Philosophers You Should Know. Siddhartha Gautama c . 563 – 483 BCE India. Founder of Buddhism Four noble truths: Wake up to the reality of human suffering; All suffering is a result of insatiable desire. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Philosophers to Know
Philosophers You Should KnowSiddhartha Gautamac. 563 483 BCE IndiaFounder of BuddhismFour noble truths:Wake up to the reality of human suffering;All suffering is a result of insatiable desire.There is a cure for our suffering: reaching Nirvana or the quenching of desire.The course of treatment: looking inward to realize that we are but an illusion; one does this through the eight-fold path.Right seeing; right thinking; right speaking; right acting; right lifestyle; right effort; right mind-set; and right meditating
The tongue like a sharp knife, Kills without drawing blood.Socrates469 399 BCE Greece
Predominantly interested in the moral questions that affect our lives.He taught through a system of questions and answers called a dialectic.Accepting ones ignorance was the first step towards knowledge.Searched for the essential natures of concepts like love, courage, peace.Thought to be a radical and was condemned to death by drinking hemlock.
Ignorance is the only evil.Plato428 354 BC Greece
The RepublicStudent of SocratesBelieved in an unseen world where perfect models of everything on Earth existed.Our world is merely a reflection of (shadows of) that perfection.Good leaders are not born, they just have the right education.Is there a perfect world?Aristotle384 322 BCE Greece
Student of PlatoKnowledge involves keen observation of the world around you.Everything is striving towards its own unique form of perfection.Women were second-class citizens and only unfinished men.The golden mean or the idea of doing nothing to excess will lead to the greatest happiness.Taught Alexander the Great.Those who can, do; those who understand, teach.Lao Tzu6th century BCE ChinaOld MasterIs said to have told Confucius to give up his devotion to ritual and custom.Dao De Jing is concerned with how the individual should approach life.Wu-Wei or receptivity means to accept things as they come, go with the flow, and do not try to change the natural course of things.Created the Taoist worldview of yin and yang.
Thinking is the cause of all problems.St. Augustine of Hippo354 430 modern Algeria
ConfessionsOnly our souls can experience divine reality.People have free will; in other words, God gave us the right to decide what to do with ourselves.Evil is the pursuit of Earthly pleasure.We must have Gods guidance, or grace, to move beyond our nature.
I believe in order to understand.Avicenna980 1037 Persia
His Canon of Medicine was the primary medical textbook throughout medieval Europe.All human souls are immortal.Allah is a necessary and perfect being, cannot change, and so he is eternal.Through observation, inferred that Venus is closer to the sun than Earth is.The world is divided into men who have wit and no religion and men who have religion and no wit.St. Thomas Aquinas1225 1274 Italy
Summa TheologiaeALL living things have souls: plants ensure growth; animals are capable of feeling; peoples have the ability to reason.Tried to prove the existence of God through reason; however, we cannot grasp the true nature of God.Knowledge must come from our senses-experiences.God is the only being for whom the fact that He is and what He is are identical.
Without God there is no universe.Niccol Machiavelli1469 - 1527 ItalyThe PrinceBuild generalizations from experience and historical fact.People do not have to love a leader, but should fear him.A ruler has the right, the requirement, to do whatever is necessary to maintain power and control.
The end justifies the means.Thomas Hobbes1588 1679 England
The LeviathanIt is rational for people to submit to a strong ruler to ensure order and peace.Nature is made of material matter; there is nothing spiritual about it.Reality is defined by our senses.
The condition of man is a condition of war.Ren Descartes1596 1650 France
Discourse on Method and Principles of PhilosophyTrusted math because, asleep or awake, two plus three always equals five.Questioned the existence of everything, even himself.The idea of a perfect being cannot have been created by anything less than a perfect being; therefore, God must have planted the idea into our heads, so he must exist.Invented coordinate geometry, and the graph: the x and y axes.
I think; therefore, I am.Baruch Spinoza1632 1677 Netherlands
EthicsGod and all the natural universe are one substance.Used geometric formulae to find the truth about the universe.First to examine the Bible as an historical document rather than a revealed truth. Also, said that the importance of the Bible lies in its moral message.Democracy is the most stable form of government and best promotes individual wellbeing.
There cannot be too much joy.John Locke1632 1704 England
Essay Concerning Human NatureThere is an implied contract between subjects and rulers; the rulers authority is not absolute, but is answerable to the majority.If the ruler breaks the terms of the contract, the governed have the right to rebel.People have inalienable rights: life, freedom, property, and to revolt against the unjust.
The mind is a blank piece of paper.Mary Wollstonecraft1759 1797 Great BritainThoughts on the Education of DaughtersThe first feministAttacked monarchy and hereditary privilege in support of the emerging middle classwomen are essential to the nation because they educate its childrenWomen deserve the same basic rights as men
The beginning is always today. Soren Kierkegaard1813 1855 Denmark
Either / Or: A Fragment of LifeOur relationship with God is a private matter; we must make our own decisions and moral choices.Three stages of personal development: the aesthetic (artistic), the ethical (dutiful), and the religious stages (the only one of any permanent significance).
Life is not a problem to solve, but a reality to experience.Friedrich Nietzsche1844 1900 Germany
Thus Spoke ZarathustraLife eternally repeats itself, so each person lives the same life over and over again.Individuals should try to achieve their full potential.His sister edited his works to fit her own philosophical views one was that Hitler was the prototype of the superman who combined strength, intellect, and creativity.God is dead.Mohandas K. Gandhi1869 1948 India
Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with TruthThe great soul in beggars ragsNonviolence towards all living things.People should pursue political as well as spiritual freedom.Martin Luther King, Jr. and Nelson Mandela both followed his teachings.
Be the change you want to see in the world.Jean-Paul Sartre1905 1980 France
Being and NothingnessPeople who live stereotypical lives are not really living.People (actors) are free to write their own scripts and cannot blame anyone else for a bad performance.Demanded that we face up to the responsibility of what we do and who we become.
Hell is other people.Simone de Beauvoir1908 1996 France
The Second SexMother of FeminismRefused the conventional female role for herself.Women are oppressed by mundane chores. Differences between men and women stem from social influences, not biological ones.One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman.Ayn Rand1905 1982 Russia/ United StatesAnthem; The Fountainhead; Atlas ShruggedReality, reason, rights, and capitalismReality is absolute; things are what they are regardless of our feelings or wishes. ( A is A. Aristotle)To understand reality and survive in it, man must use his reason.To live in society, man must be free to act by his own judgment. Everyman is a free-thinking and free-acting individual.Capitalism is the ideal system.
Man, every man, is an end in himself; he must work for his rational self-interest.
Works CitedLaw, Stephen. Eyewitness Companions: Philosophy. New York: DK Publishing. 2007
Stevenson, Jay, Ph.D., The Complete Idiots Guide to Philosophy. New York: Alpha. 2005
Weate, Jeremy. A Young Persons Guide to Philosophy. New York: DK Publishing, Inc. 1998