Pineapple Report

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    SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY

    FOOD TECHNOLOGY DIVISION

    IMK 226

    POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGY OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

    POST-HARVEST HANDLING SYSTEM OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT REPORT

    GROUP 3:

    LECTURER: DR. HAYATI SAMSUDIN

    DATE OF SUBMITTION: 5th MAY 2016

    NAME MATRIC NO.

    AKMAL HUSAINY BIN ANNUAR HUSAINY 124793

    ALIA NAJIHAH BINTI MOHD RASHID 124794

    HENG CIA KHAI 124825

    MADIHAH HUSNA BINTI MUHAMMED 124846

     NAFEESA BINTI MOHAMAD JILANI 124856

     NASREEN BINTI ZHARI 124857

    SHAIRAH HANIS BINTI MEOR IBRAHIM 124906

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    TABLE OF CONTENT

    No Content  Page 

    1. Introduction 2

    2. Objective

    3

    3. Material and methods

    4. Result presentation 4 - 10

    5.

    Discussion

    (a) Farm

    (b) Transportation & Grading

    (c) Market

    (d) Consumer

    11 –  18

    6 Conclusion 19

    7 References 20 –  21

    8 Appendix 22 - 25

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    INTRODUCTION

    Pineapple or in scientific known as  Ananas comosus is one of the most popular and

    appreciated tropical fruit around the world. Furthermore, pineapple was ‘discovered’ in

    America as cultivated plant by Christopher Columbus in 1492, who took specimens back

    to Europe (Amar bin Talip, Tong P.S and Casey Ng, 2015). One of its original native

    names in Brazil was nana, from which scientific name Ananas (Amar bin Talip, Tong P.S

    and Casey Ng, 2015). Nine variety of pineapple are planted across Malaysia today, such

    as N36, Sarawak, Moris, Moris Gajah, Gandul, Yankee, Josapine, MD2 and Masapine.

    MD2 is a hybrid species of pineapple that is brought in from the Philippines. 

    Pineapples plants flower between twelve and eighteen months of growth. The whole

     process of planting pineapples seed to harvesting pineapple fruits are normally betweennineteen and twenty-four months. Pineapples are non-climacteric fruits. Thus, harvesting

     period is very crucial for this fruit since there is significant change in ripening after

    harvest. Pineapples are a good source of nutrients such as vitamin C, manganese, copper

    and folate. Bromelain is a type of enzyme that can be found in the pineapple fruit and

    abundantly in the core of the pineapple. Bromelain enzyme is widely used a meat

    tenderizer in cooking.

    Pineapple is a very versatile fruit since it can be consumed fresh, juice, dried, cannedor as an ingredient in various recipes. Some pineapples are even made into jams and

    marmalade. The varieties of products that can be developed using pineapples are the

    reason they are well known in many countries and cultures around the globe.

    Post-harvest handling system that consist of harvesting, storage, processing,

     packaging, transporting and marketing of crops plays a very important role in meeting

    food requirements and standards by eliminating avoidable losses that can occur after the

    harvesting process. Good agriculture practices helps in minimizing yield loss in fruits and

    vegetables farms. On a larger point of view, higher yield can open opportunities to a

    larger market scale.

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    OBJECTIVE

    1)  To investigate the pre-harvest and post-harvest handling system of pineapple fruit in

     pineapple farm during planting, harvesting, transportation, storage, packaging house

    and at market or supermarket.

    2)  To identify the cause of loss of yield and quality of pineapple produce from the farm,

    transportation, warehouse and markets.

    3)  To understand further how the environmental factors and farmer’s practices can

    affect the quality and number of saleable pineapple produce.

    4)  To apply Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) and Good Manufacturing Practices

    (GMP) in the existing chain to help minimize crop loss.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD

    In this project, the fruit that had been chosen is pineapple, a local fruit that can be

     plant at various types of soil and ground. The pineapple farm located at Kampung

    Sekolah, Juru is a 10 acres mineral soil land. The visit was planned two weeks before the

    suggested date of 11th April 2016. The Lembaga Perindustrian Nenas Malaysia (LPNM),

    Penang branch had been prior noticed before the visit. Mr. Syed Ghazali had been the

    officer in charge to usher and guide at the farm. This farm had been chosen due to the

    demographic aspects of place and time. It took only about 40 minutes from Penang Island

    to reach there. Local farmers harvest the whole process while the seeds were provided to

    the farmers by the LPNM Penang Branch.

