PerceptionWhat is perception and how does it influence our perspectives?
PerceptionThe process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensation
And Rememberyour brain takes SHORTCUTS!Perceptions Influenced by:----motivation----Values----Expectations----Experience----Culture----Cognitive Style----Personality
Selective Attentionfocus of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Visual Capturetendency for vision to dominate the other senses
Perception tell your neighbor the definition!The process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensation
Gestalt Psychologists focus on how we normally perceive images as groups or as whole objects, not isolated elements
the whole is more than the sum of itsparts ..Our brain takes shortcuts!Gestalt Psychology
Figure- Ground relationshiporganization of thevisual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)
Analyzing separate information allows us to re-act to each individual object accordingly
What is the figure, and what is the background here?
Camouflagewhen figures blend into the background
No distinction between figure and ground
Where is it?
Remember, Gestalt is our brains way of being efficient.
We see things as whole
Our brain takes shortcuts!Gestalt Psychology
sometimes this is great! Automatic processes can enhance our perception
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sometimes this is bad! Automatic processes can interfere with our perception
REDRead the following words out loudBLUEGREENNow when you see the word, say ONLY the COLOR, not the word itselfBLUEGREENYELLOWBROWNORANGEPINKRED
Our brain gets so used to seeing things as whole objects (top down), it struggles with the bottom up
Gestalt PerceptionOther Gestalt principles involves grouping objects together (again, seeing them as whole)Several factors influence how we will group objects:ProximitySimilarityContinuityClosure
proximity- your brain likes to group nearby figures together
Having trouble understanding the sign?
Your brain is trying to group the words based on proximity
similarity- Objects that are similar in appearance are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
Color similarity we see two groups of fruit, not 10 individual ones
Continuity (or continuation)The tendency to Perceivecontinuous patterns
Continuation in artwork
Two objectsor three?
Closure (or completeness)-The tendency to overlook incompleteness, and complete objects
We make them fit our preconceptions
closureDo you see a square?How many triangles?
Familiar objects are easier for our mind to complete
GESTALT = seeing things as wholeGestalt cues employ principle of praegnanz
the brain will always favor the simplest solution it can findThat solution is based on what you already know and expect in a given context
Constancyperceiving objects as unchanging despite changes in retinal image
There are three types of constancy cues:Size ConstancyShape ConstancyBrightness Constancy
Size ConstancyObjects closer to us will produce bigger images on our retinas, and as they move away they project a smaller image. The actual size of the object does not change
our brains assume that the guys in the background are similar in height to the other people.they are just farther awaybut look how much smaller of an image they cast on our retina.surprising isnt it?
by the same token, if an object farther away WERE the same size, our brain assumes it is much larger than it actually is
Objects viewed from different angles will produce different shapes on our retina. Though we may change our position, the shape doesnt change.Shape Constancy
We perceive it as being slanted and therefore being the same shape as the circles in the columns on the rightThe 3 columns on the left and the 3 on the right are slightly different. Does the middle column belong with the left or the right?but if you look carefully, you will notice that they are actually exactly the same as the circles on the left
Brightness/Color ConstancyWe perceive objects as having a constant color, despite lighting, shading, etc.Are all these bricks the same color?
We perceive the white as a constant whiteness, regardless of the shadow, when in reality, it is the same gray as the gray squares...trust me.
Depth PerceptionDepth Cues allow us to perceive the world in three dimensions.Monocular Cues are depth cues that do not depend on having two eyes working in conjunction togetherBinocular Cues are depth cues that depend on having two eyes working in conjunction with each other
Relative HeightRelative SizeTexture Gradient InterpositionRelative Clarity/ShadowingLinear PerspectiveRelative motion/motion parallax
smaller image is more distant
coarse --> closefine --> distant(Look at the floor beneath you, and then across the room)
A closer object blocks a more distant object
hazy object seen as more distantLighted objects seem closerDarker objects seem further away
ShadowingNotice the perception of depth changes when shading is reversed
If it doesnt worktry clicking HERE
Relative HeightObjects higher in our field of vision are perceived as farther away
Vertical Dimensions are often perceived as longer than identical horizontal dimensions
Whos farthest away? Whos tallest?
parallel lines converge with distance
Vanishing Point where two parallel lines connect in the distance
relative motion/ Motion Parallax
closer objects seem to move faster
(riding in a car, trees along the road vs. houses in the distance)
Artists use these all the time to give their work a true feeling of depth Trompe l'oeil
Check out this picture
from a different angle!
