PERSONALITY Performance and participation are determined by personality. There are 3 THEORIES of PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT. 1)TRAIT PERSPECTIVE: Personality.

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PERSONALITY Performance and participation are determined by personality. There are 3 THEORIES of PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT. 1)TRAIT PERSPECTIVE: Personality is made up of many SECONDARY TRAITS that we INHERIT from our PARENTS. Behaviour is INNATE, GENETICALLY determined, STABLE and CONSISTENT in all situations. Behaviour = Function of Personality (B = F(P)) EYESENCKs model identifies 4 primary personality traits or types: A) Neurotic B) Stable C) Introvert D) Extrovert. In 1975 he added a 3 rd scale called PSYCHOTICISM also called MENTAL TOUGHNESS or being TOUGH MINDED. This describes the capacity to cope with pressure. It assesses a persons PERSONALITY PROFILE with a test called the EPQ Eyesencks Personality Questionnaire CATTELL believed in TRAIT theory but believed more than 3 dimensions were needed. This led to Cattells 16 PF (Personality Factor) TEST GIRDANIO was a trait theorist. He proposed that there are 2 DISTINCT PERSONALITIES TYPE A (competitive, works fast, ambitious, controlling, stressed) and TYPE B (non competitive, works slowly, low ambition, not controlling, less prone to stress). This is NARROW BAND Slide 2 PERSONALITY 1)SOCIAL LEARNING PERSPECTIVE : All behaviour is LEARNED through ENVIRONMENTAL experiences. It is NOT GENETIC. Behaviour = Function of Environment (B = F(E)). BANDURA believed there are 2 PROCESSES in SOCIAL LEARNING A) Behaviour of others is IMITATED by observation and is VICARIOUS (you watch the performance) B) Behaviour is endorsed by SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT. There are 4 CONDITIONS that support SOCIAL LEARNING: 1) If the demonstrator is a SIGNIFICANT OTHER 2) If the Role model has POWER 3) Observer and Role Model are same GENDER 4) The observer wants to adopt the NORMS of a new CULTURE. Slide 3 PERSONALITY 3) INTERACTIONIST APPROACH: (Hollander 1967). Behaviour is a combination of the influence of TRAITS and EXPERIENCES. It has 3 levels. 1) TYPICAL RESPONSES: These are LEARNED behaviours and are CHANGEABLE. A person responds to the ENVIRONMENT 2) PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE: The True Self. It is STABLE, but difficult to research 3) ROLE RELATED BEHAVIOUR: This is DYNAMIC and CHANGEABLE. An individual fulfils more than one role in a day. It is a consequence of the IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT. Behaviour = FUNCTION of PERSONALITY X ENVIRONMENT (B = F(P X E)) Genetically Inherited Traits are triggered by the Environmental. Behaviour is therefore UNPREDICATABLE The 4 factors that influence how we respond in any situation are: GENETICS, PAST EXPERIENCES, NATURE OF THE SITUATION, PERSONAL FREE WILL Slide 4 PERSONALITY INTROVERTS are shy, reserved, prefer isolation, are quickly aroused, have a high RAS sensitivity. EXTROVERTS affiliate well with others, are outgoing, become aroused more slowly, have low RAS sensitivity. NEUROTIC have unpredictable moods and emotions, experience high stress and recover slowly from it. STABLE have predictable emotions and moods, dont have high stress and recover rapidly from it A TRAIT is a single personality characteristic which causes a person to behave in a certain way. GENES are the biological units of inheritance which determine physical and psychological characteristics. The RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS) states that introverts are more easily aroused than extroverts because of the sensitivity of the this part of the brain. Slide 5 PERSONALITY PROFILING Research into the differences of personalities of athletes and non athletes is common. Eyesenck found athletes scored highly in PSYCHOTISM and EXTROVERSION. Shurr found