    Mr Anuar from LPNM Johor branch was also contacted to understand better how

    implementation of MyGAP or Malaysia Good Agriculture Practice in the pineapple farm

    is carried out. Comparisons between practices in pineapple farm located in Johor and the

    farm we visited was made. The students spent about two and a half hours to gather all the

    input and carry the site visit. Various aspects from preparing a land plot for pineapple

     planting to harvesting and maturity indexes were discussed and explained by En. Ghazali.

    Using local labor, the growth and development of the pineapple plants are monitored by

    LPNM.

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    RESULT

    Flow chat of post-harvest process of pineapple

    Direct

    selling

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    1) Farm

    Figure 1: The space required for pineapple plant growth.

    Figure 2: Fence as physical barrier for farm.

    Figure 3: Plant growth regulator to promote flowering in pineapple

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    Figure 4: 5% NPN organic fertilizer.

    Figure 5: Fertilizing process carried out by farmer.

    Figure 6: Unripe pineapple fruit.

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    2) Transportation

    Figure 7: Pineapples transported by lorry.

    Source: https://reader015.{domain}/reader015/html5/0717/5b4cdf89c51e6/5b4cdf94cbae9.jpg 

    3) Market

    Figure 8: Moris pineapple for sale at supermarket

    http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/pineapple-truck-fruit-concept-29935487.jpghttp://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/pineapple-truck-fruit-concept-29935487.jpghttp://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/pineapple-truck-fruit-concept-29935487.jpghttp://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/pineapple-truck-fruit-concept-29935487.jpg

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    4) Direct Selling

    Figure 9: Pineapple, pineapple juice and pineapple slices sold at pineapple farm

    Figure 10: Pineapple jelly sold at pineapple farm.

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    5) Consumer 

    Figure 11: Pineapple jamsold commercially.

    Source : http://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpg 

    Figure 12: Pineapple juice commercially sold.

    Source :

    http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b8501

    2777af7 

    http://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpghttp://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpghttp://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpghttp://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7http://www.soukai.my/core/media/media.nl?id=128699&c=3713628&h=380c4862b85012777af7http://www.images-iherb.com/l/STD-95834-1.jpg

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    Figure 13 :Canned pineapple cubes in syrup commercially sold.

    Source:

    http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/produ

    ct/L/10674527_L1.jpg 

    Figure 14: Freshly consumed pineapple

    Source :

    http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1602987/thumbs/o-PINEAPPLE-HAPPY-MAN-570.jpg?1 

    http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpghttp://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpghttp://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpghttp://i.huffpost.com/gen/1602987/thumbs/o-PINEAPPLE-HAPPY-MAN-570.jpg?1http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1602987/thumbs/o-PINEAPPLE-HAPPY-MAN-570.jpg?1http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1602987/thumbs/o-PINEAPPLE-HAPPY-MAN-570.jpg?1http://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpghttp://s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/www.fairprice.com.sg/fpol/media/images/product/L/10674527_L1.jpg

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    DISCUSSION

    1) Farm

    i) Type of pineapple

    Two species of pineapples were planted on the visited pineapple farm which is

    Moris sp. and MD2 sp. Both species were selected to be planted because Moris sp. has

    high demands in the northern region of Malaysia. On the other hand, MD2 sp. has high

    demands from the whole country.

    Based on our observations, MD2 grown was given sufficient space to grow with a

    90 centimeters gap between two rows, 60 centimeters gap between two parallel fruits and

    30 centimeters gap between two adjacent fruits. However, the fruits that grew were notcomplying with the hybrid’s custom specifications. The pineapple that grew was not

    round in shape and was too light. These were the main reasons MD2 was not able to be

    exported to its intended market, Japan.

    To overcome this problem, we did a comparison with another pineapple produce

    farm located in Kota Tinggi, Johor . This pineapple farm was able to control the genetic

    variation that occur in the MD2 sp. and exported their produce to Iran and Egypt. To

    ensure consistent specifications in colour, size, texture and weight of the pineapples was produced for export, the first three generations of the plant is not used. This ensures the

    seeds produce high quality crops that are free from diseases.

    ii) Farm Soil and Infrastructure

    Based on our observations, the pineapples are grown on an abandon paddy field

    lot. The soil from the previous paddy plantation was not suitable for optimum growth of

    the pineapple. There were rubbles and sand that was not the best conditions for pineapple

     plantations.

