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. What do you understand by teaching and learning at HE?

.How do they differ from that of other levels of education?


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Teaching defined from different perspectives.

Idealists: Teaching as a process of transmitting/imparting

knowledgePragmatists: Teaching as a process of facilitating individuals’ learning Naturalists: Helping the individual develop the potentials

s/he possesses Commonly: It can be understood as a process of

facilitating individual’s learning through motivation, coordination, guiding/directing the activities the learner performs and controlling/evaluating the learning results.

It is a process of bringing about positive changes in a learner (Obanya, 1998).


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Learning seen from different perspectives in psychology

Learning as a process of acquiring knowledge through the mental process.

It is developing the mental caliber of the individuals

Learning is a relatively permanent change/ modification of the behavior (acquisition of knowledge, the development of skills and formation of value systems) of the learner as a result of practice.

N.B It is an integral/fundamental process which occurs in the learners. It is a relatively permanent change in the behavior of the person/learning.


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Stages in how learning takes placeThe motivation stage: . Receiving a stimulus to learn . Selecting information from the env’t by the sensory receptorsThe acquisition stage: . Information processing, retrieving/recovering

and exploiting (from the short-term memory to the long-term memory)The performance stage: . Learners use, apply what they have acquired (information) to solve problems.


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Understanding HEIs What are HEIs? Are institutions that provide post secondary education and

produce human resource, conduct research, and involve in community services. They are aimed at educating students to become:

1. well informed /knowledgeable/versed and deeply motivated citizens,

2. who can think critically, 3. analyze problems of society, 4. look for solutions to the problems, apply 5.accept social responsibilities.

What is expected of them?


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The curriculum and personnel in HEIs should respond to the following

Using new and appropriate methods, pedagogical and didactical approaches ;

Competencies and abilities for communicating effectively, creative and critical analysis, independent thinking and team work in multicultural contexts;

The curricula should take into account the gender dimensions and other cross cutting issues, specific culture, historic and economic context of each country (Relevance);

The teaching of human rights standards and education on the needs of communities;

Determination of academic curriculum by the academic personnel; and New types of teaching-learning materials and evaluation techniques.


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The learner and the learning situations in HEIs Who are the students of higher education?

(physically, socially, morally, psychologically, mentally, personally, financially … of the learners).

What does the learning situation include? . The human resources in the institutions, . physical resources (crm, lib.,lab,& workshops). . Material resources (teaching materials, audiovisual materials & others), the curriculum. . Financial materials (operational allowance, scholarships, research funds,

training grants & others), . The political and social context (democracy vs dictatorship, peace vs war). Example: Learning is influenced by the teacher - learner relationship. The roles of the teacher and the learner vary in

this relationship. On the one hand, the teacher can be a mere transmitter of knowledge; the learner is entirely dependent on what the instructor says or does. He or she is then more of a "recipient" than a "learner". On the other hand, the teacher can play the role of a guide, or a facilitator. The learner is assisted in becoming autonomous, that is to say, in being able to plan his/her learning.


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Missions and Goals of HEIs in Eth.The core missions and values of HE are to contribute to the

sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole.

1. To educate qualified graduates and responsible citizens;

2. To provide opportunity for HL learn throughout life. Giving learners an opportunity for individual dev’t, social mobility, socially active participation, consolidation /strengthening of human rights, for indigenous capacity building, sustainable development, democracy and peace, in a context of justice;

3. Advance, create and disseminate knowledge through research and provide relevant expertise;

4. Help, protect and enhance societal values by training young people in the values which form the basis of democratic citizenship;

5 Contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels, including through the training of teachers.


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HE Learners, Teachers and CurriculumI. HE learners As the major actors/partners and responsible stakeholders in the renewal of HEIsConsidering them is as one of the ways in responding to the relevance and quality

of educationDecision makers need to place the learners and their needs at the center of their


We need to consider their demographic, psychological characteristics (motivation and self-concept),sociological chaxs, (friendship and social linkage), cultural background, religious affiliation, quality of preparation at secondary school level, marital status and family background in planning lessons.

Behaviors that characterize secondary school level is over here. i.e. there is a period of transition which is characterized by more freedom from parents, teachers and school regulations, ------physical, psychomotor, social, affective, emotional, intellectual/cognitive and their aspiration changes.

Understanding them at entry level and provision of guidance and counseling service is priceless and invaluable here .

At this stage we need to take the learners through the changing process in a smooth, gradual and painless way.


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Factors Affecting Learning at HEIs Home background: Instructional language proficiency, parental styles and

no. of family in which they were grown, residential area, work experience.

Impacts of prior experiences on the learner’s learning: the learners here are in the state of Piagetian stage of formal operations in their cognitive development. Moreover, their earlier socialization has also contributed to their b/r. Therefore, they are not in a position of the Tabula Rasa or empty vessel to be filled. They can solve problems, create knowledge, can carry group work, independent activities, think critically. But their secondary education might have endangered this.

Selection/ admission criteria: When students below the expectation are allowed to admit. Such students need remedial or tutorial classes to help them makeup the subjects/course in which they score less.

Psychosocial characteristics: Psychological factors are normally resident within the learners. They

include intelligence, motivational level, self-concept or emotional traits, attitude, cognitive dev’t, expectations, values, political/religious orientations,.

Sociological factors include family background, peer group influence, school setting and societal expectations, friendship patterns and linkages, social development.


