PELCZAR Microbiology

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PELCZAR Microbiologyfor engineers

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<ul><li><p>Microbiology</p><p>900rc &amp; scBvrcEs rNlEhllarlolla!lbr.hiB Mansion,11. Patant ttlttn</p></li><li><p>Microbiologyrcf,ADL J. PEI/oZA&amp; Jn'</p><p>UnivEity ol Mryldd</p><p>E. C. S. Cf,AIIAlsoclqt Prol$or of Micrcbiologv</p><p>I{OEI. R, NIIGAl@i Distins shed PrcIes$r ol Mimbioto3vvi4iuia ?olttdhrtc Induut. md srato Univdiiv</p><p>rEi llltltl tqaz/ll</p><p>rIFTH EDIIION</p><p>Taia Mccrar4' Ilill Publishing ConlPanv l,inrirccl\[.\v Dlll,til</p><p>tMl</p><p>Ne Debi NdYort Aucktmd sosora cuaremJ'</p><p>HanbuB rnbon ldtd@ Madrid Mqi6 Mitan Monuet PbnamPetu ss lum $o Plulo slns.po6 svdnv Totvo rdnro</p></li><li><p>Tat llccraw-Htll</p><p>Mictobiolog, Fift Edition</p><p>Copyrighl g 1986 197?. 1972, l%5, l95E by Mccraw-Eitl. Inc.AU ights rcs.rvcd. No pan ofrhis publication rnay be reproduc.il ordisfibuted in ary fom or by dy m..n!, d srded h a data bai. drehieval syslcm, withot |[. prior win.r pemission ofih. publishcr.</p><p>T.ta Mccr.w-Hill Edition 1993</p><p>35ri rcpriot 2007DZZQCDDYDRDCC</p><p>Repdnrd in India by almgddl wiih Th. M.CEw-Hi[. Inc., N.w ydt</p><p>Sales teritories: India. Pakistan.Nepal. Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Bhutan</p><p>Libnry of Cdgress CataloSing-in-Publi6lio! Dar.</p><p>Pelcar, Mich..l Jos.ph, daeMicrobiolory</p><p>Includes bibliognphies ed indq.s.l. Midcbiolory. I- Cha, Eddi. Chin Sm, datc</p><p>[. Kricg, N@l R. IU. TilleQR 4t.2 P4 l9E6 576 84-23932ISBN 0-07-049234-4</p><p>ISBN-l31 978-M7-46232G6ISBN- l0: 0{7462320-6Publishd by Tai! Mccraw-Hill Publishing Company Linitc47 wen Pdcl Nagu, N.w Dlhi 110008, ad pinted atSDR Priltrs, west Jyothi Nagd, t clhi 110094</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>PFlace</p><p>P.\RT ON! IN-I RODLICTION TO MICROEIOLOGY</p><p>Chaptd 1 Tho scope of Micrcbiotog!Cbapter 2 Th6 Hbtort of Micrcliolos,chapter 3 Th6 Chdacterizatiol ClssitetioD, @d ldenlit@tion of MicrcolSanism!chapter 4 Th6 MiMpi. Exdietiotr oa Micrcor8eistu</p><p>PARTTWL} NIICROORGANISMS B-{CTERIA</p><p>Chapier s The Morpholosy.nd Firo StsduE of BacteriaCbapr. 6 The CultivatroD of BacleriaCbapt.7 Rsprcduction md CrowthChapt !I P@ Cultues ud cultaal chdacteristie</p><p>PART THREE MICiOBIT\L PHISIOLOGY J\^"D GE^'ET]CS</p><p>chaptd I Enzlte and Th6ir Regulationcb.pter 10 Miqobial M6tabolisE: Bturgy PrcducuonChapter 11 Mic.obtdl MotabolieE: Utiliation of Enersy dd Btostnthesischiorer 12 Baclrbl csetics</p><p>PART IIOTIR AIiT I{ORLD OF BACTER]A</p><p>Chapir 13 The Wo.ld ol Betdia I. O.dinary" G.@.Naativ Bacteriaqhapts. 14 Th6 Wodd ol Bdtdia II: "Ordinary Gram"?ositive &amp;ctoriaChapte. 1s The Wo d ol Bet*ia lll: Bacieria with Un$ual PrcpertiosChapte. 