    The solution to this problem is peat soil. Pineapples are best grown on peat soil.

    Type of peak soil has to be saprik and hemik that are at least 50 centimeters from the

    dense and compress soil. Saprik peat and hemic peat are suitable for pineapple fruits

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     because it contains organic materials that are abundant in mineral and nutrients for the

    growth of the pineapples. The field must be even and not steep. The soil also cannot

    contain more than 35% of stones and rubbles between the first 50 centimeters of the soil.

    In addition, salt content of the soil cannot exceed 1 dS/m.

    The infrastructure of the field also plays an important role to produce best quality

     produces. Ditch with a width at least 9 0centimeters and main drainage with a width of

    120 centimeters is essential for good water flow in the field. Water cannot accumulate and

    form puddles since this will cause rot in some of the plants. We also observed the field

    was fenced to prevent any invasions form wild boars and monkeys. Rat poison such as

    Warfarin, Chlorophacinone and Bromiolone was used to control infestations from  Rattus

    tiomanicus sp.

    iii) Fertilizing

    Based on our findings, the soil was treated with pesticides such as Malathion and

    Benomyl and weedicides such as Paraquet before the pineapples were planted. Frequent

    weed and pest control must be carried out throughout the planting period. This is to

    ensure pests such as  Dysmicoccus brevipus,  Diaspis bromeliae  and nemotods such as

     Pratylenchus sp. does not infest the crops that causes lesions, bruises and retarded growth

    in the grown pineapple plant.

    Based on our observations, plant growth regulators such as Aplha Nephthyl Acetic

    Acid were used to initiate flowering in the pineapples. Pineapple flowering process

    occurs naturally after twelve to eighteen months of growth. Temperature, heat and

    sunlight play a role in initiating flowering naturally in pineapples. Rapid growth,

    excessive nitrogen and frequent rain can slow down the flowering process. However, the

    hormone boosters can ensure flowering in the pineapple plants even when conditions are

    unfavorable. The fertilizers used by the farmers were 5 percent NPK fertilizers. This is

    not sufficient for growth of pineapples. The farmers also did not wear any masks, apron

    and gloves while spraying the crops. Lastly, some of the crops were fertilized a month

     before harvest causing consumers to experience irritation in their mouth and tongue when

    consuming the pineapple fruits.

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    The agriculture industry very much depends on NPK fertilizers which functions as

     building blocks of life that the plant needs for healthy growth. Natural soil often lacks

    organic matter as nutrients due to over cultivation. NPK fertilizer is primarily composed

    of three elements: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K).

     Nitrogen aids in photosynthesis and is a component in chlorophyll, the substance

    that give plants its green colour. Phosphorus also plays a vital role in photosynthesis by

    aiding in the formation of oils, sugars and starches. Phosphorus is an important substance

    needed to convert solar energy into chemical energy for positive development of the plant.

    Besides that, Phosphorus encourages growth of roots and promotes blooming in

     pineapple plants. The third essential nutrient is potassium which helps the build protein to

    withstand stress and diseases.

    According to the Plant Manual for Pineapples by Lembaga Nenas Malaysia, there

    are five stages of fertilizing in the duration of nine months. The first stage of fertilizing is

    using combinations of Copper hidrate, Copper sulphate, Zinc sulphate and Ferum

    sulphate. The second stage of fertilizing is done on the third month using 15 percent NPK

    fertilizer. The third stage of fertilizing has to be carried out on the fourth month using

    mixture containing Lime Hydrate, Copper sulphate, Zinc sulphate, Ferus sulphate and 40

     percent Urea. The fourth and fifth stages of the fertilizing are using 15 percent NPK

    fertilizer.

    iv) Diseases

    On site visit, we observed that some of the crops were infested with diseases

    caused by fungus such as black rot and Phytophthora Heart rot. Some physiological

    damage such as sun scorch and shaft fracture also cause crop losses. These diseases are

    the main reason almost half of the yield is lost.

    Black rot is caused by a fungus, Thielaviopsis paradoxa which causes gas bubbles

    and rot in the fruit. This causes the fruit to smell and fall of easily from its plant. The fruit

    also turns black and slimy. To avoid this infestation, Benomyl which is a pesticide is used

    to eliminate the fungus. The infested fruit has to be removed quickly to avoid infestation

    in neighboring plants. Frequent sanitation and good agriculture practices can decrease

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    attacks by this fungus.