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II. General characteristics of HE TeachersExpectations: an exemplars in teaching, research and

community service (outreach programs, extension service, service learning, CBE, consultancy,----). These are duties of HE teachers

1. Good subject matter knowledge 2. An understanding of how students learn 3. A concern of students development 4. A commitment to scholarship 5. Continuing reflection on professional practice 6. A commitment to work with and learn from

colleagues Intellectual curiosity/inquisitivenessMaster of his/her field of knowledge and its methods of

inquiryRespect for truth Intellectual honesty/openness/integrityFundamental understanding of the learning process


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Some hints to enhance the profile of the teacher (as a teacher) Giving clear explanations: Use concrete, real life and relevant examples. Present practical applications and experiences. Use illustrations, graphs, and diagrams, relevant audio-visual aids Make clear presentation Effective speaking Effective nonverbal presentations use facial expressions, body gesture and

movement, avoid distracting mannerism, use gaze/eye contact, use proximity, include a relaxed manner, humor, etc. Promoting student interest (describe relevant personal exp.) Demonstrate interest, present challenging and thought provoking ideas,

examine controversial issues, relate the subject to current issues, use guest, panel discussion,… Openness to ideas: let students feel free, be flexible in your thinking, encourage independent and original thought. Promoting Rapport (having consultation hrs), talking with students, show interest in students ideas and work/performance, provide opportunities for students talk,

for question Effective communication: prepare clear objective, communicate objectives, course requirements, and grading criteria, reasonable evaluation, etc.


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Research profile of HE teachersTo ‘publish or perish’ or ‘publish or be damned’ entreaty to

academic staff of higher education institutions, rests largely on the plank of research activities.

Research is important for HE teachers at least for three purposes:

1. It enhances the quality of instruction

2. Ensures teacher’s ability of advising students (making

one self up-to-date to the theories, methods of research)

3. For promotion: No research no promotion, “publish or perish”


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Characteristics of a good researcherAbility to identify problemsAbility to design an efficient method of solving the

problemResourcefulness in implementing research planObjectivity HonestPerseveranceWillingness to collaborate with othersAbility to supervise othersSkills in writing winning grant proposalSkills in reporting for publication


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Community serviceCommittee work and membership of the task forceDelivery of public lecturesOffering of services in one’s specialized areaOffice holder of national societies e.g.

president/chairman of some professional org. ---

HW.Q1. State the chaxs needed for successful

participation in community services.Q2. prepare checklist to evaluate the community

service of yourself and your higher learning institutionQ3. How can this be improved


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Curriculum dev’t in HE It must meet the needs of the work place (industry and

business and other world of work) (Relevance and Validity aspect)

It has to stimulate the entrepreneurial skills of students. It

has to be flexible, innovative and follow interdisciplinary approach.

Maintaining the quality of the curriculum is mandatory.

The importance of periodic review and evaluating curriculum in terms of its purpose, respond to market, entrepreneurships and relevance


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Reasons for undertaking curriculum Development in HETo improve what is taughtFilling the gap that currently exist in HE

programsResponding to the needs of societyResponding to research evidences


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Practices of Curr. Dev’t in HEThe construction and revision of the existing

syllabus for new or existing course

The inclusion of new dev’ts in the field of study resulting from research and public declaration in to existing programs ( Civics and Ethical education, Entrepreneurship, ICT), etc.


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Approaches in the theoretical basis for content selection in curr dev’tTopical approach: many topics based on

knowledge and experienceConceptual approach: Content clustering

around some major or sub-conceptsThematic approach: a combination of conceptsModular approach: leads to competence of

certain skills and more common in TVET


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Some practical hints on course development and implementationProvide basic informationDescribe the prerequisite to the courseGive an over view of the course’s purposeState the general learning goals/objectiveClarify the conceptual structure used to

organize the courseDescribe the formats or activities of the

courseSpecify the textbooks and readings by

authors and editions22

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Some practical hints cont’dIdentify additional materials or equipment

needed by the courseList assignments, term papers, and examsState how students will be evaluated and how grades will be assignedDiscuss course policiesInform students with special needs to contact

you during office hoursProvide a course calendar of scheduleEstimate students workload


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Learning and related Issues1. Strategies and Styles of LearningThe concept of “learning styles” refers to

individual typical ways of processing information and seeking meaning” (Parkay, 2006: 169).


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Learning TasksLearning tasks are open questions put to a

small group who have all resources they need to respond.

There are a number of learning tasks including:1.Inductive task= to understand the present

learners conception/idea of a topic 2. Input task= Learners are expected to

engage in new concepts or skills3.Implementation task= It invites learners to implement new concept, skills,


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4. Integration task= application of the learned skills,

knowledge--- to their life and work5. Authentic learning tasks=Instruction here is

organized around the whole task which are



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Useful guides to design research based authentic tasks in web-based learning environments. 1.

1. Authentic tasks have real-world relevance2.Authentic tasks are ill-defined, requiring students to

define the tasks and sub-tasks needed to complete the activity= open to multiple interpretations

3. Authentic tasks comprise complex tasks to be investigated by students over a sustained period of time. = they require hrs beyond classroom period

4. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity for students to examine the task from different perspectives, using a variety of resources

5. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to collaborate


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Useful guide cont’d6. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to reflect 7. Authentic tasks can be integrated and applied across

different subject areas and lead beyond domain-specific outcomes

8. Authentic tasks are seamlessly/effortlessly integrated with assessment

9. Authentic tasks create polished products valuable in their own right rather than as preparation for something else

10. Authentic tasks allow competing/challenging solutions and diversity of outcome


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Common Learning TheoriesA. Behavioral learning theories . emphasize observable changes in behavior that

result from stimulus-response (S-R) sequence that begins and ends out side the individual leaner.

. Learning is the product of design rather than accident =Planning as a decisive factor.

. Learning is regarded as a conditioning/training process by which a person acquires a new response.

. Motivation and rewards as important components of learning



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Common learning theories cont’dB. Social Learning Theories. Learning process is primarily social, and

learning occurs through socialization.. Socialization occurs in a variety of settings

and it continues throughout life. . Albert Bandura’s (1997)


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Common learning theories cont’dC. Cognitive learning theory . It focuses on the mental processes people

use as they acquire new knowledge and skills.

. Unlike behavioral theories, which focus on observable behavior, cognitive theories focus on the unobservable processing, storage, and retrieval of information from the brain.(Rationalists )


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D. Gestalt-field view of learning . Refers to how learners organize information into patterns and wholes. .Gestalt is a German term meaning

“Configuration” or “pattern”, and Gestalt theorists maintain

that “wholeness” is primary; one should start

with the total aspects of a learning situation and then more to particulars in light of the whole. . Thus, obtaining an “overview” is often an

important step to learning.


