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Peter Frick Understanding Bonhoeffer

Peter Frick Understanding Bonhoeffer - mohrsiebeck.com · Preface This monograph is a collection of sixteen essays on Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906– 1945) that I wrote between 2007

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  • Peter Frick

    Understanding Bonhoeffer

  • Mohr Siebeck

    Peter Frick

    Understanding Bonhoeffer

  • Peter Frick, born 1961. Professor of Religious Studies and Academic Dean at St. Pauls Uni-versity College, University of Waterloo, Canada.

    ISBN 978-3-16-154723-2

    Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliogra-phie; detaillierte bibliographische Daten sind im Internet ber http://dnb.dnb.de abrufbar.

    2017 Mohr Siebeck Tbingen. www.mohr.de

    Das Werk einschlielich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschtzt. Jede Verwertung auerhalb der engen Grenzen des Urheberrechtsgesetzes ist ohne Zustimmung des Verlags unzulssig und strafbar. Das gilt insbesondere fr Vervielfltigungen, bersetzungen, Mi-kroverfilmungen und die Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronischen Systemen.

    Das Buch wurde von Gulde Druck in Tbingen gesetzt, auf alterungs bestndiges Werkdruck-papier gedruckt und gebunden.

    Umschlagabbildung: Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Bilder aus seinem Leben, Chr. Kaiser, 2nd ed. 1989, Seite 141 Gtersloher Verlagshaus, Gtersloh.

  • Preface

    This monograph is a collection of sixteen essays on Dietrich Bonhoeffer (19061945) that I wrote between 2007 and 2014. During that time I was a member of the Editorial Board that was responsible for the translation and publication of the German critical edition Dietrich Bonhoeffer Werke (DBW) into the English standard edition Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works English (DBWE). This project was carried out under the auspices of the International Bonhoeffer Society in coope-ration with Fortress Press. As part of the work of the Editorial Board I became passionately fascinated with the life, ideas and theology of Bonhoeffer. I worked my way methodically through every page of the 16 volumes of DBW. Not only did I diligently underline every page as I progressed, I also kept many notes on Bonhoeffers life and thought. More and more, these notes morphed into a deepening understanding of who Bonhoeffer was and why he developed the unique theology that he did during the difficult years of the Nazi regime. The time commitment, intellectual perseverance and labour necessary to work my way through nearly 10.000 pages of text was daunting but in the end all worthwhile. I think it is a fair conclusion to say that without encountering Bon-hoeffers thought and life I would not have been able to clarify my own theology and life journey.

    Initially, my approach was simply to let his works take hold of my own theo-logical mind, reflect on his ideas, attempt to sort them out and, most of all, arri-ve at an understanding of where he was coming from and what the significance of his theological ideas may be for us contemporary readers. The answers to the question where did Bonhoeffer come from are reflected in the section Back-grounding Bonhoeffer. Similarly, the question of contemporary significance is explored in the section Foregrounding Bonhoeffer. The bridge between both of these sections is always the either explicit (as in the first three essays) or on the implicit focus on making intelligible Bonhoeffers thinking.

    When I use the term understanding, I do so in view of Wilhelm Diltheys distinction between explanation, to explain a thing (erklren) and understan-ding, to understand a larger context (verstehen).1 This distinction, interestingly, is not the invention of the philosopher Dilthey, but has precursors in both the

    1 Cf. Wilhelm Dilthey, Die Entstehung der Hermeneutik, in Gesammelte Schriften. Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner 1964, vol. 5, 332336.

  • VIII Preface

    Puritan and Pietistic traditions.2 Explanation and understanding are not neces-sarily juxtaposed or mutually exclusive ways of approaching a subject matter, in our case, Dietrich Bonhoeffer. They rather point to a hermeneutical dynamic, namely the correlation between particular insights and details within a larger matrix of sense-making and understanding. As I said elsewhere,3 understanding always implies more than just understanding an author or a text. Precisely by understanding an author and his or her text does the reader encounter a new and deeper level in his or her own self-understanding. In my own case, by wanting to understand the thought of Bonhoeffer I encountered the freshness of his theology to the extent that it impacted my own self-understanding as a person and as a theologian. There is no doubt that the sustained encounter with Bon-hoeffers legendary life and dynamic theology has substantially shaped my own way of thinking and being. Something has happened in that encounter that is irreversible. And this is a good thing.

    Given the fact that these essays were all published in various journals and books and followed dissimilar editorial, stylistic and bibliographic conventions, here all of these matters are standardized. Perhaps the most significant change is that all essays are updated to the critical text of the DBWE. When I wrote the first essays, many of the DBWE volumes were not yet published. In some cases I translated the German text of the DBW volumes myself into English, some-times I used the German text without translation and sometimes I provided the reference to the DBW volumes in footnotes. All essays have now been updated and use the text of the DBWE. For scholars and readers interested in locating the German text in DBW it is quite possible to do so as the DBWE volumes have the page number of the corresponding DBW volume printed in the margin of each page. Cross-referencing between DBWE and DBW is thus quite user- friendly.

    For the most part, the essays have been slightly revised, stylistically as neces-sary and at times in terms of content. Since scholarship is dynamic and does not stand still, I could have updated and added bibliographic material in a rather substantive manner. Nevertheless, both in view of keeping to the substance and form of the original essays, I decided to update the essays only sparingly in terms of bibliographic additions. These updates are simply added in the foot-notes.

    As I was preparing this book and worked my way through the various essays, I realized that there is much overlap between some of the essays. In fact, there is too much overlap for my own liking. However, rather than cutting material that overlaps, I accept that the reason for the overlap has to do with the original

    2 Cf. Jens Zimmermann, Recovering Theological Hermeneutics. An Incarnational-Trini-tarian Theory of Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic 2004, 104107.

    3 Cf. the essay below: Understanding Bonhoeffer: from Default to Hermeneutic Rea-ding.

  • IXPreface

    occasion of each essay. In other words, all essays have a context-specific history, a Sitz im Leben, in the academy and church. Some essays were written out of my early academic interest, others for journals. Yet most were written for particular occasions or invitations to contribute a chapter to a book, conference partici-pation, or requests to present a lecture on Bonhoeffer with a given theme and focus. In some essays language is strictly academic, but in other essays language is deliberately non-academic in view of the audience.

    In a sense these essays are like light houses along the sometimes foggy shores of Bonhoeffers life and theology. The topics studied in these essays tell only a small part of Bonhoeffers life and theology, but they were important questions to me in my journey through the vast corpus of his oeuvre and secondary lite-rature. These studies helped me to situate Bonhoeffer in my quest for under-standing. They do not tell the whole story and make no claims otherwise. I am quite aware of the fact that there is a great deal more of Bonhoeffers thinking that I have not yet adequately examined and understood. Still, I trust that the reader will be encouraged to find his or her own enthusiasm in encountering Bonhoeffer by reading these essays. If they are of help in this regard, I am more than pleased.

    Finally, I would like to thank all the original publishers for the permission to publish these essays again in slightly revised form. My gratitude also to Dr. Henning Ziebritzki, Klaus Hermannstdter, Philipp Henkys and Susanne Mang, Mohr Siebeck, Tbingen, for accepting these essays for publication and for their exemplary support throughout the entire production process. I would also like to thank Carmen Celestini for her work on the indices and her careful reviewing of the manuscript.

    Last but not least, my wife and I would like to dedicate these pages with deepest affection to our friend Moni, whom we have known for more than half our lives.

