of 30 /30
Personality and Relationships

Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) Eysenck Personality

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

Page 1: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Personality and Relationships

Page 2: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Measuring Personality

Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)

Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)

Jenkens Activity Survey (Type A/Type B)

NEO Personal Inventory (Big 5)

Page 3: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Big Five Personality Traits

1. Extroversion

2. Neuroticism

3. Openness to Experience

4. Conscientiousness

5. Agreeableness

OCEAN

McCrae & Costa, 1990

Page 4: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Extroversion

Extroverts: High sociability, impulsiveness, like parties, crave excitement, focused on outer world, more friends

Introverts: quiet, reserved, reflective, like to think things through before speaking, focused within Cetola & Prinkey, 1986

“introverts are habitually in a state of greater arousal than extraverts, and consequently they show lower sensory thresholds, and greater reactions to sensory stimulation.” Eysenck & Eysenck, 1969

Lemon Test

Stereotypes of introverts/extroverts?

Page 5: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Wundt’s Hedonic Curve

Adapted from Cetola & Prinkey, 1986

Page 6: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Hedonic Curve for Introverts and Extroverts

Cetola & Prinkey, 1986

Page 7: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Neuroticism

Unsociable

Withdrawn

Wish to indulge in social activity but fear of being rejected takes over Different from introversion

Anxiety, self-consciousness, emotionally unstable

High: anxious, hostile, self-conscious, and impulsive McCrae & Costa, 1990

Opposite: Emotionally stableEysenck & Eysenck, 1969

Page 8: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Openness to Experience

High “Receptiveness to new ideas, approaches, experiences”

(p.41-42)

Intellectually curious

Often appreciates art, literature, travel

More likely to hold unconventional beliefs

“free spirits”

Low Prefer the familiar and practical

Resists change

Not necessarily close minded or intolerant of others

McCrae & Costa

Page 9: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Conscientiousness

High Achievement-orientated

Organized, dutiful, high level of motivation

Workaholics?

Low Easy-going

Less exacting with themselves and with others

Slackers?

Page 10: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Agreeableness

Generous and trusting of others and want everyone to get along

Optimistic

Opposite: Antagonism Tough-minded, non-accommodating of others

Place the interest of themselves above the interest of others

Often seen as uncooperative

Which of these would you want your surgeon to be? Lawyer?

Does this have anything to do with face theory?

Page 11: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Opposites Attract?

Marriage partners often have similarities (religion ethnicity, attraciveness, values) but complimentary personalities McCrae & Costa, 1990

Personality more important than other factors in predicting marital adjustment

Difference-detecting mechanisms Buss, 1996

I’m Outgoing and She’s Reserved: The Reciprocal Dynamics of Personality in Close Friendships in Young Adulthood Nelson, Thorne, & Shapiro, 2011

Interpersonal Theory

Self Expansion Theory

Overall, “a series of compromises and adaptations evolve over a period of time” (p. 160) in any successful relationship McCrae & Costa, 1990

Page 12: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Desirable Personalities

In a long- term mate

Extroversion- ambitious about career

Neuroticism- emotionally stable

Agreeableness- kind

Conscientiousness- dependable, hardworking

Openness- intelligent, open-minded, creative

Buss, 1996

Page 13: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Desirable Personalities

In a friendship

Extroversion- bold, self-confident, ambitious about career

Neuroticism- emotionally stable

Agreeableness- kind

Conscientiousness- hardworking, dependable

Openness- open- minded, creative, intelligent, wide range of knowledge

Buss, 1996

Page 14: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Undesirable Personalities

Low on agreeableness

Neglect, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual infidelity, inconsiderateness, self-centeredness

Emotionally unstable (neurotic)

Possessive, jealous, dependent, abusive, inconsiderate, physically self-absorbed, self centered

Page 15: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Other Undesirable Personalities

Low Conscientiousness

High instances of sexual infidelity, especially men

Low Openness

Sexualizing of others

“treating members of the opposite sex as sex objects; commenting about the attractiveness of others; expressing sexual desire for a movie star” (Buss, 1996).