athletes to be INDEPENDENT and LESS ANXIOUS than non athletes. However McKelvie found no differences in extroversion but athletes were more STABLE. Research is INCONCLUSIVE Personality Profiling can IDENTIFY TRAITS that psychologists could then recommend sports to those people. This may increase PARTICIPATION. Sport and exercise cannot though change personality. All individuals differ in their response to sporting situations. Personality profiling has 7 LIMITATIONS when linking sport and personality 1)PROOF (how)2) EVIDENCE (lack of) 3)SUBJECTIVITY (influenced)4) INVALIDILITY 5)MODIFICATION (of behaviour)6) RELIABILITY(accurate answers?) 7)STEREOTYPING (profiling will do this) Slide 6 ATTITUDES ATTITUDE is the MODE of LEARNED behaviour that is the TYPICAL RESPONSE of an individual. They are LINKED with personality. It is EMOTIONAL, UNSTABLE and can be ENDURING and CHANGED. Attitude is directed towards and ATTITUDE OBJECT. This can be a person, a subject or a situation. PREJUDICES can influence behaviour. ATTITUDE PREJUDICE could affect participation in sport. This can affect GENDER, RACE, AGE etc. Prejudice can be NEGATIVE and POSITIVE (favouritism) Attitudes are FORMED mainly through previous EXPERIENCES. SOCIALISATION (interaction with others) can also form it. The PEER GROUP is the most POWERFUL influence in teenagers. Other factors include SOCIAL CLASS, CULTURE (race, religion) and SOCIETY. The TRIADIC MODEL OF ATTITUDE: 1) COGNITIVE component. This is the KNOWLEDGE about an attitude object. 2) AFFECTIVE component. This is the EMOTIONAL RESPONSE to an attitude object 3) BEHAVIOURAL component. This is how you RESPOND to an attitude object. Attitudes are POOR PREDICTORS of behaviour. Just because someone has a positive attitude to exercise does not mean they will participate. Social and situational factors can affect it. However if the attitude is more SPECIFIC (he likes circuit training) they are more likely to participate Slide 7 ATTITUDES There are 2 Theories about how to CHANGE attitudes. A)COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY: Dissonance is EMOTIONAL CONFLICT. If two attitude components oppose each other then the person experiences discomfort. EG: A person who needs to lose weight but has had bad previous experiences of exercise. If one component can be changed then there is a chance of changing the whole attitude. B)PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION THEORY: This can be used in cognitive dissonance as a technique in changing attitude. There are 4 ELEMENTS. 1)PERSUADER. This person needs to have high STATUS or be SIGNIFICANT. When a positive attitude is reinforced by them it is called BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION 2)MESSAGE. The message must be presented in a way which motivates the recipient to change their attitude 3)RECIPIENTS. If the recipient wants to change it is much easier 4)SITUATION Attitudes are easy to change if there are other PERSUADERS present Apply the Triadic Model and both Theories. Critically evaluate all of them. Slide 8 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION links personality with the persons degree of COMPETITIVENESS. How motivated is the person to succeed? Some psychologists believe it is NATURAL (Murray) and some think it is LEARNED (Bndura) Others believe it is a mix of the 2. These INTERCATIONISTS include Atkinson & McClelland. They believe Achievement Motivation is a TRAIT which is activated by a SITUATION. The situation has 2 elements 1) The PROBABILITY of SUCCESS and 2) The INCENTIVE VALUE of SUCCESS (how much pleasure is gained from it) The 2 PERSONALITY TRAITS which determine Achievement Motivation are: 1)HIGH NEED TO ACHIEVE (high Nach). Associated with low need to avoid failure (low Naf). Desire to succeed outweighs the fear of failure. Elements include: APPROACH behaviour, CHALLENGE, RISKS, PERSISTENCE, success is due to INTERNAL factors, failure