    Peter Frick Waterloo, 29 June 2016

  • Content

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIIAbbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII

    Understanding Bonhoeffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Engaging Intellect Legendary Life . . . . . . 3

    Reading Bonhoeffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    2. Understanding Bonhoeffer: from Default to Hermeneutic Reading 25

    3. Interpretatio quaerens intellectum Translation Seeking Understanding: The Hermeneutics of Translating Bonhoeffer . . . 42

    Backgrounding Bonhoeffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    4. The Imitatio Christi of Thomas Kempis and Dietrich Bonhoeffer 55

    5. Friedrich Nietzsches Aphorisms and Dietrich Bonhoeffers Theology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

    6. Nietzsches bermensch and Bonhoeffers mndiger Mensch: Are They of Any Use for a Contemporary Christian Anthropology? 105

    7. Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich and Dietrich Bonhoeffer . . . . . . . 127

    8. Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Gerhard Ebeling: An Encounter of Theological Minds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

    9. Bonhoeffer and Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

  • XII Content

    Foregrounding Bonhoeffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

    10. Notes on Bonhoeffers Theological Anthropology: The Case of Racism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

    11. Bonhoeffers Theology and Economic Humanism: An Exploration in Interdisciplinary Sociality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

    12. Bonhoeffer, Theology and Religion: What do they Teach us for a South-North Dialogue? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

    13. Bonhoeffer on the Social-Political Dimension of Grace . . . . . . . . 238

    14. What does Hiroshima have to do with Berlin? Dietrich Bonhoeffer on Theology, Peace and Social Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

    15. Bonhoeffer as Preacher: Philosophy and Theology in the Service of the Sermon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

    Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

    16. The Way of Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Fragmentary Wholeness . . . . . . 285

    Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293Index of Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305Index of Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

  • Understanding Bonhoeffer

  • 1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Engaging Intellect Legendary Life

    Introduction

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer leads the list among the theologians of the 20th centu-ry known outside the theological world ahead of even such eminent thinkers as Karl Barth, Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich, Jrgen Moltmann and Hans Kng. This is not to claim that the general public, or even the Christian public, knows much of Bonhoeffers theological ideas. For those who have heard of him, Bonhoeffer is known for the fact that he was some-how connected to a circle of conspirators who planned to kill Hitler. But when that plan failed, he and others among the conspirators were mur-dered in a concentration camp at the end of World War II. In other words, Bonhoeffer is not principally known for his theological insights, but for his resistance to the evil Nazi regime and his death as a martyr. Given such civil courage, more his legacy than his theology made him into a kind of Christian saint or phenomenon.1

    Nonetheless, the minimalist knowledge of Bonhoeffer as a conspira-tor and martyr amounts to a one-sided and ultimately deficient portrayal of his thought and life. Hence, the objective of this study is to present Bon-hoeffers thought, life and legacy in a succinct, even-handed and respon-sible manner. In order to achieve this objective, I will proceed as follows: first, I will sketch out the important lines of Bonhoeffers biography in order to exemplify the dynamic correlation between his theology and ac-tions; second, I will examine the decisive milestones of his theological thinking and development; and third, I will briefly comment on his legacy.

    1 Stephen Haynes, The Bonhoeffer Phenomenon: Portraits of a Protestant Saint. Minneapolis: Fortress Press 2004.

  • 4 1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Engaging Intellect Legendary Life

    Bonhoeffers Life: A Biographical Sketch

    Given the vast corpus of secondary literature on Bonhoeffer, a comment on available biographies is in order. The most authoritative biography on Bonhoeffer is that of Eberhard Bethge,2 Bonhoeffers closest friend and brother-in-law. As it is written from within the Bonhoeffer family circle, this biography is the oldest (originally published in 1967) and most com-prehensive biography, regarded by many scholars as the classic work on Bonhoeffer. The recent more popular work by Eric Metaxas,3 although written in an appealing style, claims Bonhoeffer for a conservative Ameri-can audience. A good middle-ground between Bethge in terms of length and Metaxas in terms of impartiality are the works of Josef Ackermann4 and Ferdinand Schlingensieben.5 Solid introductions to Bonhoeffer are also the works of Plant6 and Clements.7

    The Bonhoeffer Family

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer was born in Breslau, then Germany, on 4 February 1906, as the sixth of eight children. In 1912 the family moved to Berlin when his father, Karl Bonhoeffer, was appointed to the prestigious position of psychiatry at the University of Berlin and also as the head of the univer-sity hospital Charit. With a quiet but strong personality the father left a deep impression on his children. One of the things Dietrich Bonhoeffer remembers from his father was his distaste for the phraseological in fa-vour of the real. Karl Bonhoeffers mother, Julie Bonhoeffer, lived with the Bonhoeffer family in the same household. It is said that when the Nazis declared an official boycott of Jewish stores in 1933, the 91 year old woman walked past the SS guards into the Jewish department store Kaufhaus des Westens to demonstrate against this injustice.8 Paula Bonhoeffer, Diet-richs mother, came from a noble family that was shaped to some degree by

    2 Eberhard Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Theologian, Christian, Man of his Time. A Biography, translated and revised by Victoria Barnett. Minnesota: Fortress Press 2000.

    3 Eric Metaxas, Bonhoeffer: Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy. Nashville: Thomas Nelson 2010.

    4 Josef Ackermann, Dietrich Bonhoeffer Freiheit hat offene Augen. Eine Biografie. Gtersloh: Gtersloher Verlag 2006.

    5 Ferdinand Schlingensieben, Dietrich Bonhoeffer 19061945. Martyr, Thinker, Man of Resistance, translated by Isabel Best. London/New York: T & T Clark 2010.

    6 Stephen Plant, Bonhoeffer. New York: Continuum 2004.7 Keith Clements, Bonhoeffer. London: SPCK Publishing 2010.8 Schlingensieben, Bonhoeffer, 8.

  • 5Bonhoeffers Life: A Biographical Sketch

    Lutheran pietism. Her father, Dietrichs grandfather, was a chaplain at the court of Emperor Wilhelm II. But when he protested against the Emperors description of the proletariat as rabble, he promptly lost his job. Evident-ly, the young Bonhoeffer had ample opportunity to witness the stories of civil courage modeled by his grand-parents, a trait that he himself was called to emulate in his own life.

    On the whole, the Bonhoeffer family was at best nominally Christian; they observed the Christian rituals of baptism and confirmation and cele-brated the high holidays. Paula Bonhoeffer attended church, but none of the men in the family. The ideals of the family did not stem from their Christian heritage as they were humanistic, bourgeois and intellectual. This meant that respect for human beings, their rights and dignity were assumed in the household. Similarly, culture including literature, music, art was very important to the family, as was education. Indeed, all the Bonhoeffer children studied at university and all the men earned doctor-ates, as did the brothers-in-law that joined the family.

    University of Berlin

    For the Bonhoeffers the intellectual fountain was the University of Berlin. Today historians of science suggest that in the 1920s and 1930s, the Univer-sity of Berlin was the scientific center of the world. By the mid-1930s, Ber-lin had 28 Nobel Laureates (at that time, Harvard University had three). From the father to almost all the children, the family was connected to the university during this glorious period. For example, Karl Friedrich, the oldest Bonhoeffer son, worked with Walther Nernst as his doctoral super-visor when the latter became a Nobel laureate in chemistry. As a post-doc-toral researcher, Karl Friedrich worked with Fritz Haber who received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1918 and who was one of the best friends of Albert Einstein who still taught at Berlin when Dietrich Bonhoeffer ma-triculated himself Nobel laureate in physics in 1921.

    The young Bonhoeffer was brilliant himself: he finished his doctoral dissertation at the age of 21, with a work entitled Sanctorum Communio (DBWE 1) that he had written on the side of his regular studies! Even by Berlin standards, he had achieved much at an early age. Nonetheless, Bon-hoeffers career began with a surprise when as a mere 14 years old he an-nounced to the family that he was going to become a minister and theolo-gian, and apparently he never seems to have wavered in this ambition.9

    9 Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 36.

  • 6 1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Engaging Intellect Legendary Life

    This decision was more tolerated than supported by the family. Especially his father would have preferred that the youngest son follow in the foot-steps of his brothers and study physics or law, at any rate, a scientific disci-pline.