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Theories of learning cont’dE. Constructivist Learning Theories Constructivist views of learning focus on how learners make sense of new information, how they construct meaning based on what they already know. According to constructivism, “students develop

new knowledge through a process of active constructivism. They do not passively receive or copy input from teachers or textbooks. Instead, they actively mediate it by trying to make sense of it and relate it to what they already know (or think they know) about the topic (Good and Brophy, 2003). 33

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summarize orientations to learning as follows. See page 42/43

Aspects Behaviorist

Cognitive Humanist Social leaning


Learning theoristsView of learning processLocus of learningPurpose of educationTeacher’s roleManifestation in adult learning


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Teaching as a Profession and Related issuesQ. What is a profession? Profession is a form of employment or

occupation, which is respected in society as honorable, and is only possible for an educated person and after getting training in some special branch of knowledge (An Oxford Dictionary).

A profession is an occupation that provides a special service to the community based on accumulated knowledge, skills and wisdom.

It also controls the entry qualifications and work standards of the members.

Thus, one can understand it clearly a profession is an employment that demands an individual to pass through training.


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Characteristics of a profession1. Involves an intellectual activity/ body of

subject matter knowledge/ and system of skills;2. It is practicable/practical; 3. requires an extended period of preparation for

entry;4. It has literature and unique languages of its

members;5. It is organized6. performs specific functions for personal and

social purposes; T


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Teaching as a profession cont’d1. Commitment to the ideal service of human kind rather than to personal gains;

2. Undergoing a relatively long-period of training to acquire the knowledge and skills;

3. Meeting the admission qualifications (criteria) and keeping up-to date through in-service programs;

4. A high level of intellectual energy;5. Forming organization6. Trying to get opportunities for advancement, specialization

and independence;7. Ensuring permanent membership in the profession and

taking teaching as one’s life-long career.Teachers who decide to be permanent members of the

profession can contribute better than those who are always ready to leave the profession.

Teachers have commitments to their students, the home and the community, and the profession


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. Commitment to the ideal service of human kind rather than to personal gains;

2. Undergoing a relatively long-period of training to acquire the knowledge and skills;

3. Meeting the admission qualifications (criteria) and keeping up-to date through in-service programs;

4. A high level of intellectual energy;5. Forming organization6. Trying to get opportunities for advancement, specialization and

independence;7. Ensuring permanent membership in the profession and taking

teaching as one’s life-long career.Teachers who decide to be permanent members of the profession

can contribute better than those who are always ready to leave the profession.

Teachers have commitments to their students, the home and the community, and the profession


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Teachers’ Professional code of ethics The teachers’ professional codes of ethics are

related to their accountability/responsibility/commitment to their students, the profession, their employers, the home/parents and the community.

Every employee is expected to accomplish tasks the employer wants him/her perform in the organization faithfully and honestly with the required quality.



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Unit II The Expected Quality of instructorsEffectiveness in teaching is seen in terms of

achieving instructional objectives. Thus, an effective teacher is the one who achieves

his/her objectives with a minimum energy, time, material, finance, etc. Effectiveness is determined by concrete factors and personal qualities. The concrete factors are related to the basic, identifiable, measurable and acquired issues which can be achieved through training.

They include general knowledge, specialized knowledge, professional knowledge & skills.

The personal factors are related to personal qualities which are more natural than acquired and are difficult to quantify.

The personal factors are teacher’s personality traits that affect students’ behaviors. 41

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Good personal treats of teachersGood characterRespects truth, a person of words and actionsRemains being a student all through out his/her

lifeHas breadth of interestFairness and impartialityHelpful and cooperativeMakes use of different methods of teaching and



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Skills and Qualities of Effective Instructora. Ability of working with students:. Have prior experience working with youth in alternative

education settings. . Maintain student,confidentiality as appropriate.Show respect for students and establish rapport with them.Appreciate students’ individuality.Practice “tough love,” Support themAccept the students where they are Have high expectations of studentsProvide positive reinforcement. Elevate or advance students who are doing wellBe flexible. Demonstrate consistency in the classroom. Universality,

reliable your activities. Help students set goals and support them in achieving


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Skills and qualities of effective Instructors cont’dB. Personality Characteristics. Have a sense of patience, of humor, . Demonstrate consistency, predictability and reliability.Be available to students outside of class (i.e. meet with

individual students if needed.)Live what you teach. Lead by example and be a good role

model.Exhibit creativity and inquisitiveness.Demonstrate empathy, caring and attentiveness.Be non-judgmental, listen well and remain open to questions.Have a strong sense of self, be honest with students and have

good personal boundaries.Convey the ethical and the philosophical aspects of the


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Unit III Principles, Methods and Techniques of Teaching in HE


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Definitions and Characteristics of Principles of Teaching

Principles of teaching are generalized statements about teaching activities, which govern the roles of the teachers and students both inside and outside the classrooms.

They help teachers perform their activities in specific directions and acceptable manners.

They are used as regulators of what the teacher does.

They help teachers get sufficient information on issues related to motivation, readiness, and mechanisms of self – learning, ways and means of making students active participants, creating an environment to make instruction clear, understandable, applicable and finally durable.


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Characteristics of principles of teaching Universal

Essential .

Compulsory- they make teachers effective in achieving the instructional objectives and efficient in the use of time, energy, materials, space, money etc their teaching activities.

Socially determined – the principles are results of long years of observation of life activities and the observation of the principles of teaching in all instructional activities help teachers satisfy the demands of the society and meet the needs of the learners at all levels


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The Main Principles of Teaching and their uses in Teaching The principle of planning lessons in line with the


The principle of linking / connecting school learning activities to social life;

The principle of verbalization/Voicing in instruction; The principle advocates making students verbalize of what they

are learning in their own words.