    Another fungus that often penetrates into the pineapple fruit and cause rot is

     phytophthora parastica. The plant rots at the base of the tree and causes the leaves to turn

    reddish brown. The infected zone also turns black. To overcome this problem, chemicals

    such as Metalaxyl and Fosetyl- aluminium can be sprayed at the base of the tree.

    A large portion of pineapple plants are lost due to sun scorch. Sun scorches are

     burns on the pineapple fruits skin and tissues that are cause by direct sunlight and

    extreme hot weathers. The burns on the skin of the fruits can be observed when the

    yellowish skin turns brown or black. To avoid this problem, the pineapple fruits must be

    covered or shield from direct sunlight using sun visors made from plastic or cloth.

    Lastly, some of the pineapples fruits are lost due to a lesion nematode,

     Pratylenchus sp.  The nematode causes black lesions and decay on the roots of the

     pineapple plant. The growth of the plant and fruit are also retarded. The leaves turn

    yellow and then red. Lesion nematodes can be avoided by having a perfectly flowing

    ditch and usage of fungicides such as Carbofuran before planting.

    vi) Maturation Index

    Based on our findings, the pineapple fruits are harvested at a specific size and

    colour. This is important to comply with the consumer’s preferences and ensuring top

    quality of fruits sold. The pineapple fruits are harvested based on the maturity index. The

    maturity index contains specifications of the colour, texture, sweetness and size of the

     pineapple fruit. This gives the farmers an idea when to harvest their fruits for optimum

    quality and taste.

    The maturity index is divided into five stages. The first stage indicates the fruit is

    unripe and is dark green in colour. The fruit slips are oblong in shape and are inclined

    upwards. The texture of the fruit is very chewy. The acid content of the fruits is very high

    and is not very sweet. Pineapples harvested at this stage are usually for exportation of

    unripe pineapples by sea.

    The second stage of the maturity index states that the pineapple fruit is beginning

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    to mature. The overall fruit is round turns slightly yellowish in colour at the fruit slips and

    turn light green at the base of the fruit. Almost twenty five percent of the fruits turn light

    yellow starting from the base. The sweetness of the fruit also develops. The fruits are

    harvested at this stage for exportation by air transport.

    The third stage of maturity is achieved when almost half of the fruit is ripe. The

    fruit can be eaten fresh. The texture of the fruit is firm and very juicy. The sugar content

    of the fruit is high making it very sweet. The pineapples are suitable for local markets.

    The fruits are not suitable for long distance deliveries.

    The fourth stage of the fruit states that the whole fruit is ripe. Almost seventy five

     percent of the fruit is yellowish-orange in colour. The texture of the fruit is still very firm

    and juicy. The sugar content of the fruit also increased and it very fitting to be consumed

    fresh.

    Lastly, the fifth stage of the maturity index is reached when the whole fruit turns

    yellow. The fruit tissue tends to be very soft and too juicy. The fruit also is very sweet

     because sugar production in fruits occurs in the last stages of fruit growth and

    development. Fruits harvested at this stage can be consumed fresh or made into juices and

     jams.

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    2) Transportation and Grading

    Based on our observation, the pineapples are primarily graded by the farmers

     before the transportation and distribution. The farmer will grade the pineapple based on

    the colour, smell and size. After the grading, the pineapples will be transported by using

    lorry. Moris sp. does not need any packaging because it has a thick skin. However, MD2

    sp. that has thin skin is wrapped using Styrofoam. This avoids any physical bruises to the

    fruits. The transporting lorries are filled with reposed mattresses. These mattresses give

    cushion to the fruits so that skin lesions and bruises can be avoided on the pineapples.

    The transporting lorry must only carry pineapple fruits to avoid any cross contamination

    from previous loads. Moris sp. are sold at local markets and MD2 sp. are graded and

    distributed by ‘Lembaga Pemasaran Pertanian Persekutuan’(FAMA). 

    The secondary grading stage is done by local dealers and FAMA employers.