is due to EXTERNAL factors and is a ROUTE to success, aspire to MASTERY ORIENTATION 2)LOW NEED TO ACHIEVE (low Nach) associated with high need to avoid failure (high Naf) The fear of failure outweighs the desire to succeed. Elements include AVOIDANCE behaviour, REJECT challenge, DECLINE risks, GIVES UP, success is due to EXTERNAL factors, failure is due to INTERNAL factors and is the route to another, LEARNED HELPLESSNESS Slide 9 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Performers who regard success as victory over other people are said to have EGO GOAL ORIENTATION. People who regard success on the basis of personal improvement are said to have TASK ORIENTATION. SPORTS SPECIFIC ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION is competitiveness and the motivation to achieve in sport. Athletes favour task orientation (performance goals) while non athletes preferred ego goal orientation Apply these concepts: 1) In 50/50 situations where there is an equal chance of success or failure, what is the likely response of the High Nach personality and the Low Nach personality. What would you expect to see them to do in these situations? 2) What would happen if the performer was being watched, evaluated or assessed? 3) Identify 2 situations that you have experienced in sport. describe one which would have resulted in high incentive value and one which would have given low incentive value. Give reasons why 4) Describe when you have experienced EGO GOAL and TASK ORIENTATION Slide 10 ATTRIBUTION THEORY Attribution Theory identifies the reasons given by performers to explain success and failure. It has powerful implications for achievement related behaviour. Weiners MODEL OF ATTRIBUTION has 2 dimensions. 1)LOCUS OF CAUSALITY. This identifies the PERCEIVED cause of success or failure. EFFORT and ABILITY represent internal factors and TASK DIFFICULTY and LUCK are the environmental variables 2)STABILITY. This is whether attributions are STABLE or UNSTABLE. That is its degree of PERMANENCE Attributing failure to external causes is often used by coaches. Internal attributions are often used to reinforce success. High Nach attribute their own success and failure this way. This is ATTRIBUTION BIAS Low achievers attribute failure to internal factors and success to external factors. This is NEGATIVE APPLICATION of ATTRIBUTION ATTRIBUTION TRAINING involves changing the performers PERCEPTION of the causes of failure. It can convert learned helplessness into mastery orientation and can increase confidence, pride, self esteem, expectation of success, incentive value and task orientation. Slide 11 AGGRESSION Aggression is FORCEFUL BEHAVIOUR in sport. There are 2 types 1)HOSTILE AGGRESSION: deliberate intention to harm or injure another 2)CHANNELLED AGGRESSION: often called assertion it involves robust play towards completing a skill and not inflicting injury. An ANTECEDENT is a prior event which can lead to aggression. There are 10 1)Actual or Perceived UNFAIRNESS 2)FRUSTRATION at poor performance 3)DISPLACED AGGRESSION To change the direction of aggression play harder 4)Excessive PRESSURE to win 5)RETALIATION 6)COPYING the behaviour of others 7)NATURE of the game 8)REACTION to HOSTILE SITUATION (crowds) 9)LOSING HEAVILY 10)ILL FEELING and prior RIVALRY Slide 12 4 THEORIES OF AGGRESSION INSTINCT THEORY: (Freud/Lorenz) This is a TRAIT view of behaviour and says that behaviour is GENTIC, PREDICTABLE and that everyone has a trait of violence. The DEATH INSTINCT (Freud) and aggressive energy must be RELEASED as it keeps building up (Lorenz) SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY: (Bandura) Aggression is LEARNED from role models and NURTURED through ENVIRONMENTAL factors. It becomes accepted if it is REINFORCED. It is common in GROUPS FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS: (Dollard) This is an INTERACTIONIST theory. Frustration develops when