The principle of making instruction clear by using different instructional media that appeal to the different senses;

The principle of recognizing individual differences in teaching:


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Principles cont’d The principle of uniting instruction with

scientific findings and procedures. The principle of integrating

(coordinating) different subject areas; The principle of the leading role of the

teacher and the independent activities of the learner;

The principle of defining the objectives of the lesson;

The principle of making lessons understandable / comprehensible/


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Basic rules in presenting a lesson(The logical and psychological principles of teaching)

presenting lessons from the known and proceeding to the unknown.

Starting lessons from the simple and preceding to the complex

Presenting lessons from the easy and proceeding to the difficult

Starting from the concrete and proceeding to the abstract; Starting from the whole and proceeding to the parts (specific) and the

vice – versa It is found out that perception is better when it is on whole objects

than on specific parts (remember the gestalt psychology theory of learning)

Starting from the immediate and proceeding to the remote



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Classification of methods of teachingA. Traditional Vs Modern Methods of teachingCharacteristics of the traditional method: The teacher:conducts recitation (learning by heart or

memorization by mechanical repetition) of what is to be learned;

is assumed to know – all and source of knowledge;motivates learning through warning of failure and

punishment;gives lessons / tasks without involving students;evaluates the performances of students by hearing

the recitation / reproduction of what was learned.51

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Classification of methods cont’dModern method of teachingAttempts to involve the students actively and develop skills

and values in addition to the acquisition of knowledge. The students’ participation in the teaching – learning process,

especially in planning, organizing and performing the different tasks under the guidance of their instructor(s) is very high.

Much attention is given to directing students’ efforts towards learning by doing rather than through memorization or recitation of the learned materials.

Encouragement and guidance in the activities are given instead of warning of failure and punishment.

The modern methods include problem – solving, group discussion, project work, student’s independent activities /study, individualized instruction, etc.

They have activities that are based on the data collected. Applications of what require making analysis, reasoning and forming generalization are learned in particular and new situations are common activities.

The methods enhance democratic teacher student relationships


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Method cont’dThe classifications of methods of teaching also include

classifying methods of teaching as: 1. teacher’s presentation methods (autocratic nature

of a teacher); 2. teacher – students’ conversation; methods ( question answer format, group

discussion --- ); and 3. Student’s independent work methods (self-

planning, self-responsibility & self –action, students learn according to their pace ..) The methods include the assignment, project and problem solving methods.


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Classification of methods contin’dOther classifications put the different

methods as student – centered, teacher – centered and active methods.


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Discuss on the role of an instructor in students’ independent study.


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The Major Methods of Teaching: Mechanism, Applications, Advantages and DisadvantagesThe Lecture Method: It is the oldest

teaching method, which is identified as a method of explanation or clarification of contents to students verbally. It is a method where the teacher is more active and students are made passive. It is usually a one-way communication where a teacher narrates or presents on social or natural events, processes, procedures, etc by citing authorities in the field of the subject but not students.


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Lecture method cont’dDiscuss the types(modified/formal and

unmodfied/informal), application, advantages and disadvantages of lecture method.


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Demonstration MethodDiscuss on the definition, nature,

classification (formal and informal), components in (explanation, demonstration, students’ performance, instructor’s supervision, and evaluation), and advantages and disadvantages of the demonstration method.


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The group discussion methodIn-group discussions, students usually discuss

on a topic, make a review, clarify points, make corrections, apply their earlier knowledge and skills and reinforce their learning.

The method is particularly suitable to contents that involve matters of opinion. It can be applied when the objective of the lesson is to bring about changes in the attitudes of the learners. One can use it whenever there is the need for obtaining feedback about the learners’ level of understanding and ability to apply the already acquired knowledge.


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When should a teacher use the group discussion method?

When the teacher expects the ideas of students to analyze a problem and decide on a plan of action;

When the teacher feels that there is the need to expand the total amount of information obtained in the class by drawing out suggestions and opinions from many students, not from the teachers;

When the teacher wants to make his/her students to get an understanding of a program, a principle or a policy;

When the teacher wants to incorporate the discussion method as an essential part of most other methods;


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Forms of Group Discussions

The different learning groups can be classified as:

Buzz groupPanel discussion groupSeminar group and Brain storming group


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The buzz – group DiscussionIt is a discussion situation whereby the class students are divided

into small groups of three to six students for a brief discussion. Then, the whole class later reforms for reporting the results.

A Buzz group discussion is necessary when: it is difficult to get a class start to discuss in a larger group;

teachers want some suggestion from the entire class

when the teachers want to make class action to be based on the recommendations from all.

students seem to be getting tired or bored.

students hesitate to make critical comments in a large group;


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Procedures on Conducting Buzz – group Discuss To make effective use of a buzz group discussion, the teacher must do the

following1.Dividing the whole class into smaller groups of three to six students;2. arranging their seats in a circle, so that they face each other;3. asking them elect a chair person and a secretary;4.telling the students the question for discussion; one must be sure that the

students have understood it. If it is possible write it on the chalkboard. Make the task simple and just one question.

5. telling the students the amount of time they will have for discussion, possibly 5 to 10 minutes.

6. observing the groups and giving help to anyone who doesn’t seem to understand the procedure;

7. a few minutes before the time is up, telling them that there are “x” minutes for the discussion. If there is an extension of time, announce to all groups. But don’t let it be too long, for a buzz group session is always a brief discussion;

8. calling the group back together again and asking the secretary from the first group to report. Summarize the main points on the chalkboard. Call on the other secretaries requesting them to mention only new points which were not brought out by the first, the second, etc. It may become a time consuming and boring if you allow all the groups present all their findings.


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The Panel Group Discussion

Panel group discussion is a discussion between a group of three to six people who have a special knowledge and interest in the topic to be discussed.

A panel discussion group has a chairperson, panel members, and audience.

More often the teacher who has invited the panel members act as a chairperson.

It must be clear that the audience have no opportunity to express their views. They participate as listeners.

The audience’s questions will be addressed to the panel members through the chairperson before they come to the panel discussion. The students may raise additional questions.