    Grading is mainly done by weighing the pineapples. Besides that, grading of pineapples

    is done based on their maturity, freshness, uniformity in size and physical condition of the

     pineapples. Most importantly, the fruits must be free from any disease or defect. At this

    stage, spoiled or infested pineapples are rejected immediately. This is because spoilage

    rate in good fruits increases when are stored together with bad fruits. After grading

     process is complete, the pineapples are sold by the kilogram.

    To further ensure the quality and safety of the graded pineapples, the inspector

    should observe and test if too much fertilizers or excessive chemicals were used.

    Pineapples that grow abnormally big or heavy are signs of abuse in fertilizers. Besides

    that, pineapples that are sprayed with too much fertilizer cause irritation on tongue and

    mouth when consumed. The hygiene of the personnel must also be considered in order to

     prevent any spoilage of the fruits. A person with an illness, open lesion, sores or any

    source of microbial contamination must not involve in handling the pineapples as thiscould contaminate the fruits.

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    3) Market 

    Based on our findings, the pineapples that are too ripe and are rejected by FAMA

    employees are sold at directly at the pineapple farm. These over ripe pineapples are sold

    fresh, made into juice or jelly. Whole pineapples are sold by the kilogram.

    At the supermarket, Moris sp. pineapples were sold by the kilogram. The excess

    top part of the pineapples is cut off. The pineapples will be displayed on shelves for ten

    days.

    Some of the pineapples rot and spoil when exposed to dirty environments.

    Therefore, the pineapples must be displayed on clean shelves and stored in cooled

    temperatures.

    Before the pineapple is distributed for commerce,. The shelf needs to be clean

    from any dirt. It should not be using previously to place any other product especially the

    animal product.

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    4) Consumer

    Based on our observations, consumers were not well aware of the pineapple’s

    maturity indexes and use of different types of pineapples for different purposes. For

    example, Moris sp. is suitable for savory dishes and MD2 sp. is suitable to be freshly

    eaten. Consumers also did not know how to preserve the freshness of the pineapples.

    In choosing pineapples, colour and smell plays a very important role. Pleasant,

    strong and sweet scent of the pineapples indicates pineapples are mature and ripe. The

    colour and the texture of the pineapples can also be used to determine the maturity and

    ripeness of the fruit. For example, Morris sp. develops purplish skin in its fully ripe stages.

    However, MD2 sp. develops are bright green colour. Under ripe pineapples are more

    acidic and is not sweet since sugars are produced in the last stages of growth. On the

    other hand, over ripe pineapples usually has softer texture and is juicier. Hence, they are

    often used to make juices, jams and marmalades. Pineapples which are non- climacteric

    fruits do not ripen further after harvest and are highly perishable. Therefore, pineapple

    must be stored in cool conditions to prevent it from turning moldy and ferment. If the

    consumer choses to store the pineapples in room temperature, it will have a shelf life for a

    day or two. Lastly, due to the pineapple’s unique taste, many products were   developed

    and commercialized such as pineapple juices, pineapple jelly, marmalade and canned

     pineapples cubes in syrup.

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    CONCLUSION 

    In conclusion, the whole pre-harvest and post-harvest system of pineapples that

    consist of the pineapple farm, transportation of produce, marketing and consumer

    understanding was analyzed. Steps to further decrease any post -harvest losses were

    discussed.

    At the pineapple farm, the practices that were adapted by local farmers were

    observed. Farmer’s practices, environmental f actors, fertilization, diseases and maturation

    classifications were observed and analyzed. Good Agriculture Practices were discussed to

    minimize the problem faced to ensure best quality of pineapples was produced.

    At the transporting stage, we analyzed the grading system of the pineapple fruits.

    The fruits were graded according to their average size, weight, colour, smell and physical

    appearance. Comparisons were made why the MD2 sp. was wrapped and the Moris sp.

    did not need any wrapping. The lorries that transported the pineapples were observed to

    understand the function of mattresses. To further minimize post  – harvest loss during

    transportation, separation of good and bad fruits and practices of the inspector was

    discussed.

    The marketing and consumer stage was observed at the stall near the pineapple

    farm and at the supermarket. Consumer’s knowledge in choosing ripe pineapples was

    surveyed. The types of product developed from pineapples were also observed.