goal directed behaviour is blocked. This increases when the goal is EGO or OUTCOME orientated. Frustration from the environment TRIGGERS the aggressive GENE. If the aggression is successful the person FEELS GOOD and frustration RELEASED. This is CATHARTICISM. If aggression fails or results in punishment FURTHER FRUSTRATION is generated. AGGRESSION CUE HYPOTHESIS: (Berkowitz) An INTERCATIONIST approach. Frustration leads to increased arousal but this creates READINESS for aggression which is triggered only when the relevant ENVIRONMENTAL CUE is present Slide 13 ELIMINATION OF AGGRESSION There are 2 METHODS to eliminate aggression 1)COGNITIVE TECHNIQUES: These are PSYCHOLOGICAL strategies designed to LOWER AROUSAL. They include IMAGERY and MENTAL REHEARSAL. POSITIVE SELF TALK and REPEATING WORDS or PHRASES. DISTANCING one self can help as can WALKING AWAY. Some athletes REASON with themselves 2)SOMATIC TECHNIQUES: These are PHYSIOLOGICAL strategies such as RELAXATION techniques and BREATHING exercises. BIO FEEDBACK is used to give information about the physiological state. Roles of RESPONSIBILITY are given and non aggressive behaviour reinforced. Aggression can be controlled through ATTRIBUTION giving reasons for success and failure. Coaches could set TASK ORIENTATED environments instead of EGO GOALS. Increased aggression can lead to UNDER ACHIEVEMENT, reduced CONCENTRATION, increased chance of INJURY, being SENT OFF, LEARNED HELPLESSNESS and reduced PARTICIPATION levels Slide 14 GROUP DYNAMICS OF PERFORMANCE Much interest and research has concentrated on TEAMS and GROUPS. GROUP DYNAMICS refer to the SOCIAL PROCESSES which operate within the group between individuals. It is very DIFFICULT to research. The 2 Foci: 1)How can GROUP COHESION (unity) be developed? 2)How can group dynamics or INTERACTIONS (action and reaction between 2 or more people) have an influence on an individuals ATTITUDE and MOTIVATION towards a HEALTHY and BALANCED lifestyle? GROUPS are SMALL, have structured PATTERNS of COMMUNICATION, MUTUAL AWARENESS and INDEPENDENCE, COLLECTIVE IDENTITY, COMMON GOALS, SHARED PURPOSES, and UNITY. STEINERs Model of GROUP PERFORMANCE: (AP = PP FP) ACTUAL PRODUCTIVITY (means how successful the performance of the team is)= POTENTIAL PRODUCTIVITY (means the maximum capability of the group) Losses due to 2 FAULTY PROCESSES (are the factors which can go wrong in the performance which can affect cohesion and performance) Slide 15 GROUP DYNAMICS OF PERFORMANCE There are 2 FAULTY PROCESSES 1)COORDINATION LOSSES (Ringlemann Effect) This is a BREAK DOWN in team work because the OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS cannot be sustained for the whole match. Ringlemanns TUG of WAR experiment 2)MOTIVATION LOSSES or SOCIAL LOAFING: This is when and INDIVIDUAL loses motivation and WITHDRAWS EFFORT or COASTS. This affects team COORDINATION and COHESION. There are 5 INFLUENCES which can cause Social Loafing and DYSFUNCTIONAL behaviour which affects EFFECTIVE TEAM WORK: A)OTHERS are not trying in the team B)Their performance is NOT VALUED by the coach C)To PROTECT their own SELF ESTEEM D)Previous NEGATIVE ATTRIBUTION or EXPERIENCES E)The task is too difficult AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOUR Other FACTORS which have an adverse effect on team work include: INJURY which break up the game, lack of INCENTIVE, vague ROLES, low ABILITY, people with LOW TRAIT CONFIDENCE, inadequate LEADERSHIP Slide 16 FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A COHESIVE GROUP OR TEAM There are 2 TYPES of Cohesion determined by the nature of the activity 1)TASK COHESION: This applies to SPORTS teams. It is most important in INTERACTIVE sports like games where players rely on each other 2)SOCIAL COHESION: This applies to EXERCISE activity groups. It is most important in CO-ACTIVE sports like trac...


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