Panel discussion shouldn’t last more than an hour. The topic for discussion may involve different people from different discipline.

The panel members could be an educator, a social worker, an economists, etc.


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In panel discussion the panel chairperson has the following responsibilities.

The chairperson (teacher) contacts members of the panel before the meeting. He/she briefs them about the purpose of the panel discussion, the background of the learners, and some important points, which need to be covered about the topic during discussion.

The chairperson gives an introduction, which should include the topic and, the purpose of the discussion, the names and qualifications of the panel members and the time limits of the discussion.

The chairperson presents questions prepared with the help of the students to the panel on the topic.

The chairperson provides opportunities for all panel members to express their views and he/she summarizes the points made by the speakers.


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Seminar Group Discussion

A discussion after a student or group of students is made to prepare original paper(s) on different topic(s) and is made to present it/them. It is a method where the discussion will be conducted after the presentation.

The method is common in teaching at higher learning institutions where the students are more matured than in the lower grades.

The advantage is the involvement of students in the discussion. They learn how to listen to what others talk and express their own ideas when they are given the opportunity.


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The Brainstorming Session / Group Discussion A discussion session by the whole group of a class to forward solution to a

problem creatively. It is a conference technique whereby a group seeks as many answers to a problem posed as possible by collecting all the ideas contributed spontaneously by its members.The purpose of the discussion is simply to elicit a number of ideas about and responses to a problem. In the brainstorming session, there are four basic rules to be observed. The basic rules are that:

criticism is forbidden and adverse judgments of ideas must be with held until late;. Thus, no one is allowed to make a negative remark.

free – wheeling is accepted, i.e. the wilder/natural/unusual the ideas the better. Thus, unusual ideas are encouraged;

quantity is wanted. Because the greater the number of ideas the greater likelihood of devising solutions to problems;

In addition to contributing ideas of their own, participants should suggest how the ideas of others can be improved or how two or more ideas can be synthesized.

Later a judging committee screens these ideas.


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Discuss on the advantage and the disadvantages of disussion methodThe group discussion method as a two-way communication has the

following advantages. In discussions different views and opinions are forwarded. This

enables students to comprehend an issue from different angles; It exposes students to valuable experiences which develop their

skills of listening and speaking (communication skills) It gives the students an opportunity to analyze and synthesize facts

at a higher intellectual development. It provides the possibility of constant feedback between the teacher

and the students. When the response is erroneous or inappropriate, immediate modification can be introduced and justified

It helps students to learn and function efficiently in a group setting. As it is fewer teachers – centered, it allows students a chance to

develop their ideas. In general, group discussion enhances personal growth and

competence. Students develop their communication skills, professional attitude and intellectual abilities.


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Limitations of Discussion MethodThe shortcomings of the discussion method are

related to preparation and presentation group discussions have to be planned properly before the discussions. If group discussion is not well planned and directed, it consumes time unnecessarily. Only few students may dominate the situation. Thus, the group discussion method becomes productive if the teachers plan and conduct it properly


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Role –playing Method It is presented in front of observers.Role playing method is unrehearsed/spontaneous/unprepared

dramatization in which the players attempt to take situation clear to themselves and to the audience by playing the role of participants in the situation.

The instructor and the student in the class serve as observer and critics.

It is experiential leaning It involves observation, discussion and analysis It is learning through entertainment It involves the skills of dealing with other people and helps in

understanding students’ feelings and reactions. Serves as a means for changing attitudes, and developing confidence.

It also provides opportunities to see oneself. It brings reality to classrooms and it does so dramatically and convincingly (solves the problem of time and space).

It brings theory to life and teaches that one’s perception of a situation is not always like others.


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Shortcomings of role playingLoss and expense which would result from practicing in

real-life situationStudents may misinterpret it and emphasize its

entertainment value than that of its educative value.


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The Questioning and Answer methodAs a method, it is an informal assessment

technique, which is used with large groups of students.

It is a key technique of teaching because of its several contributions in teaching and learning.

The types could be content and process, lower order and higher order, convergent and divergent or factual and problem solving (heuristic)question methods.


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To make the questioning and answer method effective follow the points belowFormulate clear and precise questionsAdapt the questions to the students’ level of maturity and capacity;Make all students actively participant;State the questions before naming a student to respond;Give enough time to think over and must demand complete

answers;Listen to the given answer carefully and evaluate it;Use praise and other encouragement;Use pause /wait time effectively between Be active in accepting students’ responses in positive manner;Paraphrase students’ responses but not answering one’s own

questions.Using the techniques of paraphrasing, rephrasing, and redirection.

In oral questioning.


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The project method It is a method where students are usually given an

individual topic for an in depth analysis. They often have to work independently, do a kind of research and report either in writing or verbally to a group.

The project could involve a group of students working together on different aspect of the same problem.

It is a co-operative study where students are grouped and are made to produce tangible product. It is done with relatively little direct interaction with the teachers

The projects could be on construction of model houses, growing crops, preparation of food, collection of insects, rocks, cultural materials, plants, seeds, sample products, models, etc. There are a lot of project types.


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Specific criteria to make projects useful

1. Timely Environmental and seasonal factors need to be considered:

2. Useful - the practical aim of the project must be identified. It must fulfill a long-standing need. The learning experiences in a project must be capable of being applied in life;

3. Challenging - project should neither be too simple and easy nor too long and difficult.

4. Economical - projects should not unnecessarily tax energy and money of students. There should be optimum use of the time;

5. Rich in experience - It must be capable of correlating different subjects and practical activities of life;

6. Enhancing co-operation –it should allow students to think and plan independently and co-operatively. The project (s) should be implemented in such a way that the students are kept active both physically as well as mentally.


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The advantages of project method it provides a conducive environment for learning through

practice and independently; it gives satisfaction and happiness to students; it provides situation to create unity of different subjects; it provided sufficient opportunities to the students to work co-

operatively for common purpose; it cultivates virtues like tolerances, independence, open-

mindedness, resource fullness, etc. it discourages memorization. It stresses problem - solving,

thinking and reasoning; it provides freedom to work enthusiastically on self-chosen

projects; it solves disciplinary problems for students don’t get time to

involve in anti-social acts; it makes learning durable, and makes students to get joy and

learn in a natural way.76

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Limitations of project Method

1.A project method is a time-consuming – this is so for students are left to work on their projects by themselves. They may take long to complete the work.