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    REFERENCES

    1.   Amar Ahmadi bin Thalip, Tong P.S. and Casey Ng (2015), The MD2 ‘Super Sweet’

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    e%20(Ananas%20comosus)%20-%20Amar%20Ahmad%20bin%20Thalip,%20To

    ng%20P.%20S.%20and%20Casey%20Ng.pdf   [Accessed: 3 May 2016]

    2.  Chapter 10 Quality control/quality assurance and international trade; good

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    critical control points (haccp) [Online] Available from:

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    3.  Climacteric and Non-climacteric Fruit List [Online] Available from:

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    4. 

     Importance of Post-Harvest Technology –  Fruits and Vegetables Management(July, 2013). [Online] Available from:

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    5.   Improving the Safety and Quality of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: A Training

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    May 2016]

    6. Lembaga Perindustrian Nanas Malaysia, Manual Tanaman Nanas Tanah Gambut.

    http://www.utar.edu.my/fsaj/file/The%20MD2%20(Super%20Sweet)%20pineapple%20(Ananas%20comosus)%20-%20Amar%20Ahmad%20bin%20Thalip,%20Tong%20P.%20S.%20and%20Casey%20Ng.pdfhttp://www.utar.edu.my/fsaj/file/The%20MD2%20(Super%20Sweet)%20pineapple%20(Ananas%20comosus)%20-%20Amar%20Ahmad%20bin%20Thalip,%20Tong%20P.%20S.%20and%20Casey%20Ng.pdfhttp://www.utar.edu.my/fsaj/file/The%20MD2%20(Super%20Sweet)%20pineapple%20(Ananas%20comosus)%20-%20Amar%20Ahmad%20bin%20Thalip,%20Tong%20P.%20S.%20and%20Casey%20Ng.pdfhttp://www.utar.edu.my/fsaj/file/The%20MD2%20(Super%20Sweet)%20pineapple%20(Ananas%20comosus)%20-%20Amar%20Ahmad%20bin%20Thalip,%20Tong%20P.%20S.%20and%20Casey%20Ng.pdfhttp://www.fao.org/docrep/v5030e/v5030e0t.htmhttp://www.fao.org/docrep/v5030e/v5030e0t.htmhttp://www.quisqualis.com/Climacteric.htmlhttp://www.quisqualis.com/Climacteric.htmlhttp://www.environment.co.za/gm-foods-crops-biofuels-pesticides/importance-of-post-harvest-technology-fruits-and-vegetables-management.html%20%5bAccessed:3%20May2016%5dhttp://www.environment.co.za/gm-foods-crops-biofuels-pesticides/importance-of-post-harvest-technology-fruits-and-vegetables-management.html%20%5bAccessed:3%20May2016%5dhttp://www.environment.co.za/gm-foods-crops-biofuels-pesticides/importance-of-post-harvest-technology-fruits-and-vegetables-management.html%20%5bAccessed:3%20May2016%5dhttp://www.environment.co.za/gm-foods-crops-biofuels-pesticides/importance-of-post-harvest-technology-fruits-and-vegetables-management.html%20%5bAccessed:3%20May2016%5dhttp://jifsan.umd.edu/docs/gaps/en/GAPs_Manual_(Compiled).pdfhttp://jifsan.umd.edu/docs/gaps/en/GAPs_Manual_(Compiled).pdfhttp://jifsan.umd.edu/docs/gaps/en/GAPs_Manual_(Compiled).pdfhttp://www.environment.co.za/gm-foods-crops-biofuels-pesticides/importance-of-post-harvest-technology-fruits-and-vegetables-management.html%20%5bAccessed:3%20May2016%5dhttp://www.environment.co.za/gm-foods-crops-biofuels-pesticides/importance-of-post-harvest-technology-fruits-and-vegetables-management.html%20%5bAccessed:3%20May2016%5dhttp://www.environment.co.za/gm-foods-crops-biofuels-pesticides/importance-of-post-harvest-technology-fruits-and-vegetables-management.html%20%5bAccessed:3%20May2016%5dhttp://www.quisqualis.com/Climacteric.htmlhttp://www.fao.org/docrep/v5030e/v5030e0t.htmhttp://www.utar.edu.my/fsaj/file/The%20MD2%20(Super%20Sweet)%20pineapple%20(Ananas%20comosus)%20-%20Amar%20Ahmad%20bin%20Thalip,%20Tong%20P.%20S.%20and%20Casey%20Ng.pdfhttp://www.utar.edu.my/fsaj/file/The%20MD2%20(Super%20Sweet)%20pineapple%20(Ananas%20comosus)%20-%20Amar%20Ahmad%20bin%20Thalip,%20Tong%20P.%20S.%20and%20Casey%20Ng.pdfhttp://www.utar.edu.my/fsaj/file/The%20MD2%20(Super%20Sweet)%20pineapple%20(Ananas%20comosus)%20-%20Amar%20Ahmad%20bin%20Thalip,%20Tong%20P.%20S.%20and%20Casey%20Ng.pdf