    Barcelona, New York, Berlin, London

    In 1928, Bonhoeffer went for a year to Barcelona as an assistant pastor to serve a German Lutheran congregation. On his way there he visited a mass in Paris that was attended by prostitutes and marginalized persons. This experience left an enormously impressive picture on the young pastor as these burdened people are [close] to the heart of the gospel.10 These words bear witness to one of the earliest expressions of Bonhoeffers grow-ing social conscience. From now on, the number of burdened people in his life was to increase. More and more, Bonhoeffers eyes were opened to a reality that he called the social question.11 In one of his sermons of the time he proclaims: Christians are people of the present in the most pro-found sense. Be it political and economic problems, moral and religious decline, concern for the present generation of young people everywhere the point is to enter into the problems of the present.12 When he returned to Berlin, he wrote a second dissertation, Act and Being (DBWE 2), in which he took on a host of German philosophers, including Kant, Hegel, Heidegger and others. This dissertation (Habilitation) qualified him to be-come a university professor.

    In 19301931 Bonhoeffer studied in New York, at Union Theological Seminary. While there, we observe a subtle yet noteworthy terminological change in his classification of social realities. Whereas in Barcelona he had spoken broadly of the social question, now in New York, he speaks more narrowly of the social problem.13 For the first time Bonhoeffer witnessed that racism and poverty stem from injustice and inevitably lead to social inequity and evil. Now he saw that social problems bring about terrific existential hardship, distress, discrimination, dysfunction, and all kind of

    10 DBWE 10, 59.11 DBWE 10, 62 and 69. The social question emerged as Bonhoeffer witnessed both

    the extravagance of the German business community (cf. DBWE 10, 69 and 78), human hardship (cf. DBWE 10, 78: financial difficulties) and social marginality (cf. DBWE 10, 110. He encountered globetrotters, vagrants, escaped criminals, hired killers, legion-naires, circus performers, dancers).

    12 DBWE 10, 529.13 DBWE 10, 307.

  • 7Bonhoeffers Life: A Biographical Sketch

    attacks on life. At stake was not academic theology or neutral social reali-ties, but human lives; hence, Bonhoeffer realized that theology must ad-dress social problems in a way that facilitates social transformations.

    While Bonhoeffers theology gains new perspectives at Union, he was himself transformed as a person. In 1936, Bonhoeffer wrote a rather atyp-ical letter to Elisabeth Zinn about his own path from theology to becoming a Christian. Looking back at the years 192931 in other words, at the time in Barcelona, Berlin and New York Bonhoeffer acknowledges that something happened, something that has changed and transformed my life to the present day. For the first time I discovered the Bible I had of-ten preached, I had seen a great deal of the church, spoken and preached about it but I had not yet become a Christian.14

    When Bonhoeffer visited America in 1930, slavery had been abolished for over six decades. Nonetheless, the issue of racism was still a palpable social evil, blatantly evident to the young German visitor. At Union, Bon-hoeffer befriended Franklin Fisher, an African American student from Al-abama. This friendship became crucial not only for his first-hand experi-ence of the racist reality encountered by the African American communi-ty, but also for his own ability to unmask anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. Fisher introduced Bonhoeffer to the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem and arranged that the German friend could teach Sunday school, offer Bi-ble studies for women and help out in weekday school. As an active par-ticipant he was welcomed into many African American homes and even introduced to the leaders of the black movement at Howard College.15 On 8 January 1931 he wrote home: The separation of whites from blacks in the southern states really does make a rather shameful impression The way the southerners talk about the Negroes is simply repugnant, and in this regard the pastors are no better than the others It is a bit unnerving that in a country with so inordinately many slogans about brotherhood, peace, and so on, such things still continue completely uncorrected.16

    Back in Berlin in 1931, something happened that from then on shaped the direction of his life forever: the rise to power by Hitler in January 1933. The entire Bonhoeffer family was of one accord: Hitler meant no good news for Germany! On 1 February 1933 two days after Hitler came to power the young Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 3 days short of his twenty-seventh birthday, gave a public radio broadcast in which he warned the young

    14 Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 205.15 Cf. Bethge, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, 205.16 DBWE 10, 269.

  • 8 1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Engaging Intellect Legendary Life

    generation of the danger that the leader could become the misleader! Al-most immediately, Hitler showed his true colours in April 1933 with the so-called Aryan Paragraph, a policy that was to restrict non-Aryans from holding the office of civil servant. This measure included professors and pastors and hence his brother-in-law, Gerhard Leibholz, who was a profes-sor of law, and his best friend, Franz Hildebrandt, a Christian pastor with Jewish roots. Bonhoeffer instantly saw through this first act of ethnic cleansing and responded by issuing a clear condemnation.17 He reminded those in the church that here the most intelligent people have totally lost both their heads and their Bible.18 As a protest and corrective, he wrote the essay The Church and the Jewish Question. If the state fails to cre-ate law and order and attacks the Jewish people, he argued, then one of the possibilities for the church is to destroy the wheel of that machine.19

    In retrospect, Bonhoeffers writings are the earliest documents of the German church struggle. But others as well, for example Martin Niemo-eller, a pastor in Berlin, realized early on that the German Christians would not resist Hitler. Therefore, he and Bonhoeffer and others formed what is known as the Pastors Emergency League. Initially, 3000 of the 18000 pastors in Germany joined this association in protest against the German Christians, the National church controlled by Nazi ideology. The Pastors Emergency League, increasingly known as the Confessing Church, drafted under the leadership of Karl Barth the earliest memoran-dum against the German Christians. In this document, known as The Barmen Declaration of May 1934, the Confessing Church set itself dis-tinctly apart from the German Christians by declaring allegiance only to Jesus Christ and his word.

    As the church struggle intensified, Bonhoeffer left Berlin and went to London (19331935) to serve as the pastor for a German Lutheran congre-gation. There he met Bishop George Bell, who became a life-long friend and confidant. Through him Bonhoeffer was connected to the world-wide ecumenical councils and later, during his activity as a conspirator, kept the allies informed of the activity of the resistance groups within Germany.

    17 Cf. DBWE 12, 425432.18 DBWE 12, 101.19 DBWE 12, 361370.

  • 9Bonhoeffers Life: A Biographical Sketch

    Underground Seminary and Continued Church Struggle

    While Bonhoeffer was in London, the Confessing Church established its own seminaries, an act that was illegal by Nazi law. In 1935 Bonhoeffer agreed to become the director of the seminary, first in Zingst then in Fink-enwalde, on the coast of the Baltic Sea. In retrospect he notes that the time with the students during these two years was perhaps the most fulfilling time of his adult life. The basic objective of the seminary was to prepare students who had for the most part already studied theology at a Nazi controlled faculty of theology for the pastorate in congregations that be-longed to the Confessing Church. For the students this meant the highest kind of sacrifice: first, to study theology at an underground seminary run by the Confessing Church was a crime; and second, it implied an uncertain economic future because the pastors of the Confessing Church had forfeit-ed their status and salary as civil servants.

    As the director of the seminary, Bonhoeffer was the chief architect of the theological curriculum. Solid and disciplined academic work was the norm. But equally significant was for Bonhoeffer the practice of Christian community. It was one thing to be a good theologian, but quite another to have a firm spiritual foundation. Hence, spiritual formation and theologi-cal education went hand in hand. The two classic books, Discipleship (DBWE 4) and Life Together (DBWE 5) have their origin in this communi-ty of seminarians.

    At the seminary, Bonhoeffer met Eberhard Bethge who became his clos-est friend, brother-in-law and posthumously the redactor of his writ-ings. It is questionable how much the world would know of Bonhoeffers life and thought without Bethge. He not only wrote a monumental bio-graphy20 but also initiated the publication of the critical edition of Bon-hoeffers writings, the 17-volume Dietrich Bonhoeffer Werke, a series now completed in its English translation, the Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works Eng-lish.

    After the Nazis had closed the seminary in 1937, Bonhoeffer visited New York a second time in 1939 in order to escape his immanent conscrip-tion into Hitlers armies. In New York he realized that he had escaped from family, church and country when he was needed the most in times of ex-treme national upheaval. He returned to Germany with the last ocean liner in July 1939, fully aware of what would await him: war.