2.It is very expensive in terms of getting financial and materials required.

3.It requires highly trained teachers who are well rounded in many fields of study.

4.The materials required for project method may not be available easily and cheaply.

5.It is difficult to identify the share of work of individual members of the group if it is a group project.

7.Over use of a group project method creates a dependency of an individual on a group.


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The Problem Solving MethodConscious, planned and purposeful effort to

arrive at some solutionsIt is the combination of many methods where

trial and error approach is appliedIt requires self directed learning.Learners make their own discoveriesIt helps students develop their reasoning

powerIt includes inquiry and project method.


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Steps in the use of problem solving method1. Identifying and defining the problem. Make

a clear conception of the problem and state it in a manner that it leads to a solution.

2. Formulating a hypothesis /basic questions to answer the questions.

3. Collecting and organizing the data and information

4. Making analysis of data collected.5. Drawing conclusions on the basis of findings 6. Applying the findings (results).


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Other Important MethodsThe field trip methodThe student Independent study methodTeam teaching method (Hierarchical team and Synergetic

team Organization of team: 1. The unit specialist team approach (the same field

but specialized in different subjects ). 2. The differentiated team approach (diversified

discipline) 3. Ad-hoc team approach


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Advantages of team teachingTeam teaching method provides the following advantages. Team

teachi1.stimulates discussion among teachers who are jointly

responsible for a group of students;2.develops a strong sense of involvement and responsibility

among students;3.gives adequate opportunities to the students for free

discussion/expression;4.provides opportunities for the development of human relations

which are essential for social adjustment. 5.provides opportunities for the students to get better

knowledge, make proper use of resources, staff, etc.;6.helps to make lessons fit to the needs of the learners and

maintain classroom discipline;7.helps teachers to evaluate the work of one another, to improve

their own teaching and instruction8.provides a flexible class size and help to provide guidance for

the learners as well as inexperienced teachers, etc. 81

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Active learningIt refers to techniques where students do more

than simply listen to a lecture. Students are DOING something including discovering, processing, and applying information.

Active learning "derives from two basic assumptions: (1) that learning is by nature an active endeavor and (2) that different people learn in different ways" (Meyers and Jones, 1993). Research shows greater learning when students engage in active learning.



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Active Learning Techniques cont’dThe following active learning techniques can

be used in small and large classes, and with all levels of students in any discipline. (But, it is up to the teacher to choose the appropriate active learning techniques for the concerned topic)


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1. Think-Pair-ShareGive students a task such as a question or

problem to solve, an original example to develop, etc.

Have them work on this 2-5 minutes alone (think). Then have them discuss their ideas for 3-5 minutes with the student sitting next to them (pair).

Finally, ask or choose student pairs to share their ideas with the whole class (share).


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2. Collaborative learning groupsThese may be formal or informal, graded or not,

short-term or long-term. Generally, you assign students to heterogeneous groups of 3-6 students.

They choose a leader and a scribe (note-taker). They are given a task to work on together. Often, student preparation for the CLG has been required earlier (reading or homework). The group produces a group answer or paper or project. These work is best in small to medium size classes,


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3. Student-led review sessionsInstead of the traditional instructor-led review

session, have the students do the work. Each student is to ask at least one question

related to the material he or she doesn't understand, and to try to answer a question raised by another student.

Students can also practice discussing, illustrating and applying difficult material or concepts, or drafting exam questions.

For the second half of the review session, the whole class works together. Students may ask questions; other students volunteer to answer them.


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4. GamesGames such as jeopardy and crossword

puzzles can be adapted to course material and used for review, for assignments, or for exams.

They can be used at the individual, small group or full class levels.

There are now some computer programs, for example, to help you create crossword puzzles.


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5. Analysis or reactions to videos

Videos offer an alternative presentation mode for course material. Videos should be relatively short (5-20 minutes).

Prepare students ahead of time with reaction or discussion questions or a list of ideas on which to focus; this will help them pay attention ( to analyze the speech of individuals).

After the video, have them work alone or in pairs to answer critical questions, write a "review" or reaction, or apply a theory.


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6. Student debates

These can be formal or informal, individual or group, graded or not, etc. They allow students the opportunity to take a thesis or position and gather data and logic to support that view, critically.

Debates also give students experience with verbal presentations.

Some faculty members ask students their personal view on an issue and then make them argue the opposite position.


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7. Student generated exam questionsThis can be used for review or for the actual

exam. This technique helps students actively

process material, gives them a better understanding of the difficulties of writing reliable and valid exam questions, helps them review material, and gives them practice for the exam.


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8. Mini-research proposals or projects; a class research symposiumHave the students work on designing a

research study on a topic from the class. In some situations, you may be able to have them collect data during class time (observe some situation or give out some short surveys) or you may have them doing this as part of an outside-of-class project.

Either way, have students present their research in a class research symposium similar to what we do at professional meetings. Invite other faculty and students. 91

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9. Analyze case studiesBring in case studies for students to read

(for example, I will put a case example of sexual harassment on an overhead).

Have students discuss and analyze the case, applying concepts, data, and theory from the class.

They can work as individuals or in groups or do this as a think-pair-share. Consider combining this with a brief in-class writing assignment.


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10. Keeping journals or logsHave students make journal or log entries

(keep records) periodically (on paper or computer, in or outside of class).

Require a brief critical reflection or analysis of each entry as well. For example, in my gender class, students must record instances of sex inequality (sex discriminations, sexism, sexual harassment against women or men) they observe. They then discuss this instance applying course terms and theories. Be aware of ethical issues if you ask students to record and analyze personal events or issues.


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11. Write and produce a newsletterHave small groups of students produce a brief newsletter on a specific topic related to class.

