8 x 104 x 5 Camera is usually referred to by the size of film
Twins Lens Reflex TLR
Single Lens reflex camera
Focal Plane ShutterLeaf ShutterFound in most film and digital SLR Cameras.
Reading the light meter
Shutter Speed 1/30 of a second 1/500 of a second
Panning1/30 of a second
Using the shutter Speed to express Movement.
The Aperture acts like an irisThe Aperture controls amount of light entering the Camera and the Depth of Field
Aperture Controls the Depth of Field Depth of Field - Area of the picture that is in focus
Depth of FieldArea in the picture that is in focusControlled by distance from subject
Controlled by ApertureControlled by Distance
Depth of FieldControlled by the focal length size (type) of lens
A given type of film always needs an exact amount of light for a proper exposure.
As a photographer you determine the way the film receives the light by combining fstops and shutter speedsto give the picture the effect you want.
Combining Shutter Speed and Aperture for desired effect
Greatly affectthe results when developing a negative
Full Tonal Range
MeteringA light meter always wants to give you an average reading or middle grey.
Backlighting Take the meter reading from the subjectF11 @ 1/250 F11 @ 1/60
Example of glass in a wide angle lensExample of "wide angle" distortion by an 18 mm lens on a 35 mm camera.
Compresses spacehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspective_distortion_%28photography%29500 mm telephoto lens with extension tub
Polarizing FilterReduce reflections on water, glass or any smooth surface exceptMetal or mirror.
Focal length and distortionLong lens, moderate distance from subjectShort lens, close to subject
24mm35mm50mm100mm200mm800mm400mm1200mmFocal LengthThese eight photos were taken from the same place with different lenses.
Longs Peak from Upper Beaver Meadows in Rocky Mountain National Park http://www.paragon-press.com/lens/lenchart.htm
Polarizing Filter and the skyMid day 90 to the sun
Subtractive Color - determined by the reflection of light waves to the eyeMixing paint pigments is a subtractive color system
Each secondary color is composed of equal amounts of adjacent primary colors. G + R = YR + B = MG + B = C
Each color is complementary to the color opposite.Primary colors of lightAdditive Colour R G B
In 1666, Isaac Newton passed a beam of sunlight through a glass prism breaking it into a rainbow of colors that form the visible spectrum. He then passed the rainbow through a second prism converting the colors back into white light.When light is refracted each wavelength is bent to a different degree separating the light into different bands of color.It is the wavelength of light that determines its color.
Colour is determined by the lighttemperature.Film must be balanced for the light source or coloured filtersmust be used to achieve realistic colour.Daylight film is balanced for5500 KIndoor film or tungsten colour film is balanced for 3400 K type A or 3200 K type B
Time of day determinescolour and drama of image.SunriseOne hour laterMidday, sunnyMidday, overcastLate afternoon
Tungsten FilmDaylight FilmDaylight/daylight filmTungsten/Tungsten filmDaylight/Tungsten filmTungsten/Daylight film85B80A
Use FL-D /daylight filmUse FL-B /tungsten filmFlorescent light is very difficult to balance, as currently there are many types offl. bulbs on the market. Turn off all fluorescents whenever possible !Old fashioned, standardflorescent bulbs.