16 'the Wodd of Bactata lvi Glatrl-Positiae, lileento$ Bact.ia ol</p><p>Compl6x Morpholo8/</p><p>PART FIVE MICROORGA^*ISMS_FUNGI. ALGAE, PROTOZOA. AND VIRIJSES</p><p>Chaptd 17 rutr8i-MoldE ud Y6ast3</p><p>31d</p><p>50</p><p>115r33</p><p>151777196227</p><p>261245300</p><p>333365</p></li><li><p>chapter 19 !rcrozoach.pter 20 Viruss ol Bacteliach.pter 21 viruss of Alimds md Pldts</p><p>PART SIT CONTROL OF MICROORGANISIIS</p><p>chaltd 22 Contrcl oI Micloorgeisms by Physi.al Aee s- </p><p>chaptd 23 Conbol ol Midoo.guisns hy chsnical A8nlsChapter 24 Anlibiotica ud Other CLemothe.aputic Agnls</p><p>TARI'SI]VEN I:NVIRONMX\'TAI, AND INDUSTRIALil|ICROBIOLOGY</p><p>chdpid 2s Mioobiology oi soilChaprer 26 Aquatic MisobiologyChaprer 27 Microbiology of Doh6stic Watd ed WasresaterChsprer 23 McrobioloSy of FoodsChapier 2s Indusbial Mioobiology</p><p>PARI EIGHT MICROORGANIS!'S AND DISEASE</p><p>Chapto. 30 Mtcrcbial Flo.a ol ib Healthy Hunan ttostChaltq 31 Host-Mtcrcbe Interactions: The Process ot ldeclioDChaptd 32 Nstural Resisldce and Nonspcinc D6feF6 Mecheb4sChapt6r 33 Bsic dd rhedeti.al As!cts of tho ImmuD6 R$porsChapt6r 34 Alsalr od Appliotions of the Inmue RespoueChapt6r 35 Epidomiology of Infectious DiseasesChapt6r 36 Micrcbi6l Agenls oI Disease: BacreriaChapter 37 lvticmbtal Agenls ol Disease: VinsesChapter 3S Mi.Nbial Agents oi Dlsease: Pungi dd Prctozoa</p><p>Glo$4/</p><p>lndxsNmc Ind*OrSuisn IDdexSubject IDdx</p><p>510</p><p>415435</p><p>543569593614643</p><p>824450</p></li><li><p>Preface</p><p>' 'M3sieuB, c'st l$ rnimb8s qui auronl le demier mot.' PasIeu.</p><p>Fo. rhe major pdt oI the twenlieth ceDtury the physical 3ciences have dominatedscience and engineering. This situatio! was due to a ldSe degree to the devel-oDment ol rhe atomic bohb, dnd the achievemenls of the Soviet Union in outerspa@. Th! succostul launchi.g of the first satellite into slace (Sputntkl in 1ss7by the Soviet Union accelqaled physicdl science resedh dd ddelopnentprogms in lhe Unil6d States by the eovmment, by univerBities, sd by tn-dustry We became engagedin a race ror loade.ship in scien.s dd tochnology.</p><p>We de now experieneing d spid shift ol natioMl p.iodties ir reseNh anddevelopment- As we spproach th iw.nty-fiFt century, we see biology emerSintas one of the top priortties in the n6ld of science, ard amonS the bioloSicalsciences micmbiolo8y has saind nw 3rature. Miooorganisms dd their activities d.e increa6inSly central to meny of the concerns of society both nattonall,and inlematioMlly. Th prcblehs ol the Blobal environnent, th recognilion otthe need to recycle natural rcsources, the di&amp;overy of recombinMt DNA mdlhe resultin8 hi8h technology ot Benetic en8ircering-ihe and oth. dvelop-mentr hsve plscetl microbiolo8y in the linolighl.</p><p>MicrcbioloSy is emerginB as tbe k6y biological science. Micrcorganisms !ro'vide th6 models used in nolcular biolosy fol research. This resedch at themoleculdlevel has prcvided, and continues to provide, the arswers to numei'ous tundamental queslioN in genelics, helabolism, ad.eU foms ed func-tions, Midoorganisns also provlde oodel systems lor studyinS the relationshipsbetween lpecies in mixed population6.