Students should include articles with relevant research, post information on upcoming related public events, and so on.

Share these with faculty and students in related courses or in the major.


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12. Concept mapping

Here students create visual representations of models, ideas, and the relationships between concepts.

They draw circles containing concepts and lines, with connecting phrases on the lines, between concepts.

These can be done individually or in groups, once or repeated as students acquire new information and perspectives, and can be shared, discussed, and critiqued.


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Unit 5: Classroom Organization and Management of the instructional activities in higher education

1: Definitions and purposes of classroom organization

What is classroom organization? Classroom organization is a deliberate creation of the learning environment by considering the instructional objectives and the specific activities to be done by each student to achieve the desired end results.



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Crm org cont’dClassroom organization as a conscious

arrangement of the classroom in its totality to achieve the instructional objectives can be seen in terms of:

A.Patterns for arranging participants (small group versus whole class presentation);

B.Resources used or resources of information;

C.Rules of appropriateness


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The major patterns of the classroom seating arrangement include:Making students sit in rows facing the teacher

and the blackboard (row-and column). The advantagesit appears to be very convent for formal teaching of a lot

of students in one class;it makes the blackboard in front of all students and

becomes easy and accessible to the teacher and the writing can be seen easily by all students;

it makes easy to move between rows and orderly distribution and collection of instructional materials;

it makes the management of students’ discipline easy through row monitors


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Raw-and –column cont’dThe disadvantages include that:the student at the back side cannot see the

work or practice of student in the front side;it is difficult to the teacher to evaluate each

student’s work in the classroom;it is not convenient to practice different

methods of teaching such as small group discussions, demonstrations, etc.


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2. Cluster seating patternThe cluster pattern arrangement is

characterized by the formation of little clusters of students in different positions in the classroom. It is very much convenient for buzz-group discussions.

In cluster grouping, the size of each group should not be more than six members. Grouping can be done randomly or by considering the abilities or compatibility of group members. At all times, there must be some one who acts as a leader. The leadership should rotate.


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The cluster seating pattern provides the following advantages:

It makes students to communicate easily with each other;

It is easier for students to work as a team and to help each other as peers;

Movement from one cluster to another is not too restricted; Leadership and co-operation are two important elements of classroom relationship which result from this kind of seating arrangement;

It makes the management of the classroom discipline easy when there is the need for students to work in group or solve problems together.

The arrangement is not convenient to teach large class students and it is time consuming. 101

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The Horse – Shoe Pattern Arrangement

An arrangement where the teacher sits in the center, half way along the diameter.

This arrangement provides the following advantages:

It can be used when the lesson entails a lot of discussion;

It enables the teacher to check every member easily and help;

It enables students to consult with each other;

It is easy to rearrange the group without wasting time.


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The Round – table pattern Arrangement

It is a good arrangement for discussion lessons. It can be round or square. Unlike the horse – shoe arrangement, the authority of the teacher is completely decentralized and formal leadership roles are played down considerably. There is usually no group leader in this arrangement.

Its advantages include that:it is an arrangement convenient when there is

anything to be recorded or to be listened on tape;it is useful when there is just one object to be

used as display for a lesson. It can be placed at the center for all to see and comment upon;



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ConclusionIn general, classroom organization as an arrangement of

activities, students, classroom resources for instruction differs from time to time and activity to activity.

The instructional objectives and the activities to be done will dictate it. Some activities demand larger space to move freely while others require silent seat works. Some demand talking loudly while others need no noise. Some require the use of different instructional materials with a maximum care while some don’t need materials at all.

Thus, classroom organization is a prerequisite to achieve objectives easily, if the teacher fails to organize the students, the activities and the whole class for the required task resources such as time, energy, money and materials will be wasted. Students may involve in some kinds of misbehaviors.


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2: Classroom Management: Definition, Purposes Classifications and Causes of Classroom Misbehaviors.


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Definition of CRM MngtClassroom management is a process of organizing and conducting

a class so as to make instruction effective and efficient. It is a process of managing the teaching and learning activities to get maximum students’ learning. It is a process of establishing and maintaining order.

It requires careful planning and providing students with pleasant and supportive climate for learning; creating interests and desires to learn and achieve; establishing control; avoiding disciplinary disturbances and promoting effective students’ learning.

Effective classroom management depends on the nature of the task at hand. For instance, laboratory classes allow students for a great amount of conversation and movement and lecture sessions require quiet attention and purposeful conversation.


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Effective classroom management requires:

Good planning; Preparation of one’s lesson by identifying

the instructional objectives, lesson contents, methods of teaching, materials, organizing a learning environment, setting rules, etc.

Conducting the class; It demands the ability and skills to use the

selected methods, materials, appropriate styles, pacing, motivating and guiding students, etc.

Monitoring: It is a process of maintaining classroom order or discipline by using different approaches and techniques.


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Purposes and Areas of Classroom Management

Effective classroom management helps in the advancement to the fulfillment of the objective of teaching and facilitates learning.

Classroom management aims at: promoting an environment (physical and

emotional) to be conducive to effective learning;guaranteeing class time to be used for learning

effectively;securing the support and co-operation of students

in classroom activities; andensuring the active and meaningful engagement

of students to the learning task at hand.109

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Areas of Classroom ManagementClassroom management involves managing:A. Contents of the lesson(s) B. Methods of teaching (the ability to select the methods

and apply them in concrete situation) Methods of teaching are selected by considering: a. the instructional objectives; b. the nature of the contents to be taught; c. the ability, experience, maturity level, needs and

interests of the learners; d. the facilities / conditions of the school; and e. the teacher’s personality


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presenting the lesson by making students active participants;

accepting students’ feelings, ideas and questionsresponding to students’ questions;reinforcing students’ activities;applying the major principles of teaching;considering individual differences and

accommodating them; etc.the use of appropriate questioning techniques

that involve students in applying their earlier knowledge and skills such as making the questions convergent (factual nature), divergent (multiple responses questions) and commenting.