    20 Cf. note 2.

  • 10 1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Engaging Intellect Legendary Life

    Conspiracy and Imprisonment

    Bonhoeffer was well informed by his brother-in-law Hans von Dohnanyi, who was a lawyer in the Counter Intelligence Office in Berlin (the Abwehr), of the ever-increasing acts of brutality by the Nazi regime against Jewish people and other regime critics. Almost from the beginning, Dohnanyi secretly compiled a chronicle of shame in which he listed Nazi atrocities against Jews as they became known to him in his office. He did this in view of the needed post-war evidence against the Nazi regime. Through Dohnanyis clandestine initiative, the Bonhoeffer family was informed of what was actually happening in Nazi Germany. Dohnanyi persuaded a small cluster of people to take action against the regime and this meant against Hitler. After many discussions many of which took place in the Bonhoeffer House the group saw the only solution to overcome the evil of Nazism in a carefully planned coup on Hitlers life. The circle of con-spirators recruited by Dohnanyi included Dietrich, his brother Klaus, their brother-in-law Rdiger Schleicher and a number of high military and intelligence officials who worked closely together with Dohnanyi.

    When Bonhoeffer joined the circle of conspirators he had in all practical terms become a double agent. On the one hand, it looked now as if he actu-ally worked for the Nazis, since he was associated with the counter intelli-gence offices in Berlin and Munich. On the other hand, the real purpose of his assignment was the very opposite: to inform the allied nations of the plans of the conspirators and to negotiate their cooperation after the defeat of the Nazi regime. The key international contact in this regard was Bishop George Bell. Following a meeting with Bonhoeffer in Sweden, Bell was not successful in securing understanding and support for the conspirators from the British government. Neither Anthony Eden, British foreign min-ister, nor Winston Churchill were inclined to concede anything to Germa-ny but unconditional surrender. This was a severe and bitter blow to the conspirators!

    When Bonhoeffer was not traveling in Europe for the Counter Intelli-gence Office, he was preoccupied with a project of an entirely different nature. From November 1940 until February 1941, Bonhoeffer lived at the Benedictine Monastery in Ettal, south of Munich. Why was he there? For two reasons: to be in close proximity to the Munich office and to write a book on ethics. Given the context of the tyranny of the state and the ina-bility of the Confessing Church to critique it publicly and effectively, the issue of ethical responsibility became perhaps the most demanding con-cern for him. Urged on by these unusual times Bonhoeffer wrote a book on

  • 11Bonhoeffers Life: A Biographical Sketch

    ethics, posthumously published as Ethics (DBWE 6). For Bonhoeffer, who had over the years become a pacifist and supporter of nonviolent resolu-tions of international conflicts, the involvement in tyrannicide posed a par-ticularly serious ethical predicament. Those who think of Bonhoeffer as a great Christian example are somehow able to reconcile his involvement in the conspiracy with the rest of his faith and actions; for others, this very involvement becomes the cornerstone of suspicion toward Bonhoeffer, if not a flat-out rejection of him. How he ethically justified his participation in tyrannicide we will discuss below.

    On 5 April 1943, Bonhoeffer now engaged to Maria von Wedemeyer, nearly 20 years younger than him was arrested by the Gestapo in his parents retirement home in Berlin. Up to that moment he had been work-ing on the manuscript for Ethics. The reason for his arrest was not directly related to his involvement in the conspiracy. Dohnanyis office was scruti-nized for inconsistencies in official documents, foreign currency transac-tions and other such matters. After Dohnanyi was arrested, the documents in his office led to Bonhoeffer who was arrested the same afternoon and incarcerated in Tegel Prison. Against what Bonhoeffer had hoped for, he was not released after a short while. As time went on, he befriended a guard who smuggled letters in and out of prison. At one point there was even an escape plan; but Bonhoeffer gave it up when his brother Klaus and brother-in-law Rdiger Schleicher were also arrested.

    Bonhoeffers experience in prison is recorded in the now famous Letters and Papers from Prison (DBWE 8). In these pages mostly an exchange of personal and theological letters with his friend Eberhard Bethge Bon-hoeffer reflects on his life and imagines the future. His reflections may be broadly divided into two categories: one was his personal life (family, mar-riage) and the other was his theological reflections. His overarching ques-tion was how Jesus Christ can be proclaimed in a secular and autonomous world (mndige Welt); does theology have to learn a new language, one that proclaims biblical concepts in religionless terminology?

    It was not meant to be for him to regain his freedom, his family and a wife. In October 1944 Bonhoeffer was brought to a Gestapo prison in Ber-lin, then moved to Buchenwald Concentration Camp and finally trans-ferred to Flossenbrg Concentration Camp. There, after a mock trial the night before, Bonhoeffer was hung early in the morning on 9 April 1945, a month before World War II was over.

    Why this biographical sketch? Although it is tautological to say that all theology is contextual, in the case of Bonhoeffer such insight is paramount. Given the extraordinary difficult circumstances of his adult life, his

  • 12 1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Engaging Intellect Legendary Life

    thought was inextricably bound to emerge, develop and mature in the midst of the church struggle and the attempt to see the Nazi regime come to its end.

    Bonhoeffers Intellectual Formation

    Theology, Philosophy, Ethics and Homiletics

    I will now present the main intellectual presuppositions that undergird and shape Bonhoeffers thought in its complexity and entirety his theology, his philosophy, ethics and homiletics. It is crucial to understand that these presuppositions are not to be correlated sequentially but concurrently. In other words, Bonhoeffer did not begin studying one discipline or formu-late these presuppositions and then move to the next, and so on; rather, he engaged all of these disciplines and thus articulated these presuppositions in view of gaining a comprehensive theological understanding as an educa-tor and pastor.

    Basic Theological Presupposition: Christuswirklichkeit

    Many scholars hold the position that Bonhoeffers most basic theological presupposition is the concept of reality or, in his own term, Wirklichkeit, or stated even more precisely, the concept Christuswirklichkeit, the reality of Christ. This presupposition cements and shapes all of Bonhoeffers thought: his philosophy, theology, ethics and homiletics. As early as in his doctoral dissertation Sanctorum Communio, Bonhoeffer argued that one can never arrive at the reality of the other by means of epistemology and metaphysics. Reality is simply not deducible, but given to be acknowl-edged or rejected. It can never be explained theoretically; likewise it is only given for the whole person as an ethical being.21 Even though Bonhoeffer speaks here of the reality of the human being, his conception of reality as given suggests that he assigned reality an overarching basic ontological structure22 that defies both construction and deconstruction. Elsewhere he describes reality as ultimate reality and even identifies that ultimate real-

    21 DBWE 1, 53 note 68; Cf. DBWE 2, 66.22 Jrgen Moltmann, Herrschaft Christi und soziale Wirklichkeit nach Dietrich

    Bonhoeffer. Munich: Chr. Kaiser 1959, 5, speaks correctly of a theological ontology in Bonhoeffers early writings.

  • 13Bonhoeffers Intellectual Formation

    ity with God: God alone is the ultimate reality.23 This identification he explains in these terms: That God alone is ultimate reality, is, however, not an idea meant to sublimate the actual world, nor is it the religious per-fection of a profane worldview. It is rather a faithful Yes to Gods self-wit-ness, Gods revelation.24 In other words, for Bonhoeffer Gods self-disclo-sure in the world is inextricably bound to the incarnation of Jesus. For him this means that for a disciple of Jesus, God-given realities exist only through Jesus Christ.25 In addition, only insofar as the ultimate reality is revelation, that is, the self-witness of the living God, is its claim to ultima-cy fulfilled. But then the decision about the whole of life depends on our relation to Gods revelation.26

    Put differently, Bonhoeffers basic theological presupposition is that all reality is constituted, centered and completed in Jesus Christ. From this presupposition follows for Bonhoeffer the conclusion that there exists no reality outside or apart from the one divine reality revealed in Christ. The world has no reality of its own independent of Gods revelation in Christ.27 All reality, whether primordial, ancient, modern or postmodern, is consti-tuted by the one Christ-reality. In Bonhoeffers scheme of ultimate reality as constituted by Christ, the question is not how Christ or Christianity fit into our contemporary reality but rather how the reality of our contempo-rary world measures up vis--vis the ultimate reality of God in Christ. Similarly, the question is not how the Christian faith should be made con-temporary in the context of our postmodern lives, but how the postmod-ern person may be able to embrace the actuality of Christuswirklichkeit. For Bonhoeffer the logic of the relationship is this: the contemporary, postmodern subject must justify him/herself vis--vis Christuswirklich-keit and not the reverse. The sequence is such that the path of the human being must always lead to Christuswirklichkeit. There is, however, for Bonhoeffer no direct insight or path to the ultimate reality and knowledge of Christ. This brings us now to Bonhoeffers understanding of philoso-phy.