</p><p>]hr is Sroqng recosnition of rlo potential or BiLr@r86nisms in msyapplted @as. The abtlitv of bic.oorganlsms to decompose materials slch aeherbicides, pesticidqs, dd oils in oil spillsirhe porenrial of midoorgaDisms asiood supplemerrst &amp;s exllottatio! of$idobid activily tD produce energy suchas methane 8as lor rusl consumption; dd the polential ol new rherapeulicsuhstsnces lroduced by mi@orgd'smFlhese and other us* of hidoorSan-isms ue becomin8 inra6ingly anractive,</p><p>Reombinant DNA lechnoloSy, comonly BterEd to as snetic ensineerinS,b one of the princrial thrusls 6f the emerging hi8h tchnologies in the biolosicalsciDces. Recombinad DNA teclhology maks ir teasible to consider geneticalljmaripulared tensineeredl micrcorg.ris$ lor commerci.l produdion ot newald valutble prcducls lor a vanely of lDrposes, e-9., medicirals, tuel. and food,</p><p>Thi3 ifth edition oI MICROBIOLOGY Ftains narv of the featues tial havdproved succsofll in the ffBt fou. edilions, parlicululy the bslarce betwentunddmeriol or ba6ic nicrcbioloSy and oppljed Fic.obioloel. This approacbempbasizes tb6 iDpo.tmce ol integratirg lew kno$ led8e SaiDed lteud basi.reseaE-h with applied.eseuih 6rd delelopment plo8raru, A dtrcng @DtinuuD</p></li><li><p>ol rcearch dd devolopment, f.om tbe basic to the applted, facUiare! rheddlopment ol ben6fits lo! society-</p><p>One oI th new features of this edition is a D.esentatioD oI the clssificationof bacteria in a totally new fomat following the scheme idtuduced i! th ff.stvolume of the HeDtly published Bersey's Monuol of Sysrmouc Bdcredolos/.(one or u, Nol R. Krte8, swed as editor ol the ffrst volume.)</p><p>we have also dpud.d sd rcvisd the matedal on metabolism, bacte.ialSonelicsi dd aenetic engin@rin8 dd EorEdized the sectioD o! Ficrcolg.n-ism ed di6ase, Cdelul attedtior has been given to updating of inlolmationi! all 8p@ts of the dircipline. Moy !w summaly rables have ben developed,and new illusbatiols selected. New Eview questiom, dd updated .efrcEce.,iollow each cha $.</p><p>Tho subjoct mterial is p.ecnted iD eiShi pdts, As a new fedture, each panow opens with m </p><p>ssay prcviding added iDsi8ht into the natrial that follows.Each chapte. bsSi$ with a chaptd ourline md m inEoduction. Many chaprersnow conlain b*d $says hidlishtins inportant dtscoveries dd developnentsin Diclobioiory, As in the pdt, the older of dugement of chsples lods itsUto adjatmeDt! ir any sequedce desiEd by the i$truclor</p><p>A coneiderablo dhoml ot th dtwork has been drawn by Di EMin n Le$el(a midobiologitt in ht owu lidtl. W6 have found this to be a distinct assot interhs of inprcvil8 tbe ped6gogic6l value of iUurbatioN.</p><p>Thpe valuable supplementdy publications ne available to acoompdy rhis@w edition: m INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL, a ST!iDEN] S GUIDE, dd L.\BO-MTORY EXPERIMENTS IN MICROBIOLOGY Each hs been .evieod to codomwith ths subimt natt6r in the SIth edition of MICROBIOTOGY W6 bav prvided extelsiv cross-referencing dong these fou. publicdtiotrs, The INSTRUGTOR'S MANUAL includ6 sussssr6d lecturc ald laboratory shedules, chapto.suhmdies, sows of audiovisual aids, sounes oI labolatory equipment ddMgeDtr, s wll a sdple test qustioDs. The STUDEM S GIIDE \as bend6v6lop6d to ssbt tho studeut ir his or her efforts to comprehend the subjocthalter It provid$ io! e6ch chapter a concise stdtemont ol th coDr6Dr (eovervi*), a conprehdsive topicd outltne, dd s le.ies ol sell-study questionsof sevdal types,</p><p>The nitirs oi a tqtbook on a subject d comprehen6ive as nicrcbiolosrrequircs