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    7.  NPK Fertilizer: What Is It And How Does It Work? [Online] Available from:

    http://feeco.com/npk-fertilizer-what-is-it-and-how-does-it-work/ [Accessed: 4

    May 2016]

    8. Ten FAQs about the Prickly Pineapple [Online] Available from:

    http://shelflifeadvice.com/content/ten-faqs-about-prickly-pineapple [Accessed: 4

    May 2016] 

    9. The Australian Soil Classification [Online] Available from:

    http://www.clw.csiro.au/aclep/asc_re_on_line/soilglos.htm#bd  [Accessed: 4

    May 2016]

    http://feeco.com/npk-fertilizer-what-is-it-and-how-does-it-work/http://feeco.com/npk-fertilizer-what-is-it-and-how-does-it-work/http://shelflifeadvice.com/content/ten-faqs-about-prickly-pineapplehttp://shelflifeadvice.com/content/ten-faqs-about-prickly-pineapplehttp://www.clw.csiro.au/aclep/asc_re_on_line/soilglos.htm#bdhttp://www.clw.csiro.au/aclep/asc_re_on_line/soilglos.htm#bdhttp://shelflifeadvice.com/content/ten-faqs-about-prickly-pineapplehttp://feeco.com/npk-fertilizer-what-is-it-and-how-does-it-work/

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    APPENDIX 1 : INFORMATION ON SITE VISIT

    Location of farm: Kampung Sekolah Pineapple Farm, Juru, SPT, Pulau Pinang.

    Office: Pejabat Lembaga Perindustrian Nenas Malaysia (Cawangan Pulau Pinang), No 70,

    Jalan Dagangan 2, Pusat Bandar Bertam Perdana, 13200, Kepala Batas, Seberang Perai

    Utara, Pulau Pinang.

    Contact person: Mr. Syed Ghazali.

    Additional Information:

      Alpha Nepthyl Acetic Acid (ANAA)

    Plant hormone that enhances root development and plant growth.

      Bormelain in pineapples can enhance immune function. For example cancer

     prevention, improved wound healing and better gut health.

      The farmer does not have GMP and GAP certification. The pineapple productions

    are unable to be marketed in supermarket such as AEON and Tesco because they

    require GMP and GAP certification.

      FAMA take in charge in inspecting and grading of the pineapple. FAMA also

    distribute the pineapple in “Gerai Buah-buahan Segar” located near the farm or in

    Penang area.

      Before planting the pineapple seed, farmer usually liming the soil using ground

    mile limestone (GML).

      Hybrid type pineapples such as MD2 are more susceptible to disease compared to

    original type such as Morris.

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    APPENDIX 2 : ELABORATION ON SCIENTIFIC TERMS

    1.  Alpha Nepthyl Acetic Acid (ANAA) is a plant hormone booster that enhances

    flowering, root development and plant growth.

    2.  Bromelain is an enzyme that is found abundantly in pineapple juice and pineapple

    stem. It can be used as meat tenderizer and reducing inflammation.

    3.  Saprik peat soil is a type of soil materials are the most highly decomposed. Bulk

    density is commonly 0.2 or more, and the fiber content averages less than one-third

    of the volume before rubbing. Maximum water content when saturated normally is

    less than 450 percent on the oven-dry basis (Histosols in Soil Taxonomy, Soil Survey

    Staff ,1975)

    4.  Hemic peat soil hese soil materials are intermediate in degree of decomposition. Bulk

    density is commonly between 0.07 and 0.18 and the fiber content is normally

     between one-third and two-thirds of the volume before rubbing. Maximum water

    content when saturated ranges from about 450 to 850 percent (Histosols in Soil

    Taxonomy , Soil Survey Staff, 1975)

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    APPENDIX 3 : MATURITY INDEX OF PINEAPPLES

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    APPENDIX 4 : SUITABLE SOIL CHARACTERISTICS FOR PINEAPPLE

    GROWTH