    23 DBWE 6, 48.24 DBWE 6, 48. 25 DBWE 4, 95.26 DBWE 6, 4849.27 DBWE 6, 58.

  • 14 1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Engaging Intellect Legendary Life

    Basic Philosophical Presuppositions

    Until recently, Bonhoeffer research has with few exceptions focussed on examining Bonhoeffers theology. While the first six decades of research were characterized by an interest in Bonhoeffers theology, it is only in recent years that due recognition is given to the philosophical influences that shaped Bonhoeffers intellectual formation.28 Indeed, as a student of theology in Tbingen, Bonhoeffer himself concentrated on the study of philosophy. He studied the history of philosophy, history of logic, formal logic and Kants Critique of Pure Reason. We also know that he read Nietzsches work, much of Hegel, Dilthey and many other philosophers. The significance of Bonhoeffers life-long interest in philosophy is in its correlation with theology. To articulate his basic philosophical presuppo-sition is now our next task.

    The Limited Self

    Bonhoeffers basic ontological category that all reality is constituted and given by God in Jesus Christ corresponds to a further ontological dis-tinction with epistemological implications. In Act and Being, Bonhoeffer argues that the one overarching reality includes the fact that no human being is untouched by sin.29 Being in Adam he says explicitly is an ontological designation for being a sinner. But being a sinner includes not only cor curvum in se (a heart turned in upon itself) but more significantly precludes the epistemological possibility that human beings could place themselves into the truth.30 In the end, the fact that the power of sin dis-figures human life radically and on all levels of being makes null a persons ability to overcome the dilemma of life. The power of sin makes it impos-sible for a person to repair the broken relationship between God and hu-manity as sin makes it impossible even to perceive itself as sin. Why this epistemological impasse?

    Philosophical thinking, Bonhoeffer remarks, attempts to be free from premises (if that is possible at all); Christian thinking has to be con-

    28 Cf. Peter Frick (ed), Bonhoeffers Intellectual Formation. Theology and Philoso-phy in His Thought. Religion in Philosophy and Theology 29. Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck 2008 and Brian Gregor and Jens Zimmermann (eds), Bonhoeffer and Continental Thought: Cruciform Philosophy. Bloomington/Indianapolis: Indiana University Press 2009.

    29 DBWE 2, 136.30 DBWE 2, 136.

  • 15Bonhoeffers Intellectual Formation

    scious of its particular premise, that is, of the premise of the reality of God, before and beyond all thinking. In the protection of this presupposition, theological thinking convicts philosophical thinking of being bound also to a presupposition, namely, that thinking in itself can give truth. But phil-osophical truth always remains truth which is given only within the cate-gory of possibility.31 Philosophical thinking never can extend beyond this category it can never be a thinking in reality. It can form a conception of reality, but conceived reality is not reality any longer. The reason for this is that thinking is in itself a closed circle, with the ego as the center.32 Else-where he says in a similar vein that in philosophical discourse, the I, now thinking itself, simply becomes the point of departure instead of the lim-it-point of philosophy. But thinking cannot do this without losing two very different things, reality and transcendence, that is, the one through the other. Philosophy, thinking, the I, all come under the power of them-selves, rather than transcendence Thinking languishes in itself; precise-ly where it is free from the transcendent, from reality, there it is imprisoned in itself.33

    Here Bonhoeffer discerns a decisive difference between basic philosoph-ical and theological presuppositions. Theology is predicated on the reality of God, before and beyond all thinking while philosophy is falsely pred-icated on assuming that thinking in itself can give truth. Unlike philoso-phy, theology reckons with truth in an ontological sense. Philosophys weakness is that it wants to establish, if not truth itself, then at least mini-mally the parameter for truth to demonstrate itself. For Bonhoeffer such an attempt is in utter vain because philosophical truth is self-limited. God-less thought even when it is ethical remains self-enclosed. Even a critical philosophy cannot place one into the truth, because its crisis emerges from within itself, and its apparent reality is still subservient to the claims of the cor curvum in se that have lost the power to claim anyone. Revelation gives itself without precondition and is alone able to place one into reality. The-ological thought goes from God to reality, not from reality to God.34 Pre-cisely here lies for Bonhoeffer the hermeneutical dilemma in philosophys claim: philosophical thinking is entrapped in the circle of sin and therefore

    31 Bonhoeffer vehemently rejects the category of possibility for theology. For its Heideggerian origin and Bonhoeffers rejection of the category; cf. DBWE 2, 136; DBWE 1, 143 and DBWE 10, 403. See also my essay in this volume, Bonhoeffer and Philosophy, especially the section on Heidegger.

    32 DBWE 10, 442.33 DBWE 2, 39.34 DBWE 2, 89.

  • Act and Being 6, 14, 43, 48, 80, 114, 128131, 135, 137138, 141, 148, 167168, 170173, 178, 181, 212, 267, 269, 274, 289

    Analogia entis 169Analogia relationis 196Antaeus 82Anti-Semitism 7, 185187, 189192,

    195, 251252, 254Author 25, 2735, 3742, 4546, 62

    Barcelona 6, 7, 17, 8183, 86, 97, 99100, 115, 126, 142, 176, 189, 201204, 222224, 251252, 280281

    Being in Adam 14, 16, 114, 138, 146, 148, 179, 272, 274, 289

    Being in Christ 16, 124, 138, 146, 148, 272, 274, 289

    Berlin 48, 1011, 36, 5657, 5960, 70, 72, 79, 8284, 131133, 141, 150, 166, 175, 181, 185, 189, 190, 192, 195, 202, 208, 218, 220222, 224, 233, 236, 250252, 264, 267, 269

    Borderline/boundary situation 1920, 141142, 146, 212, 216, 241242

    Capitalism 29, 207, 212, 215216, 220, 227228, 235

    Christianity/Christendom 13, 20, 22, 48, 68, 8083, 86, 90, 92, 9497, 99101, 105110, 112113, 118, 134137, 144, 174177, 181, 191, 197, 213, 228, 232, 239 -240, 269, 279, 287

    Index of Subjects

    Note: a page reference in italics indicates that a subject entry is only mentioned in the footnotes.

    Christology 129, 152, 173, 181, 211, 225, 290

    Christuswirklichkeit 1213, 112114, 125, 158, 206

    Church 5, 710, 12, 36, 4445, 50, 5658, 65, 77, 79, 8787, 91, 112, 121, 125, 132133, 139140, 142, 144145, 14950, 152, 155, 159, 171, 173, 186187, 190194, 197200, 202, 207209, 212216, 232233, 235236, 239, 243, 248, 250254, 256262, 267269, 271, 279280, 287, 291292

    Commandments 58, 6465, 99, 253, 256, 259

    Community 67, 9, 2930, 57, 5961, 7177, 122, 140, 142, 144, 167, 171, 173, 190, 193, 196200, 203, 207, 209210, 212214, 223, 248, 260, 281, 286288

    Confessing Church 810, 57, 87, 132133, 149150, 152, 186, 192, 257

    Confession 16, 62, 68, 7576, 133, 155, 192, 267, 275, 281, 286

    Cor curvum in se 1416, 114, 181, 274Creation 17, 32, 59, 84, 86, 115, 117,

    122124, 135, 153, 195196, 210, 271Creation and Fall 57, 60, 97, 100, 122,

    153, 168, 195, 275Critique of Pure Reason 14, 170Critique of Practical Reason 170Cross 6669, 7677, 107, 139, 187, 286