Same drawing from another angle
These visual tricks provide depth and dimension to artwork on walls
Artwork inside houses
And of course.Classical Art
Escaping Criticism, 1874, by Pere Borrell del Caso
Binocular Cuesconvergenceneuromuscular cuetwo eyes move inward for near objects(bring a pencil slowly toward your eyes- keep focusing on the pencil- feel your eyes move)
(Retinal) Binocular disparityimages from the two eyes differ closer the object, the larger the disparity(Hold a pencil in front of you, close one eye, then close the other eye- you get two different images)
Binocular Depth Cues: Finger Sausage
Believe or not there is a three dimensional hour glass in here!
MotionEye muscle activityChanging retinal imageContrast of the moving object and its stationary background
All combine to bring us the perception of motion
MotionStroboscopic Motion- timed flashing lights or moving pictures that give the illusion of movement
Factors That Influence Perceptual InterpretationsPerceptual SetThe tendency to perceive a person or a situation in a particular way due to our past experiences with similar persons or situations
Perpetual Set - UFO
Original Image what do you see?
this is the first blowup to just 500 times the original.. and addition of the cyan blue filter.. that will develop the interior of the ship
Below is the ship solarized and invert to find edges.. from the blue cyan filter.. this is just 500 times.. and for the abduction and cattle mutilation pix i had to go to 3000 times..
from the solarized version.. i go to desaturation.. of color and then increase the enlargement.. ive found for myself it is better to have the photo in black and white to see the detail.. the colors are not as clear.. and btw some of the scenes in this are sexual.. i may eventually cut some out.. but these guys are certainly preoccupied with sex..
NEXT IS CATTLE ABDUCTION FROM THE ABOVE PHOTO CUT>.
this is one of the two first cuts i made and shows a horse being abducted and probably the usual cuts.. etc.. or perhaps just DNA research..
see anything yet? It depends on your perceptual set I guess
Below is the same picture only OUTLINED.. and i think you can compare and see what is happening.. and certainly the ANSWER to many of the CATTLE MUTILATIONS ETC.. but i don't believe all of them.. the LIzARDS on this planet also use the horse and animals for sacrifice and ritual.. and even HANG HORSES.. these are not NOT NICE CRITTERS WHO ABUSE AND USE ALL OF THE LIFE ON THIS PLANET IN DEROGATORY METHODS...the PRIESTESS is also sometimes considered to be a REPTILIAN PRINCESS WHO TAKE CHARGE OF MUCH OF WHAT HAPPENS ON AND OFF THIS PLANET..ABDUCTIONS SHOULD ENDregardless of our perceptions, I think we all can agree on that
Right side of room get ready to close your eyes!Perceptual Set!
Left side of the room - Get your pencil ready and be prepared to jot something in the margins of your notes!
Right Side Close those eyes!
Quick! Write down what you think this a drawing of
Everyone open your eyes!
Right side of the room - Get your pencil ready and be prepared to jot something in the margins of your notes!
Left Side Close those eyes!
Quick! Write down what you think this a drawing of
Raise your hand if you said.Mouse!
Raise your hand if you said.Face!Our expectations influence our perceptions!.FaceMouse
Perceptual IllusionsWhen our normal, automatic perception processes guide us to the wrong conclusionsbecause your brain takes shortcuts, what you perceive is not necessarily reality!Do you perceive a face?When our normal, automatic perception processes guide us to the wrong conclusionsbecause your brain takes shortcuts, what you perceive is not necessarily reality!
Extrasensory Perception = ESPSome people claim to have extra powers of perception
Perception not with any of your physical senses but with your mind!
The study of ESP and its many forms is known as ParapsychologyPARA means alongside
considered by many to be a pseudoscience
Parapsychology includes the study of: telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psycho-kinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation and apparitional experiences.I see dead people.
Subliminal PerceptionThresholds imply that there must be stimulus below and beyond our current levels of detection. Can human behavior be influenced by stimulus that is below or beyond our level of awareness?
Study!Subliminal messagesSTUDY!Subliminal messagesSubliminal messagesPublic concern 1957 A marketing researcher claimed dramatic increases in the sales of popcorn (58% increase!)when he flashed the phrase "Eat popcorn" for 1/2000 of a second during a movie. Despite public rage over the possibilities of mind control, further research has shown no evidence that subliminal messages influence out long-term behavior.