Page 16: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Personality and Sexual Infidelity

Buss, 1996

100 married couples- took personality test as newlyweds and questioned 4 years later

Low Conscientious men AND women likely to cheat

Women high in openness to experiences likely to cheat

Submissive partners are likely to be cheated on

Page 17: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Nonverbal Communication and Personality

When it comes to conversational distance:

Extraverts- likely to choose to sit opposite of other person and avoid positions that would put them at an angle

Introverts- choose positions that would keep that at more of a distance (visually and physically) sit diagonally

Knapp & Hall, 2006

Page 18: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Nonverbal Communication and Personality

Dominant people show more eye contact than submissive people

Extraverted, Agreeable, and Open people show more gazing activity (eye contact) than other personalities Knapp & Hall, 2006

What does this mean for relationships?

Flirting?

Page 19: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Nonverbal Communication and Personality

Is there a relationship between personality/temperament and certain body types?

Some people believe there is a correlation

Page 20: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Calm

Anxious

Cheerful

Contented (often content. Happy or at ease)

Relaxed

Confident

Tense

Impetuous (impulsive)

Complacent (self-satisfied)

Reticent (reserved- don’t say everything you know)

Energetic

Self-conscious

I feel most of the time _____, _________, and ______

Page 21: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Efficient

Enthusiastic

Reflective

Placid (calm, quiet)

Sluggish

Competitive

Leisurely

Meticulous

Precise

Determined

Thoughtful

cooperative

When I study or work I seem to be ______, ______, and ___________.

Page 22: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Socially, I am ____, _____, and ________. Outgoing

Affable (shows warmth and friendliness)

Tolerant

Gentle-tempered

Considerate

Awkward

Affected (emotionally moved easily)

Soft-tempered

Argumentative

Shy

Talkative

Hot-tempered

Page 23: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

I am rather ____, ______, and ____.

Active

Warm

Domineering

Introspective

Forgiving

Courageous

Suspicious

Cool

Sympathetic

Serious

Soft-hearted

Enterprising

Page 24: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Other people consider me rather ___, _____ and _______. Generous

Adventurous

Withdrawn

Dominant

Optimistic

Affectionate

Reckless

Detached

Sensitive

Kind

Cautious

Dependent

Page 25: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Pick one of each three

Assertive, relaxed, tense

Hot-tempered, cool, warm

Withdrawn, sociable, active

Confident, tactful, kind

Dependent, dominant, detached

Enterprising, affable, anxious

Page 26: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Section A

Forgiving

Sympathetic

Soft-hearted

Generous

Affectionate

Kind

Sociable

Soft-tempered

Warm

Affected

Tolerant

Dependent

Calm

Relaxed

Complacent

Contented

Sluggish

Placid

Leisurely

Cooperative

Affable

Page 27: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Section B

Dominant

Cheerful

Confident

Energetic

Impetuous

Efficient

Enthusiastic

Competitive

Determined

Outgoing

Hot Tempered

Argumentative

Talkative

Active

Domineering

Courageous

Enterprising

Adventurous

Reckless

Assertive

optimistic

Page 28: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Section C

Detached

Tense

Anxious

Reticent

Self-Conscious

Meticulous

Reflective

Precise

Thoughtful

Considerate

Shy

Awkward

Cool

Suspicious

Introspective

Serious

Cautious

Tactful

Sensitive

Withdrawn

Gentle-tempered

Page 29: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

6 510

Wells & Siegel (1961) stereotypes about personalities of people with different body types Knapp & Hall, 2006

Page 30: Personality and Relationships. Measuring Personality  Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Eysenck Personality

Buss, D. M. (1996). The five- factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives. J. S. Wiggins (Ed.) New York: The Guilford Press.

Cetola, H., & Prinkey, K. (1986). Introversion-extraversion and loud commercials. Psychology and Marketing, 3, 123-132.

Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. (1969). Personality structure and measurement. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.

Knapp, M. L., & Hall, J. A. (2006). Nonverbal communication in human interaction (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1990). Personality in adulthood. New York: The Guilford Press.

Nelson, P. A., Thorne, A., & Shapiro, L.A. (2011). I’m outgoing and she’s reserved: The reciprocal dynamics of personality in close friendships in young adulthood. Journal of Personality, 79 (5), p. 1113-1147.