Peak Performance Metabolic Training S.I.M.P.L.E methods to fitness and weight management “Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all” Aristotle By Marcelo Aller CSCS CPT HFI copyrighted 2011 by Marcelo Aller 1
S.I.M.P.L.E methods to fitness and weight management
“Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all” Aristotle
By Marcelo Aller CSCS CPT HFI
copyrighted 2011 by Marcelo Aller !1
Waiver and Release of liability
Buyer of this manual understand and acknowledge that there are risks involved in participating in any exercise program and/or any fitness test contained with in this manual. Buyer agrees that he or she will assume the risk and fully responsibility for determination the need for medical clearance from my physician and obtain clearance the safety and or efficacy of any exercise program recommended to me and any and all injuries, losses or damages, which might occur to me and/or to family while utilizing the information in this manual the maximum extent allowed by law. Buyer agrees to wave and release any claims, suits or related cause of action against sport tech beat LLC, Marcelo Aller, their employees or affiliated, for injuries, death, cost of damages to me, my heirs or assigns, while utilizing all information or partaking in the testing and exercise contained with in this manual. Buyer further agree to release, indemnify and hold Marcelo Aller and sport tech beat LLC from any liability what so ever for future claims presented by my children for any injuries, losses or damages.
You must get your physicians approval before begin these test or exercise. These recommendations are not medical guidelines but are for educational purpose only. You must consult your physician prior to starting this program or if any medical condition or injury that contraindicate physical activity. This program is design for healthy individuals 18 years or older.
The information in this manual is meant to supplement, not replace, proper exercise testing or training. All forms of testing and exercise pose some inherent risks. The editor and publisher advise readers to take full responsibilities for the safety and comprehend the scope of practice.
Don't perform any test or exercise unless have been shown the proper technique by certified trainer or coach.
copyrighted 2011 by Marcelo Aller !2
I have been passionate about fitness and health since 1990, about that time my complete focus and goal has been to learn everything about physiology and human movement with technology monitoring and measuring my life in all aspects. As I attempted to follow advice of experts, I found myself using technology to measure workouts, my fitness level, just about everyday. The practical application of formal learning from my physical education degree and many certifications led me to notice that exercise is not equal for everyone. I noticed that "real life" training and assessment needs to be easy to apply, otherwise it never is applied and the outcome is never achieved.
However, our society still suffers from very serious problems that continue to get worse everyday we see an an increase in obesity, cardiovascular disease and sedentary life styles. Frustrated with the traditional methods where more is better and harder is greatest method to get results. I decided to investigate and make the the complex S.I.M.P.L.E by reading all the research journals, meeting and attending all presentation from the best experts, and learning from my personal success. Along the way this made me notice that we are still have not learned nothing and we need to contribute to change by leading the way to helping everyone get access to information.
This manual is what my journey on "real life" hands on training that today is referred to as evidence based learning. This is by no means, is the end all be all manual but it is true step outside of traditional methods to break the bonds and move ahead to getting improvement from our most important investment today in society, our health.
Marcelo Aller CSCS HFI CPT
copyrighted 2011 by Marcelo Aller !3
Table of ContentsWhat is the S.I.M.P.L.E method?
Three Training Principles of program
Bioenergetics of exercise
Testing for capacity and efficiency
Methods to identify Anaerobic threshold
Establishing Target zones
Quick start guide to testing
Overview of the S.I.M.P.L.E program
Appendix 1.1 Sample program
Appendix 1.2 Treadmill protocols
Appendix 1.3 Cycling protocols
Appendix 1.4 Borg Scale sample
Appendix 1.5 Talk Test script
Appendix 1.6 Criteria for testing
Appendix 1.7 ACSM Algorithm and Vo2max charts
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Metabolic TrainingWHAT IS THE S.I.M.P.L.E METHOD?
Simple training Indicator that are Meaningful to Performance and Leads to Enhancements.
Most fitness enthusiast or athletes today want to know if their workouts are helping them meet their objectives. Are you pushing yourself hard or just injuring yourself? There's no question about it! But there are many questions about the most effective ways to exercise. For example:
• How do you know you're exercising at your most efficient and effective levels?