  • 306 Index of Subjects

    Dasein 34, 43, 129131, 138139, 147, 174, 178179, 290291

    Death 3, 22, 2730, 3940, 49, 6768, 8789, 91, 94, 108, 121, 132, 157, 173, 179, 181, 195, 240, 265, 277

    Decalogue 17, 79, 81, 100, 115, 123, 177Deus dixit 208, 270271Discipleship 9, 43, 4748, 50, 5658, 60,

    64, 66, 77, 86, 131, 153, 193, 238242, 244, 248, 258, 267, 277, 287288

    Discipleship 57, 59, 6468, 7172, 77, 86, 189, 218219, 235, 239241, 249, 267

    Diesseitigkeit 22, 96, 121, 246, 264, 292Dietrich Bonhoeffer Werke/Works 9,

    33, 42, 79, 128, 180, 207, 285286Dissertation 56, 12, 30, 80, 128, 150,

    152154, 167, 178, 207, 222, 251, 267, 269, 280, 289290

    Ecclesia crucis 77Ecce homo 81, 85, 8788Ecclesiology 181Economic 6, 9, 28, 3637, 201208,

    210220, 222224, 227228, 230231, 233, 235236, 247, 252

    Epistemology/epistemological 12, 14, 1617, 112, 114, 124, 137, 139, 154, 162, 167, 170172, 174, 180182, 269270, 274275, 289290

    Eros 198Esse 169Essentia 169Ethics/ethical 1012, 1521, 8082, 88,

    92, 98101, 106, 110, 112, 115116, 122123, 144, 155, 158, 170, 175, 177, 181, 194, 205206, 232, 236, 269, 274

    Ethics 48, 78, 8788, 90, 96, 98, 131, 144, 170, 206, 212, 214, 227, 238, 244, 248, 288

    Exercises 55, 57, 60, 64, 70, 7273, 77, 277

    Existence/existential 6, 16, 22, 3435, 43, 6567, 102104, 111, 122, 129131, 134, 136139, 141142, 144, 146147, 155, 168169, 178180, 189,

    193, 195196, 204, 210211, 224, 227, 233, 247, 249, 254, 260, 267, 272, 274275, 280, 289290

    Faith 11, 13, 16, 18, 22, 28, 45, 5758, 6467, 7071, 83, 86, 96, 99, 103104, 113, 120121, 126, 129130, 133134, 136, 137, 139, 145, 147, 155, 159, 161162, 164, 171, 173, 176, 178, 198, 200, 212215, 227228, 231, 233, 236, 239241, 244, 247248, 254255, 258, 260, 262264, 267, 271273, 275, 278, 287290, 292

    Fear 68, 9495, 120, 232, 252, 254256, 262263

    Finkenwalde 9, 36, 4748, 51, 5657, 59, 60, 6263, 6566, 7374, 77, 87, 149, 151, 153, 155, 192, 224, 238, 241, 244, 248, 258, 268, 277

    Forgiveness 64, 76, 95, 139, 175, 195, 260, 277278, 287

    Formation 9, 12, 14, 19, 55, 61, 7273, 76, 79, 88, 121, 144, 154, 166, 203, 223, 225, 266, 267, 285, 288

    Free/dom 11, 1415, 17, 19, 20, 22, 2930, 68, 70, 8081, 83, 85, 88, 91, 95, 99100, 102, 109, 112, 115116, 122123, 125, 139, 142, 160, 163, 167, 177, 180, 186, 195196, 208, 214215, 239, 246248, 263, 270, 273, 287288, 290

    Friendship 7, 57, 72, 190, 251252

    God 1322, 31, 33, 44, 57, 59, 62, 65, 70, 7476, 80, 8285, 8791, 93, 94102, 105, 108110, 112118, 121126, 128, 130131, 133, 137, 139, 140, 142, 144147, 155, 158159, 162164, 168180, 191, 193199, 206210, 212215, 219, 225226, 231, 236237, 241242, 244246, 248249, 252260, 262264, 268275, 279282, 289290, 292

    God-is-dead theology 26, 40, 49Good/evil 1718, 20, 8081, 8485,

    8789, 92, 97100, 112, 115116, 118,

  • 307Index of Subjects

    120, 122123, 131, 176177, 196, 206, 210, 228, 240

    Grace 20, 6469, 85, 87, 90, 95, 109, 129130, 138, 141142, 169, 175, 179, 187, 193, 214215, 231, 237249, 264, 287288

    Guilt 16, 89, 119, 141, 197198, 203, 214, 223, 248, 274, 281, 288

    Habilitation 6, 82, 128, 167, 178Hermeneutics/hermeneutical 15,

    2022, 2529, 3343, 4547, 49, 51, 136, 152155, 158, 163, 239, 253, 276280, 291

    Hiroshima 250251, 264Holy Spirit 2021, 154, 180, 196, 241,

    279Homiletic/al 12, 2021, 105, 270, 281Humanum 114117, 120, 124126

    Idealism 173174, 287, 289Imago dei 195196Imitatio Christi 5558, 6075, 77Imprisonment 10, 22, 56, 63, 77, 133,

    142, 224Incarnation 13, 29, 113, 173, 258Intellect/intellectual 3, 5, 12, 14,

    2022, 25, 3637, 41, 4346, 49, 79, 105106, 108, 114, 119, 127, 132134, 137, 152, 159, 166167, 186, 191, 194, 201, 222, 230, 251, 265266, 268, 285, 288, 290291

    I-You relation 171

    Jesus Christ 8, 11, 1314, 1618, 48, 59, 64, 6768, 71, 8081, 86, 88, 94, 99100, 102, 105, 113114, 116, 123, 125, 137, 158, 176, 178, 187, 191, 193, 197198, 202, 206, 209, 212214, 219, 221, 226227, 237, 240241, 244, 259260, 263, 267, 287

    Jewish 4, 8, 10, 107, 187, 192Judgement 1920, 65, 70, 73, 88, 187,

    194, 229, 243, 248

    Justification 17, 20, 72, 81, 100, 115, 123, 160, 187, 196, 231, 244247, 260, 269, 278279, 288

    Language 11, 25, 3536, 40, 4346, 85, 102, 146, 155, 161, 163164, 176, 191, 195, 209, 226, 228, 241, 272, 289

    Law and Gospel 152, 155158, 161163, 165

    Letters and Papers from Prison 11, 26, 33, 4850, 63, 92, 96, 112, 142143

    Liberation Theology 211, 217, 226227, 232, 234, 261

    Life Together 9, 30, 43, 4748, 56, 6162, 69, 71, 7475, 77, 86, 131, 197199, 285286

    London 6, 8, 9, 21, 5658, 73, 86, 91, 100, 177, 192, 224, 252, 270, 280

    Lords Supper 62, 64, 7576Love 2930, 62, 64, 69, 7172, 83, 85,

    8991, 100, 103, 108109, 123, 128, 164, 178, 191, 196, 198199, 210, 225226, 235, 237, 244, 253, 255, 258259, 287288, 292

    Mandates 50Meditation 62, 64, 7275, 77, 7980, 87,

    262, 281, 286Mensch/en 73, 82, 91, 96, 97, 103,

    105106, 126, 131, 134, 142, 164, 210, 227, 238, 246

    Method, methodological 25, 35, 4041, 108, 135, 153154, 157, 180181, 198, 216, 268, 270272, 276, 280, 282

    Nachfolge 55, 5759, 66, 214Nazi(sm) 34, 710, 12, 1920, 22, 32,

    45, 143, 147, 165, 186187, 189, 192, 202, 210, 216, 221222, 224, 238, 252, 257, 260261, 285, 291

    Neighbour 89, 101, 109, 111, 128, 170, 196, 225226, 235, 237, 253, 259

    New Testament 42, 43, 65, 67, 89, 99, 129, 130, 132134, 137, 206, 254, 275, 277, 279280

  • 308 Index of Subjects

    New York 67, 9, 189, 201202, 204, 222224, 251252, 257

    Non posse non peccare 272

    Ontology/ontological 12, 1415, 17, 34, 68, 112114, 124, 129130, 136, 138139, 146148, 163, 167, 169, 171, 174, 178179, 181, 194, 212, 269, 272273, 289290

