Physical Activity Determinates, interventions, and barriers related to Childhood & Adolescent

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Physical Activity Determinates, interventions, and barriers related to Childhood & Adolescent. Limitation of this Presentation. Based on instructors review of the materials about children and adolescents involving 20 studies or reviews from 1990-2007. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>Physical Activity Determinates, interventions, and barriers of Childhood &amp; Adolescent</p> <p>Physical Activity Determinates, interventions, and barriers related to Childhood &amp; Adolescent1+1Limitation of this PresentationBased on instructors review of the materials about children and adolescents involving 20 studies or reviews from 1990-2007. The focus of this presentation are on determinates and interventions that have been reported in studies included in the instructors review of literature specific to children and adolescents.</p> <p>2+StatusCDC (2002) reported that the number of overweight children 6-11 doubled in the past 2 decadesRates of minorities are even higher43% of Mexican-American boys and girls are overweight or obese31% of African American boys and 40% of girls are overweight or obese29% of White American boys and 27% of girls are overweight or obeseCDC (2002) reported that the number of overweight adolescents 12-19 tripled in the past 2 decades3+StatusChildren and adolescent level of PA and exercise have declined over the last 2 decades</p> <p>Fewer children and adolescents today achieve ACSM guidelines of daily exercise that includes 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity per day.4+Determinates in ChildrenEnjoyment of PAParental perception of barriers to exercise behaviorFriend and family modeling/supportNumber of exercise-related pieces of equipment at homeParental modeling of exerciseAmount of time spent playing near their homeParents obesity level/overweightTime spent outdoors</p> <p>5+Stucky-Ropp, R.C. &amp; Dilorenzo, T.M. (1993) Determines of exercise in children. Preventive medicine 22 880-889</p> <p>Sallis, J.F., Prochaska, J.J. and Taylor, W.C. (2000) A review of correlates of PA of children and adolscents Medicine &amp; Science in Sports &amp; Exercise 963-975. </p> <p>5Interventions for ChildrenCreate healthy schools (www.cdc.gov)Create healthy communities*Socialization process in the family &amp; Family based approach*Nutritional interventionsRestrict access to certain foodsEat dinner with their families*School-based interventions*Safe neighborhoods &amp; make play spaces safeFind ways to increase their energy expenditureComputer games (e.g., Wii) and Pedometer useIncrease the amount of time playing outdoors</p> <p>6+Hardy (2006) Fighting student obesity in school. May: 25- Education Vial Signs</p> <p>Family based approach is where you change the parents knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices with regards to feeding children and regulating the time children speed watching TV. This would be food choice, food preparation, qualities of food, calorie intake, </p> <p>School based interventions are require a health class that track one diet, increase the frequency and duration of Pe, recess, foot services, nearby parks, ability to walk to school, </p> <p>Children and parents should east dinner together because they eat more fruit, vegtables, less sodas, etc. </p> <p>Dietz, W.H., &amp; Gortmaker, S.L., (2001) Preventing obesity in children and adolesents Annual Review of Public Health 22:337-53.</p> <p>Trost, S.G. (2000) Objective measure of physical activity in youth: current issues and future directions. Exercise and Sport Science 32-36</p> <p>Sallis, J.F., McKenzie, T.L., Elder, J.P., Broyles, S.L., &amp; Nader, P. R., (1997) Factors parents use in selecting play spaces for young children ARCHA Pediar adolsec med/vol 151 apr </p> <p>Healthy communities involve increasing the number of children opportunities, remove obstacles of transportation, pay fees, provide special equipment, provide access to PA facilities, </p> <p>Liverman, K.J., &amp; Kraak, (2005) Preventing Childrhood Obesity. Issues in Science &amp; Technology, 21 (3) 57-64.6Viewing Time8-18 year olds spend time on computers and watching TV is about 20%Cross sectional study among 11 year old children in 9 countries (N = 12538) by Velde, S.J. &amp; et al., 2007).High TV &amp; PC viewers (boys and girls) had increased risk of being overweight.Girls seem to be at a higher risk than boys Longitudinal data of Adolescent Health (N=9155) by Boone, et al., 2007) .Adolescent viewing time hours was highly positively correlated to the incident of obesityMore in female than the male </p> <p>7+Patterns in sedentary and exercise behavior and association with overweight in 9-14 year old bosy and girls by Velde in BMC public health January 2007</p> <p>Screen time and PA during adolscence: longitudinal effect on obesity in young adulthood, Boone, J.E., Gordon-Larsen, P. G., Adair, L.S., &amp; Popkin, B.M. (2007) International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and PA 4;26, </p> <p>7Factors related to Viewing TimeBoys and girls with siblings were more active and have less viewing time levels than boys and girls without siblings.As the number of siblings increased in the family, the viewing time levels decreasedThe presence of a brother appears to be more important for boys PA level Girl from single-parent home have the highest viewing time levels.Parents who are physically active positive affect the childs PA levels.8+Family structure and childrens Television viewing and PA. Bagley, Salmon and Crawford study Medicince and Science in Sport and Exercise. (2006) 910-9188Adolescent BarriersAcademic responsibilities (Home work)Parents &amp; home structureNeighborhood &amp; Safe play spacesAge (direct relation between motor skill competency and being active)Access to PA facilitiesCost Quality of Physical Education in the schoolNumber of after school PA programs TV &amp; PC viewing timeTransportationNumber of youth programsClimate9+Home work and could not fit PE into my schedule</p> <p>Age many youth feel that they should have started an activity to develop necessary skills. 9Interventions in AdolescentsProvision for transportation*Participation &amp; attitude in/of physical educationUse of community recreation center*Being a member of a sport team*Lower crime levels in the adolescents neighborhood*Parents encouragement and participation in PAPeer supportTime spent outdoors*Access to physical activity facility*Enjoyment of the activityGender bias</p> <p>10+Adolecents total PA and participation in sport team and activity classes is associated with some form of transportion. Jajor source is parental dependency to transport. Boy were transported more than girls?? Is there a barrier here! Are parents less likely to transport the girl as opposed to boy? Boys seem to be more active therefore need transportation. Active boy will adjust for their parent transportation and found ways to access PA locations without parent transportation. (Hoefer, W. R., McKenzie, T.L., Sallis, J.F., Marshall, S.J. &amp; Conway, T.L. (Parental provision of transportation for adolescents physical activity, American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2001, 21(1) 48-51</p> <p>Participation in physical education increased one moderate to vigourous physical education levels. Males are more likely to participate in PE than girls. Community recreation center usage is similar to PE use. </p> <p>Gordon-Larson, P, McMurray, R. G. , &amp; Poplin, B.M. (2000) Determinates of Adolescents PA and inactivity patterns. Journal of American Academy of Pediatrics, 105: 83-91 </p> <p>Psychological determinates of adolscent exercise adherence Douthitt, V.l. (1994) Adolscence V 29 pp711(12).10SummaryPrescription of exercise in children and adolescent population using CDC or ACSM are not as defined when compared to adultsModerate to vigorous activity; 30 minutes per dayActivity or exercise needs to be enjoyableIncrease energy expenditureFamily based determinates and interventions seem to have the greatest impactNutritional engineering Increase PA activity timeModeling effectPhysical education can be a very effective in and out of school intervention but few use it or the program is not implemented properly. Environmental interventions seem to be the major focus of resources to increase exercise in children today.The focus of most of the resources associated with most intervention is given to overweight children with little given to the adolescent population. 11+The End+</p>

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