couide.able a$ista!.e from a luse nuber ol prclessioial coueagues.ADo.8 th$a, we wbh to ackiowledse th6 followins peFonr who were sen.ousin th6ir a*i3ldce, particuldly in commenting upon dr.tu ol vaiou chspt6F:Phillip M. Ach6t Uni@ity of Flo$da; Romld L. Crawfod, University oiMidqota; toEtta C. Ellias, Fldida State Univrsityt Loujs R, Fin6. Kflmas6tat Univ6Fity;Tho@ R. Jew6U, Univ.Fity of Wisconsin-Eau Clatei Ted R.Iohfton, st. OlJ Colleser Robed J. laBsen, U versity of Arizona; David Kd-kewilz, Rutgds UnivlBity; toseph S, Layne, Mcmphis Siate Untvelsiry; HaidehLiShdoot. B@tm WasbjnstoD Univsiiy; David Plmdi Rutges UniwB yi&amp;mond J. Seidler O.egon State Universityi Robed Todd, South Dakota StaroU v*ityi AD6 tl. Williu$, Evergreen valley Colles.; ud Fred D. Willios,Iowa Stat UDiveFitv,</p><p>Sp6cial thdk d due Mal@lE G. Baiaes, Mcciil Unive$ityi john O. Corlise,Univdsilv of Mryland: A. C, Dombush, Medicsl ResstrLh DivisioD. Amence</p></li><li><p>CvaMnid Co; lesm6 J Motta, Univ6siiv oI Mdryland; and Robe't C B3t*'ii*ii[-i'r".!Jr'". r'i"t,"" and stato univoritv, who prcvidd xta herp</p><p>-'S" ,il'*ii,lilll'j;. ""r".sues </p><p>at rhe Mc*aw-lrir Book conpsnv rathreD.'".it"-. rlit r i** w sF;lev Editing supeNisori aDd ch'rlos Hss Prc-i".'i.'i s""i-'l.i,i* </p><p>'r..; pr"*mr c-pemiion a'd assist*ce rn the rssk or</p><p>il#i"iil;il'';'r'iJuo.t^ nr""is o aue or"o to Kdrcn Iscques andia,i" rc'irir t i tt'"i' </p><p>'uir,l ssisrmce in rhe prepdatioo oI nd8stpt</p><p>";;;;jii;;t ihi; i"" each ch6pter hd b@n the prtm6ry r*poosibiritv.t ."" ir'r'"t.i*."", </p><p>""* </p><p>of us hs re6d md oitiquod stl the chapteB As</p><p>"*"i""J.-,r"*a. ." tt"v. had lhe bn6fi1olreviews of each chapler rNo</p><p>i"i","i "i </p><p>.'.'r..r*"*t *6octate5 l! the end we tak collecrive FlPonsi-bility tor the complete content of this ten'</p><p>Michael t. Pelczar, JrE. C. s. ChnNool R. Kri6g</p></li><li><p>PARI TWOMICROORGANISMS-BACTERIA</p></li><li><p>s!, . ! t , r : : : r . , r \ ' </p><p>i rh l ) rdr . i . t t r .s.UaN rnt v.,rh lhar bncrerirl i lag</p><p>. j ,r r roxljts Dhjo.rin-! non. </p><p>- , r . r , r p\oNfesponsibieiorr ioabi l i t !:,,:: rerl! to syin. Bderi.lacking ttastl&amp; and</p><p>' r ! f \ . or l lho abi l j i ! 1( , Drake f l . le l la, aronNrants rllat mat. oDll</p><p>- :Lr , , rn ih le lo !q im. inr l icai j t rg that a,rl l lJr n)rN. is requira,l ior swilrdDS. plior</p><p>: : r,.\f '\ 'r i( \ras n.l clear jir, 'r ho!, fiaqelr, i . r . j t ) r Lherrr \ r t rs th i r i l tho f las. t l . r r r lddr ip</p><p>,,. , , l i-ir x:1. lnl: .ould causd rh{i flaeelh t! screNrnr f rh lLLo nrpdn m nNl as a n ' la lnrs ad[sirq\ ' .ari{ i, ifairii tiec. nf itrtr\. Thp nlsrrrerf oiiisk.s|and!i,r.trr,s tr,c li!.oJ b.nl.rldl udsclh !r!' jp(1..t tIrll l i.,"p nlelJ irdqll Lre a '[.8dlar </p><p>'n.rtor' thjt Rnn{]</p><p>. i , i , .