    Old Testament 243, 275276Other/s 12, 15, 2932, 3839, 61, 64,

    6971, 73, 97, 104, 112, 114, 118119, 121122, 128, 186, 190, 194196, 199200, 203, 225226, 248, 254255, 286287

    Overman 17, 8182, 86, 88, 100103, 111, 115, 117, 123, 177

    Pacifism 252, 257258Paul (Apostle) 17, 2831, 38, 40, 81,

    100, 107109, 115, 117, 123124, 155, 161, 240, 260

    Peace 7, 70, 73, 191, 198, 206, 250264, 277

    Pen/ultimate 1213, 20, 31, 45, 48, 68, 73, 85, 87, 104, 113, 164, 213, 231, 244249

    Person 7, 1214, 16, 18, 21, 25, 2735, 3739, 42, 45, 4849, 60, 66, 6970, 7273, 80, 85, 8889, 94, 9698, 101104, 106107, 112114, 117126, 128, 130131, 134139, 141, 146147, 150, 152, 157, 162164, 166172, 176177, 187, 191, 193199, 205206, 209211, 213216, 219, 225227, 229, 231, 236237, 242, 248249, 254, 262, 272, 274275, 286290

    Pfarramt 278, 281Philosophy/philosophical 1216, 18,

    2021, 2526, 2829, 32, 34, 4142, 4546, 72, 7881, 8587, 94, 106, 112, 114, 118, 122, 127, 129, 130132, 139, 141, 147, 153, 158, 166174, 178, 180182, 213, 217, 225, 236, 265266, 269, 270275, 278, 281282, 289, 291

    Possibility 1417, 43, 83, 98, 102, 114115, 118, 131, 138139, 141, 146, 169170, 177181, 230, 241, 272274, 282, 289

    Potential/potentiality 29, 98, 117, 124, 130131, 136, 138, 146, 168, 179180, 211, 218, 228229, 272

    Postmodern/ism 13, 29, 30, 36, 113, 12526, 158, 161, 235, 286287

    Preach(er)/preaching 7, 2021, 48, 58, 75, 8283, 86, 152153, 155, 161162, 177, 187, 192, 205, 232, 254, 256, 259260, 265267, 272, 276282

    Prayer 44, 60, 7475, 80, 170, 261262Predigtamt 278, 281Presuppositions 12, 1415, 2021, 27,

    29, 31, 3539, 112, 116, 206, 272273, 281

    Prejudice 3741Proletariat 5, 207208, 218Protestantism 145, 192, 242, 287Psychology/psychological 37, 57,

    7072, 131, 194, 198, 229, 232, 236, 251, 254255, 281, 286

    Racism 67, 185200, 202, 204, 224, 234, 251252, 254

    Reality 6, 7, 1220, 32, 36, 57, 71, 8789, 95101, 103104, 109, 112118, 120, 122126, 130, 136, 138, 145, 147, 152, 155165, 168169, 171, 174176, 190, 193, 195, 203, 205206, 208210, 212, 216, 220221, 223, 229, 231232, 236, 246, 249, 260263, 271276, 281, 289290

    Reformation 90, 161, 192, 206, 287Religion 14, 16, 28, 39, 42, 8083, 86,

    9496, 103105, 107109, 114, 123, 126, 134135, 137, 143145, 152, 158, 160162, 167, 172, 174176, 191, 218, 220221, 228229, 269, 272, 274

    Religionless/ness 11, 48, 9293, 112, 133137, 147, 161, 181, 213, 221, 228

    Responsibility 10, 17, 19, 81, 89, 99101, 104, 115, 119, 123, 150, 170,

  • 309Index of Subjects

    177, 192, 194, 214, 216, 233, 248, 250, 257259, 262263

    Revelation 13, 1516, 18, 70, 82, 87, 113, 124125, 129131, 138141, 144148, 154, 158159, 171, 174, 179182, 206, 257258, 269275, 280, 282, 289290

    Roman Catholic/ism 44, 140

    Salvation 21, 28, 68, 117, 125, 155157, 159162, 181, 194, 206, 213, 242, 245, 259, 280

    Sanctification 61, 69, 269Sanctorum Communio 5, 12, 48, 76,

    80, 112, 128, 138, 140, 167168, 170, 172, 178, 181, 207, 271272

    Scripture 2021, 33, 7475, 124, 153154, 275, 279, 282

    Secular/ization 11, 22, 26, 85, 96, 112113, 125, 213, 221, 257

    Self-consciousness 3738Self-denial 6970, 77 Self-disclosure 13Self-forgiveness 76Self-knowledge 114, 131, 137, 146147,

    178, 290Self-understanding 6970, 112, 124,

    130131, 134, 137, 141, 146147, 174, 179180, 194, 289

    Sexuality 85, 236Silence 6162, 7275, 77, 185186, 286Sin/sins/sinfulness 1420, 57, 59,

    6162, 64, 70, 7273, 7677, 84, 9495, 98, 108110, 114115, 117, 119, 121, 125, 130131, 138139, 142, 146147, 153, 155157, 163, 169, 171, 173175, 177, 179182, 185, 187, 193195, 197199, 210211, 227, 239, 241242, 244, 246, 249, 254255, 258, 260, 266, 272275, 277278, 281, 287289, 292

    Slave/ry 7, 80, 86, 88, 110, 118119, 186189, 192193, 214, 248, 288

    Socialism/ist 26, 40, 90, 143144, 205, 208209, 212, 215216, 227, 235236

    Sociality 30, 144, 168, 172, 201, 212215, 219

    Sola fide 16, 70, 147, 273, 275, 289Soul 68, 7071, 74, 80, 95, 105, 107, 109,

    141, 175, 187, 198, 235, 250, 286Suffering 22, 64, 6768, 77, 96, 104,

    120121,126, 176, 202, 204, 222, 224, 245, 249, 261, 264, 292

    Tegel Prison 11, 56, 63, 70, 91, 142, 150, 176, 180

    Teleological 34Temptation 94, 110, 143, 277Theologia crucis 77, 103Transcendence/transcendental 15, 32,

    108, 110, 114, 116117, 123125, 139, 142, 167, 171172, 179, 181, 212, 269, 289

    Transformation/al 7, 43, 104, 119, 125, 139, 214, 218, 220221, 224, 228232, 235, 237, 249

    Translation 9, 25, 427, 79, 86, 131, 151Truth 1416, 20, 28, 35, 40, 45, 83,

    99100, 114, 118, 134, 137139, 141, 145146, 160, 170, 179180, 260, 272275, 287, 289, 290

    Tbingen 14, 43, 155, 166, 170, 285

    bermensch 17, 8082, 88, 90, 92, 101102, 105106, 111112, 115, 117120, 123124, 177

    Understanding 10, 1213, 16, 25, 27, 3235, 3746, 57, 65, 6972, 8889, 94, 103, 107, 112113, 118, 122, 124125, 128131, 134, 137141, 145147, 149, 152153, 155, 160163, 165166, 169, 171, 174, 176, 179181, 194, 199, 205, 225226, 230, 232, 239240, 244245, 247, 259, 270273, 278, 280281, 286, 288289, 291

    Union Theological Seminary 6, 42, 58, 135, 143, 189, 201, 251, 277

    Usus legis 155, 157

  • 310 Index of Subjects

    Values 17, 18, 81, 8384, 86, 92, 94, 97, 99101, 110, 112, 115116, 119120, 122124, 176177

    Vicarious representation 68, 263

    Wirklich/keit 12, 1718, 112113, 116, 125, 158159, 164, 168, 206, 245

    Word (of God) 2021, 44, 62, 7475, 131, 155, 159, 163164, 207208, 212, 214215, 236, 244245, 258259, 269, 273, 279280, 282

  • Ackermann, Denise 36Ackermann, Josef 4Agamben, Giorgio 28Anselm of Canterbury 25, 45Aquinas, Thomas 25, 167169, 272Aristotle 167168, 180181, 186, 281Arnold, Hardy 73Augustine 167, 169, 272

    Bach, J.S. 63Badiou, Alain 2832, 38, 40Barnett, Victoria J. 4, 56, 78, 186, 190,

    192, 252Barth, Karl 3, 8, 29, 30, 4445, 4850,

    92, 128, 130132, 134, 136, 153, 155, 160, 165, 203, 223, 228, 233, 268269, 276, 282, 287, 289

    Barthes, Roland 27, 2933, 39Bell, George 8, 10, 56Bergo, Bettina 29Bethge, Eberhard 4, 9, 11, 22, 50,

    5657, 60, 6364, 70, 7374, 7879, 9293, 96, 103, 121, 126, 133, 136137, 140, 142143, 150, 154155, 166, 170, 175176, 190, 192, 252, 265267, 277

    Beutel, Albrecht 150152, 154Biddis, Michael D. 188Boff, Leonardo 211, 225Bonhoeffer, Julie 4, 56Bonhoeffer, Karl 4Bonhoeffer, Karl-Friedrich 5, 78, 190,

    222, 267

    Index of Names

    Note: a page reference in italics indicates that a person is only mentioned in the footnotes.

