

    Holds annual conferences (next one in Brno on 24 to 26 May 2017)

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    Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe (IPPHEAE)

    European Union (Erasmus) funded project, completed between 2010- 2013 Led by Irene Glendinning from Coventry University, United Kingdom, supported by partners in Poland, Lithuania, Cyprus and the Czech Republic Investigated Higher Education approaches to plagiarism and academic misconduct across 27 EU member states – including good practice More findings from IPPHEAE later

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    South East European Project on Policies for Academic Integrity (SEEPPAI)

    Extension of the IPPHEAE research to six further countries

    Funded by the Council of Europe (CoE) with completion due by 1 April 2017

    Consortium of Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic and Coventry University, United Kingdom

    Intended as the first of several regional studies to extend the IPPHEAE research to 50 European countries

    Data collection using surveys, interviews and focus groups

    Supported by workshops and sharing of resources

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    What Is Academic Integrity?

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    Discussion Question

    What do you understand by the term

    academic integrity?

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    Academic Integrity

    Of European and global interest

    Hard to get a complete and precise definition Mostly defined by areas constituting academic dishonesty, academic

    misconduct or research fraud

    Often compared with “cheating”

    Useful to think about and use the term academic integrity as a positive alternative to the more negative connotations

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    Academic Integrity

    “The International Center for Academic Integrity defines academic integrity as a commitment, even in the face of adversity, to six fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, responsibility, and courage”

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    A Student View

    “Academic and higher learning is founded on principles of Integrity. Manipulating your ideas through outside minds takes away from independent creative thought.”

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    What Does Not Constitute Academic Integrity?

    For Students


    Contract Cheating

    Cheating in Exams

    Fraudulent Data

    Fake Medical Conditions

    Helping others to be dishonest

    For Teachers and Researchers

    Research fraud

    Publishing the same output multiple times

    Incorrect attribution of authorship

    Ignoring sources during research

    Unacknowledged sources

    Not leading students by example

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    What Is Plagiarism?

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    Discussion Question

    What do you understand by the term


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    My Standard Definition

    Taking the words or ideas of another and using them without acknowledgement

    This general definition is based loosely on many others, including my previous published research

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    Formalised Definition

    “Plagiarism occurs when someone:

    1. Uses words, ideas, or work products

    2. Attributable to another identifiable person or source

    3. Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained

    4. In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship

    5. In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary”

    Fishman, T. (2009). ‘We know it when we see it’ is not good enough: toward a standard definition of plagiarism that transcends theft, fraud, and copyright

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    Other Plagiarism Definition

    Within teaching and universities, it is helpful to have a:

    Legal definition, for academic integrity policies

    Teaching definition, to help students to understand plagiarism

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    Discussion Question

    Why do students plagiarise?

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    Why Do Students Plagiarise?

    Common Reasons Given

    Lack of time

    Lack of understanding


    Missing the core knowledge

    Don’t know how to write well

    Don’t know how to reference

    Don’t want to learn

    Poor standard of teaching

    Can’t see the value of their subject

    Too much work

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    Risk vs Rew