$r{ i l i to sFi . . I n lorrumrelr . inr l i rn luat ta(xe-: in1 l - , { . l l r \ f . t rp so lh in 1[ . t l1]er.or ld n.r b l ob* ih,rr , , , r i .n l i { : i1L! in a. l ion on i ln iuJ: l )acldirm</p><p>i i r ! ;3. NI i { jhasL Si lvernr0n ard :vtel !n! Sinon.t the( nir..sjil .t Caliiorlja. sdn Dicso, perlomod o\,){i-n,,irls rhat indi.irFd unequivo.rllr th.r lra.leriat ll iqfrh di ' r ( t d l \ ' rot4b. T|ev rcal ized r lar a bad. alil,L.' !nr ni!hl h. nnrloqoni lo iho shall ot ar .!cdri{:: , r i , , f i l r r rF rrr N housnre is h. t rDi i i r a InLl t , lher' . i i l . r i l futr l1, . I n nrq,er. i l rh ' r rn. t . r is n r bDl i . l</p><p>s lrJsNri [\, lbp shafl anrt hp]rl, i , . , I r r r r , I ( . . rh| l r r r i j i / } ) shl ionorL o"d ln.</p><p>:r , lr, Fi'! nijl J.r|k Ultrs liris .natog!, S IeF!., ., sjnnn 1i,:iiqt( expeliolts whd.by rhey</p><p>irg r.r ri flrspUlm troE htaltnq. The</p><p>c.nsftt'Fn.e ot this vroll.l b0 tllrl lhe |octeri.Jl .elwaurd rcl.ki insle(d,dnd lhis srle sorn_arhins r!,tcouklbe easilysean wtlh ao ordiniN nricroscole.</p><p>Silvoma. dd SiDron.hos I nlranl bs.rorium rhalhen a sinsl. slraishl flag0ll\ ! on one sjdo of the .ellTIis nrrtantcoultl nol sNjn be.artserhe {asel!trD \tasDot hellc.!: oeleihells. il th," darional hlpothesis$'oE,id'cct, !} flagellhr slould slillbc lble 10 spin.'l ir.! Frepa&amp;d anliborlies aeojnsl rhe flasellun andlhen adle.l n nirhrre oi tho b..reriaald rh.aDlibodiesl t ' r n i le.Thesl idebeoinrecoare{ iwir t r theanr i 'Jodies,an(l lhe n88clla adhercd to Ilie artibodi.s Thus. each.ell l,ocd e _tethered bv its ildgallunr ro dre stide. hlhis.:ondilbn rhe narclla ot thesecells corld nor rorarn:ho\r.r'er each tetlrered cell beratr ro sDi'r ljke a pin-</p><p>lr nas difh, !ll 10 explain ho( such behsli.r couldoc.ur unless. nr a kee sfjnnn'ng cell, rhe tlagetlasrrn-prob0ur by means of a rolary Noror at theirb3so.,\rl{litional orpcrjhenls on !nteLhered cells alsosrpoorted lhe idea of fl.Collnr.otarion. Silvcman andsiN,n loud th0l sn'all larex bads coutd be atrachedln a la.rert.l llaselluD bv hcans oI antibodi66r s!chbtuds, s.hi.h (.re Gsjlv visible \rith. njc.oscope,(1Tc olrsencd lo rotate raDjdlv aborr 6n iD\isibte axis1lh. srr i jqhl l l .sc l luol !</p><p>lL ii no\' -r.trarlh a(a|le{l thit brderiat flasola do!)l0li ns rn s bt!.jn!-a Iype oI nolion lh.r nav be</p><p>llique amoDg living org.nisb$.</p><p>Pltedilg D6re. C6ll eall! of MtrobdcLeriu tubdutdt obtat@d ftE cqlts *posod ro oxlrEslv hlrl Ns3uos udd lpcidl coidltloE. Not rb6 ship. h,-hr".d b!, rh "holld" 6I tiasr@t! wbrcn t biidtiv6 ofth6 rtSid lbucruo o{ tb6 6I sdl. x 41,500 (couhry qt B, nibi.J</p></li><li><p>(lryter 5 Ihe Morphology and Fine Str.:reture ofBacteria</p><p>. \nr .n.r lh! r j . r .hr f r l ,T isr l .s. f l , i r t . r i , . l . r . r r' r ' t , , . r , . i t ,a l l l rou' t | u lnr \ f r i . r t idrs, ,1 lh, ,sr lLrr . l , rs jL . . . , .c.ni i r sDdrics. l l )a ' ihr i r l Io (r l ls dn , r , q" lot $hrch ar i pairs. chsrFrs. , hJir \ . t r i .h. i r .s. r r , ir . .a!n!z. lh.sc I 'n1l .n: o l s l ) iDr rrr l . lNr rr , r r r"r .a. tensl ic ol a laxononr i . group, e. ! . , n lefus ;oJnf r , , r r . r , rs.Do\5o!(rr lp"nddp, ' . sh: ,h </p><p>' , ' </p><p>a. n.dp . , r rb lp l . . , . . n, . ;p lecr-o m: ro,cnn\. . \ j l . r ' . r "sc,r , , r rh i oer,morpholosical.hdacleristics of bActrinj cFlts</p><p>The bddcr i . l r :er l posy'ss{ is | ( loraiLql I i . l iq,r . , , , ,lh is in l . f l ra l sr f (ctur! \ 'as...</p></li></ul>