Phonetic Sounds (Vowel Sounds and Consonant Sounds)

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    Phonetics

    The Study of the wayHumans make,

    Transmit, andReceive Sounds

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    Phonology -

    the study of sound systems of languages

    Phoneme

    A phonological segment that can be

    phonetically predicted by a rule

    /b/ inbi t and /p/ in pit.

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    The Organs of

    Speech andArticulation

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    Languages are made up of

    vowels and consonantssounds

    Cantonese consists of 70 sounds (19

    initials and 51 finals)

    English consists of 44 sounds (20vowels and 24 consonants)

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    VowelsMost vowel sounds are modified by

    the shape of the lips.

    (rounded / spread / neutral)

    Sounds are made by vibrating the

    vocal cords (voicing).

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    Vowels can besingle sounds

    monophthongs or pure vowelsDouble sounds - Diphthongs

    Triple sounds - Triphthongs

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    American Standard English

    Or

    British Standard English?

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    PHILIPPINE

    ENGLISH!

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    This is found in the

    word tea.The lipsare spreadand the

    sound is long

    Pure vowels usually come in pairs consisting

    of long and short sounds

    This is found in the

    word hip. The lipsare slightly spread

    and the sound isshort

    :

    The tongue tip is raised slightly at the front towards the

    alveolar. In the longer sound the tongue is raised higher.

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    The most common sound in Englishthe Schwa

    This sound is made by relaxing the mouth and

    keeping your lips in a neutralposition andmaking a short sound. It is found in words like

    paper, over, about, and common in weak verbs

    in spoken English.

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    This sound is the longform of the

    schwa sound. It is found in words likethi rteen and bi rd. The mouth is relaxed

    and lips are neutral.

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    This is the short

    soundup, cut &

    butter

    This is the long

    soundcar, fast

    & dark

    The centre of the tongue is raised towards the soft

    plate, the lips are neutral.

    &

    a:

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    u:The long sound

    you, too & blue

    The short sound

    Good, would & wool

    The lips are roundedand the centre and back of the

    tongue is raised towards the soft plate. For the longer

    sound the tongue is raised higher and the lips are more

    rounded.

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    The longsounddoor, four &more

    The short soundhot, clock and what.

    Made with roundedlips and tongue

    slightly raised at the back

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    Two of the vowels do not have long sounds

    This sound is made with the mouth spread wideopen. It is found incat, man, apple & ran

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    The sound of e is found in wet, left, when

    & tell. Like the sound for a it is a short sound

    that has no long version.

    The vowel sounds we have just reviewed

    make up the rest of the diphthongs etc. that

    come next.

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    Diphthongs,

    Triphthongs &Glides

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    Diphthongsare combinations of two sounds-

    English has 8 diphthongs

    Triphthongsare combinations of three

    sounds-English has 1triphthong (a diphthong + a

    schwa sound)

    Glidesare sounds made when the tongue

    moves from one position to another.

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    Here we have three sounds;

    The sounds from 1) for 2) tour

    3) go

    1

    2

    3

    Two of these sounds are diphthongs, combinations

    of vowels.

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    This diphthong is found inhay, date,

    scrape & vein.

    Diphthongs are made by sliding the

    tongue for one position to another - this is

    know as a glide.

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    Here two more pure vowels are combined

    to make a sound. This sound is like saying

    the letter O. It begins with a er (schwa)and moves towards the oo sound found in

    good.

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    Words like cow, down, ground and townall

    contain this sound.

    (The a:is also used to make this diphthong)

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    Diphthongs are combinations of pure vowels.

    a:+I= aI - tie, buy, height & night

    e + I = eI - way, paid & gate

    o:+ I = oI boy, coin & coy

    e + = e - where, hair & care

    I + = I - here, hear & beer

    e e

    ee

    Review all 8 sounds and try the exercises on the worksheets

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    Consonants

    The Articulation of sound based

    on received pronunciation

    (R. P.)(These sounds are for reference

    only)

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    1) PlosivesPlosives are made by making a

    complete closure between

    some point and the vocal tract.

    Pressure builds up behind the

    closure which is released to

    create sound.

    This group includes the sounds

    of b, p, k, d, t &d.

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    b &p

    These two sounds are

    plosives, they differ in

    the way the voice isused during the sound.

    1) Pis aspirated &

    voicelessair leaving

    the mouth. It is a gentlesound.

    2) B is a voiced sound and

    the air is restricted

    through the glottis

    Both sounds are known as

    Bilabial Plosives

    Closed

    mouth

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    The sounds k & g are

    made by raisingthe tongue at the

    back of the mouth

    to make a

    complete closure.

    1) k is a voiceless

    sound

    2) g is a voiced sound

    These are known as

    Velar Plosives

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    The sounds of t & d are

    made by raising the tongue to

    touch the front of the alveolarridge just behind the teeth.

    1) t is voiceless

    2) d is voiced

    Notice how you can feel air

    when pronouncing the t, the

    d sound has no air as it is

    voiced through the vocal

    cords.

    These are know as -

    Alveolar Plosives

    Alveolar ridge

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    2) FricativesFricatives are made by moving two

    vocal organs together to restrict therelease of sound.

    This group includes the sounds of f,

    v, s, z,and both sh &thsounds

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    F & V

    1) The f is voiceless first, phone & flat

    2) The v is voiced video, love & have

    The top front teeth are placed on the top of the bottom

    lip. The sound is squeezed through the small gaps

    These sounds are known as

    Labio-dental Fricatives

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    The voiced sound,found in the, there &

    feather

    The voiceless soundfound in think, thin

    & thought

    The tongue touches the teeth, usually just behind the front

    teeth. Above is shown the way it can be practised byputting the tongue between the front teeth and touching

    the index finger. These are known as a

    Dental fricatives

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    The sound sh is made by

    raising the blade of the tongue

    to make light contact with thesoft palate. The sound is

    squeezed through the gap

    making a sh sound.

    The voiceless sound can befound in she, wash , sure &

    champagne

    The voiced sound is found in television & revision

    These sounds are know as

    Palato-alveolar Fricatives

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