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C. Time allocated to a given lesson;The different activities of a teacher and students

are done within the given time. All teachers are expected to manage their time properly. The time management involves:

distributing the time to the different activities;keeping one’s pace of presentation;making appropriate decision on the right time to

make students active participant or involve them in doing individual seat works or in group activities

fixing the time for questions in the middle or at the end of the lesson;

displaying teaching aids at the right time;


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D. Materials and space;Teachers at all levels are expected to manage the

materials and spaces set for the instructional activities. The management includes:

the use of the appropriate instructional materials / teaching aids;

the application of the rules in the use of the chalkboard;

the management of students’ seat;the arrangement of materials in their proper

order;making the classroom hold enough seats and

other resources


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E. managing students’ behavior and their social relationships through a democratic way

It requires:creating conditions for students’ good

interpersonal relations;preparing the classroom atmosphere for

co-operation, mutual help and concern to each other as opposed to conflicting conditions;

creating mechanisms to identify individual differences and accommodating them; etc.


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Causes of classroom misbehavior

1. Teacher –related causes1. Poor teaching2. lack of planning and preparation;3. ineffective style of presentation;4. failure to use appropriate teaching aids

(suitable audio-visuals)5 . failure to involve students in the

instructional activities and failure to apply the major principles of teaching;

6. failure to structure one’s lessons and present them in steps;

7. failure to set the right task;8. failure to enforce the rules set


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Student – related causes

Antipathy to school or disinterest in learning in general;

Lack of interest in a particular subject

Dislike to a teacher or hostility towards a teacher;

Attention seeking;Ignorance of the classroom rules;


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unsettled or disruptive home environment

Unpleasant peer relations;Emotional upsetBad physical condition


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School – Environment Related Causes

The absence of sufficient materials for the classes, laboratories the workshops and fields:

Conflicting rules of the school and the home;

the class size;


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Approaches and Techniques to Maintain Classroom Discipline A. The Authoritarian Classroom Management Approach The use of controlling strategies. The major goal of the

teacher is just to control students’ behavior by any mechanism. The approach offers five strategies that the teacher might wish to include in his/her repertoire of managerial strategies They are:

establishing and enforcing rules;issuing commands, directives and orders;utilizing mild desist, requesting students to stop

misbehaving;utilizing proximity control; andutilizing isolation and exclusionEstablishing and enforcing rulesThe process of establishing rules in one in which the

teacher sets limits by telling the student what is expected of him or her and why.


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B.The Intimidation/ threatening Classroom Management Approach

Like the authoritarian approach, it is a process of controlling student behavior.

Unlike the authoritarian approach (which stresses the use of humane teacher behavior) the intimidation approach emphasizes the use of intimidating teacher behaviors harsh forms of punishment such as sarcasm/criticism, ridicule/scorn, coercion, threats, force and disapproval.

The teacher forces the students to behave according to the teacher’s dictates.


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3. The Permissive Classroom Management Approach

This approach maximizes students’ freedom. The major theme of it is that the teacher

should allow students to do what they want whenever and whatever they want.

The role of the teacher is to promote the freedom of students and thereby foster their natural development.

It helps students develop self – directness, self-discipline and self – responsibility if students are made free physically and psychologically.


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4. The Cookbook Classroom Management Approach

It provides descriptions of lists of things a teacher should or should not do when he/she is confronted with various classroom management problems. Sample of lists of “dos” and “don’ts” are given as follows:

always reprimand and a pupil in private;never raise your voice when

admonishing/giving a warning studentsalways be firm and fair when dealing with

students;Never play favorites when rewarding

students etc. 122

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5. The Instructional Classroom Management ApproachThis is an approach, which is to be done based on the

contention that carefully designed and implemented instruction will prevent problems. The approach argues that effective management is the result of high quality instructional planning. Thus, the teacher needs to plan his/her lesson by considering the needs, interests, etc of students. It plays both preventing and solving managerial problems. However, well – designed and implemented instructional activities contribute more to prevention than to solving problems that have already occurred in a classroom.

Advocates to this approach suggest that the teacher should consider the following instructional managerial strategies:

i. providing interesting, relevant and appropriate curriculum and instruction;


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employing effective movement management;

establishing classroom routines;giving clear directions;utilizing interest boosting mechanisms;providing for environmental changes;planning and modifying the classroom

environment; andrestructuring the situation


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6. Creating a Positive Social – Emotional Climate in the ClassroomIt is an approach, which assumes that learning is

maximized in a positive classroom climate, which, in turn, stems from positive interpersonal relationships. Thus, both teacher – student and student – student relationships can be easily achieved if the teacher creates a favorable and friendly classroom atmosphere. Obviously, this is an approach that conceives the classroom as a social system in which group processes are of major importance. It strongly assumes that instruction takes place within a group context.

Therefore, the nature and behavior of the classroom group are viewed as having significant effects on learning, even though learning is seen as an individual process. At this point the role of the teacher is to foster the development and operation of an effective classroom group.


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The Preventive TechniquesDisciplining:The Provision of Freedom;Sharing ResponsibilitiesThe Provision of IncentivesEstablishing and maintaining good

Interpersonal RelationshipsMaking Effective / Good TeachingCo-operative rule making Explaining Procedures


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7. The principle of Behavior Modification ApproachThis views classroom management as the process

of modifying students’ behavior. learning is influenced largely, if not entirely, by

events in the environment.The four factors are related to positive

reinforcement, punishment, extinction and negative reinforcements. Thus, the teacher is required to master and apply the factors identified above.

These different approaches can further be classified into specific classroom management techniques.


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Curative / Remedial Techniques

IgnoringEye – Contact:Closing – in or Proximity, physical

closeness: Touch and signalHumorSeparating Misbehaving ChildrenOut of sight TechniqueRestructuringchanging the teaching method; (give individual

work) , giving them the energizer or activator allow them to sing their favorite song, physical exercise, tell them jokes or short stories , giving the class five minutes rest, etc.

9. Appeal10. Teacher’s Analysis:11. Open discussion


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