C us sm l or a p e e
Photography 1: The Art of PhotographyWritten by Michael Freeman
About the author
Michael Freeman is one of the worlds most highly respected professional photographers. He is widely published, with more than 80 books to his credit including the classic 35mm handbook (over 1.5 million copies sold). His publications include Spirit of Asia; Angkor: Cities and Temples (both Thames and Hudson); Japan Modern and The Modern Japanese Garden (both Mitchell Beazley). Michael has produced a unique series of guide books for the digital photographer and this is published by ILEX, who are digital media specialists. He has worked on commissions for many well-known publishing clients, including Time-Life, Readers Digest, Cond Nast Traveller and GEO. He is also the principle photographer for the Smithsonian Magazine.
ContentsYou and your courseWhat's in your course pack The equipment you will need Linking up with your tutor Course work A note on filter equivalents On completing the course Project and tutorial plan
A way of seeingIntroduction Learning from professional work Equipment versus image The equipment you will need General advice Getting to know your camera Project 1: focal length and angle of view Project 2: focus with a set aperture Project 3: focus with different apertures Photographing movement Project 4: shutter speeds Project 5: panning with different shutter speeds
The frameLooking through the viewfinder Project 6: fitting the frame to the subject Project 7: objects in different positions in the frame Project 8: recording a sequence The angle of view Project 9: focal lengths Project 10: focal lengths and different viewpoints
Dividing the frame Project 11: balance Project 12: positioning the horizon Project 13: the golden section Frame shapes and sizes Project 14: vertical and horizontal frames Cropping Project 15: cropping Assignment 1: the theory and practice of contrasts
Elements of designIntroduction Points Project 16: defining a point Project 17: positioning a point Project 18: relationship between points Project 19: multiple points Lines Project 20: horizontal and vertical lines Project 21: diagonals Project 22: curves Using lines in composition Project 23: implied lines Shapes Project 24: shapes Project 25: rectangles Project 26: real and implied triangles Project 27: real and implied circles Rhythm and pattern Project 28: rhythms and patterns Project 29: applying the elements of design
ColourIntroduction: the history and properties of colour in photography Project 30: colour control Project 31 analysing a colour Making a slide library of colours Project 32: primary colours Project 33: secondary colours Colours in real life Project 34: black and white and grey as colours Colour relationships Project 35: colour relationships Project 36: warm and cool colours Colour filters in black-and-white photography Project 37: filters with black-and-white film Assignment 2: colour
Natural lightThe raw material of photography The intensity of light Project 38: measuring the intensity of light Project 39: using faster film and higher sensitivity Project 40: using a meter The colour of light Project 41: your eyes sensitivity to colour Project 42: judging colour temperature Dawn to dusk Project 43: through the day Project 44: low sun Project 45: picture count Project 46: choosing the moment Project 47: twilight Weather Project 48: cloudy and dull weather Project 49: graduated filters
Project 50: rain Assignment 3: applying what you have learned so far
Artificial lightIntroduction Available light Project 51: tungsten lights Project 52: tungsten film/tungsten balance Project 53: fluorescent lights Project 54: outdoors at night Photographic lighting Project 55: light intensity Project 56: softening the light Project 57: the lighting angle Project 58: contrast and shadow fill Project 59: concentrating light Project 60: shiny surfaces Project 61: making the best use of built-in flash Assignment 4: applying lighting techniques
Narrative and illustrationPutting the subject first Narrative Project 62: researching an event Project 63: a narrative picture essay Illustration Project 64: evidence of action Illustration by symbols Project 65: symbols Illustration by juxtaposition Project 66: juxtaposition Project 67: rain Assignment 5: applying the techniques of illustration and narrative
At the end of your course Appendix A: if you plan to submit your work for formal assessment Appendix B: equipment Appendix C: technique Appendix D: design Appendix E: information concerning the proper use of materials and equipment Further reading
Project 35: colour relationships[3 photographs for the first part, 3 - 4 for the second part] The project is to produce one photograph for each combination of primary and secondary colours, adjusting the distance, focal length or framing when you shoot so that you compose the picture to the proportions listed above. Finding these combinations will not necessarily be easy, and adjusting the proportions even less so. As you do the project, read the Colour section in Appendix D which describes the same principle of equilibrium with more colours (see the images below). Produce multi-colour combinations, of which at least one should be in these balanced proportions. The other images can be of any mixtures of strong colours that appeal to you. The objective here is to demonstrate that there is no 'correctness' to complementary colours. But you should be aware of any imbalance in the combination and study its effect. Write this in your logbook for future reference. As in the discussion on balance in 2: The frame, the slight tension that comes from imbalance can often be more interesting than perfect equilibrium. What is important in this course is that you are aware of it and can make use of it in your own work.
Early morning sunlight gives additional vibrance to the contrasting colours in this faade of a colonial mansion in the Mexican city of Merida.
The following images have been reduced to abstract colour relationships in the adjoining diagrams. The ability to look at a complex subject and see within it the main elements of form and colour is an important stage in the framing of balanced images and in the conscious use of colour.
Complementary colours: the red and green in this image are not pure and so the interaction normally associated with complementary colours is less evident.
Complementary colours: the relationship between the orange and blue areas is softened by the intervening neutral fawn.
Complementary colours: although the 2 hues are pale in the dawn view of fishing boats, the persistent harmony of yellow and violet creates a calm feeling.
Contrasting colours: the juxtaposition of green and pink form a strong focal point in this photograph of a Kathakali dancer. This shot also illustrates the value of oncamera flash which usually works best on a subject with strong colours or tones.
Contrasting colours: the classic primary combination with roughly equal areas of red and yellow and a greater area of blue which, being darker in tone, adds to the intensity of the other 2.
Contrasting colours: even though they are separated by more neutral hues, the intensity of the 3 primary colours is still evident in this study of a Balinese fishing boat.
Contrasting colours: here the dominant green acts as a setting for the limited areas of primary colours.
Contrasting colours: apart from the contrast in hue, the green, blue and orange share a similar quality of desaturation. This helps to make a coherent image.