    Bonhoeffer, Klaus 1011 Bonhoeffer, Paula 4, 5Botman, Russel H. 36Buenzod, Janine 188Bultmann, Rudolf 3, 98, 127140, 143,

    146148, 152, 154, 165, 272Burke, Sen 29

    Caldas, Carlos 233Capozza, Nicoletta 112Caputo, John 127Churchill, Winston 10Clements, Keith 4Colli, Giorgio 79Cone, James H. 185186Cullen, Countee 190

    Dabrock, Peter 113Dahill, Lisa E. 35, 70Davies, Alan 187188Derrida, Jacques 29Descartes, Ren 34Dilthey, Wilhelm 14, 33, 181Dohnanyi, Hans von 1011Dramm, Sabine 103

    Ebeling, Gerhard 43, 135136, 139, 149165, 268

    Eden, Anthony 10Einstein, Albert 5, 222

    Feil, Ernst 48, 55, 139, 272

  • 312 Index of Names

    Feuerbach, Ludwig 78, 82, 85, 94, 102103, 178, 208

    Fichte, Gottlieb 181Fink, Barbara 48, 55Fink, Eugen 79Fisher, Franklin 7, 190Floyd, Wayne 77, 125, 138, 166, 211,

    236, 268Foucault, Michel 30, 33, 39Franz, Markus 28Frick, Peter 14, 28, 35, 72, 114, 127, 169,

    190, 192, 239, 272Fukuyama, Francis 236Funk, Robert W. 128 Gadamer, Hans-Georg 25, 33, 35,

    3740, 127Gerhardt, Paul 63, 71Gerlach, Wolfgang 186Goldhagen, Daniel J. 186Goleano, Eduardo 187Green, Clifford 48, 103104, 134135,

    137, 196, 211, 244, 251Gregor, Brian 14, 39Grondin, Jean 25, 40Gruchy, John W. de 216Gutirrez, Gustavo 195, 211, 217218,

    224225, 231232, 235, 261

    Haber, Fritz 5, 222Hall, Douglas John 77Harbsmeier, Gtz 136Harnack, Adolf von 59, 132, 276Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel 117Hase, Hans-Christoph von 135Harvey, Barry 169, 262, 272Hatab, Lawrence 79, 96, 102, 117119,

    122, 177Havenstein, Martin 78, 174Haynes, Stephen R. 265Hegel G.W.F. 6, 14, 167, 172174, 181,

    188, 289Heidegger, Martin 6, 15, 25, 34, 43, 45,

    127, 13032, 13839, 168, 178181, 272, 282, 289

    Hildebrandt, Franz 8

    Hinkelammert, Franz 220Hitler, Adolf 3, 710, 1819, 22, 50, 57,

    71, 96, 126, 186, 189, 192, 222, 224, 250, 252, 254, 257, 264, 291

    Hodgson, Peter 173Hopkins, Dwight N. 187, 199Horkheimer, Max 218, 233Hbner, Hans 94, 106, 127Hunger, Margaret L. 188Husserl, Edmund 167

    Ignatius of Loyola 55

    Jaspers, Karl 78, 164Jehle, Herbert 57, 58

    Kant, Immanuel 6, 14, 167, 170174, 181, 188, 289

    Kaufmann, Walter 85Kelly, Geffrey B., 72, 239Kempis, Thomas 5558, 6069,

    7277, 87Kierkegaard, Sren 55, 72, 81, 92, 181,

    239, 287Kirkpatrick, Matthew D. 39Klapproth, Erich 57 Klassen, William 255Klein, Naomi 216, 220Knittermeyer, Hinrich 170, 181Kpf, Ulrich 55Kster, Peter 91Kohl, Margaret 223Krause, Gerhard 57, 72, 135136Kreis, Rudolf 186187Krtke, Wolf 279Kng, Hans 3

    Leibholz, Gerhard 8, 61, 143Levinas, Emmanuel 29, 30, 32, 287 Ltgert, Wilhelm 171Luther, Martin 17, 70, 81, 92, 100, 115,

    123, 147, 150, 152154, 164, 165, 187, 206, 287, 289

    Macquarrie, John 43, 138Maier, Heinrich 167

  • 313Index of Names

    Marsh, Charles 77, 138, 166, 236Marty, Martin E. 26, 33, 4041, 49Marx, Karl 29, 233Metaxas, Eric 4Moltmann, Jrgen 3, 12, 48, 218,

    226227, 232233Montinari, Mazzino 79Morino, Zen-emon 55Moyo, Dambisa 216

    Nernst, Walther 5, 222Niebuhr, Reinhold 58Niebuhr, Richard 145Nietzsche, Friedrich 14, 17, 7897,

    99113, 115124, 126, 142, 174178, 280

    Patrella, Ivan 234Pfeiffer, Hilde 57Plant, Stephen 4, 127, 216Polak, Paul 217Plato 167168

    Rachmanova, Alexandra 90Rasmussen, Larry 58Reuter, Hans-Richard 135, 170Richard, Pablo 221Ricoeur, Paul 39Rieffert, Johann 167Roberts, J. Deotis 189, 194195Rler, Helmut 191192Rott, Wilhelm 153, 276 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 87Rumscheidt, Martin 139, 272

    Salaquarda, Jrg 107Scharlemann, Robert P. 138, 142Schleicher, Rdiger 1011, 267Schleiermacher, Friedrich 33, 95, 114,

    276Schliesser, Christine 216Schlingensieben, Ferdinand 4Schmithals, Walter 128Schroeder, Steven 236

    Scully, Vincent 55Seeberg, Reinhold 153, 173, 207Segundo, Juan Luis 229, 247Smith, Ronald Gregor 151, 153, 276Sobrino, Jon 187, 211, 225, 227228,

    231Spranger, Eduard 167Staubach, Nikolaus 55Sutz, Erwin 5859, 66, 153, 277

    Taubes, Jacob 117Thiessen Nation, Mark 257Tietz, Christiane 113114, 216, 228Tietz-Steiding, Christiane 130, 134,

    138, 171Tillich, Paul 3, 26, 4041, 93, 98, 127,

    134, 136, 139148, 245, 268, 282, 290Tdt, Heinz Eduard 180Tdt, Ilse 167Trowitzsch, Michael 125, 158Tseng, Thomas 48, 244Tylenda, Joseph N. 58

    Vanhoozer, Kevin J. 32Vattimo, Gianni 28

    Wedemeyer, Maria von 11Weischedel, Wilhelm 170Williams, Reggie L. 188Williams, Stephen N. 79, 94, 98, 103,

    106, 117Wilmer, Haddon 240 Windelband, Wilhelm 167Woltersdorff, Nicholas 32Wstenberg, Ralf K. 160

    Young, Josiah 188189, 190, 196197

    Zerner, Ruth 192Zinn, Elizabeth 7, 36, 251, 257, 267Zimmerling, Peter 21, 245, 278280Zimmermann, Jens 14, 29, 33Zimmermann, W.D. 151iek, Slavoj 28