• How can you be sure that your exercise program is working?
• How should you adjust your program as you progress?
The fact is every person who exercises wants to know what the optimal training intensity is to reach peak performance. Heart rate training can provide the perfect solution to managing intensity for peak performance by properly testing and manage intensity with intensity markers like heart rate.
The benefits on performance with training using heart rate are:o Improve sport specific
endurance capacity o Monitor fitness levels o Monitor and control exercise
intensity o Make the training as sport
appropriate as possible
o Monitor progress during rehabilitation
o Monitor exercise intensity during rehabilitation
o Achieve peak performance - Avoid overtraining
o Reduce the occurrence of injuries
All these benefits can be designed by using proper tools and relevant information to fine tune performance to reach the goal and still work on fitness level. A helpful programming tool is a graded fitness tests, prescribes specific targets zone and tracking loads makes a program meaningful with heart rate based training.This manual is designed for recommend a way to develop metabolic conditioning using a method of programing based on 4 phases of training. The goal of the program is to enhance the metabolic system of by using specific training principles that are specific to simple time effective way to train for fitness or weight management.
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90 % of members use the cardiovascular equipment. Who helps them?
Not all people are created equal as far as the aerobic capacity (size of engine aka: Vo2 max) or efficiency(miles per gallon aka: Anaerobic Threshold ). Substantial amounts of research has documented this fact that factors such as genetics and environment impact the the performance of metabolic work(8). The goal for any metabolic program is to increase the capacity and efficiency of both these key metabolic markers. An example of this in practice is a comparison between strength and cardiovascular training. Let us take an example of testing for upper or lower body exercise. Normally before starting a weight training program a person finds what they can possibly lift and take a percentage of the maximum to develop strength. Lets say that you can bench 100 pounds normally we prescribe 3-4 sets at a weight that you can do for 10 reps. After a period of time you will notice 50 pounds for 10 reps becomes 90 pounds for 10 reps. After couple of weeks you retest and the 100 pound maximum becomes 125 pounds. To summarize this impact of training the maximum went up 25% but more importantly the ability to tolerate work load went up 80% (50 to 90) Lets apply the same example to a runner who tested on treadmill with a VO2 max 44ml/kg/min. The target zones given to runner was 50% of V02 max which was at a pace of 11:30 minutes a mile. He started training 3 times week for 30 minutes at the prescribe intensity after four weeks he is know running at 50% at 9:45 minutes a mile. As expected after further testing his Vo2 max went up to 48ml/kg/min(improvement of 10 percent) but his ability to with stand workload went up greater.
Both of these examples describe the importance of testing for maximum and prescribing proper loads for specific outcomes.
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These three training principles are the bases for this program:
1. Overload principle: the specific energy system used to generate physical power must be stressed beyond normal activity. The energy system may be stressed in three ways: (a) increased intensity; (b) increased exercise duration; (c) increased exercise frequency. For example, to increase ability to buffer lactate you need to overload your muscles by some type of anaerobic training program(1).2. Specificity Principle: This principle states that exercise must be targeted to achieve a targeted outcome. Metabolic specificity refers to training specific energy system, whereas neuromuscular specificity refers to training specific muscle groups. To develop speed strength in the thigh muscles, for example, one must overload the Atp-cp energy system in those muscles by doing specific drills at specific intensities. For example, 20m repeats at 80% MHR (1)3. Progression principle: This principles states that overload must be increased progressively as the muscle continues to adapt to training. For example, as an individual gets stronger with interval training, that person may increase the volume during training or intensity, but not both (1)
As an example this program provided in this manual will show how we apply these principles to improve fitness in practice can be applied in 3 simple steps. Step one is to test for your VO2 max and anaerobic threshold.
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Change occurs with more then determination. Keep it S.I.M.P.L.E and work SMARTER.
Step two is to identifies the Zones(z) for training (Z1, Z2 and Z3). Step three is to train for specific goal that provides proper overload and progression in a workout program. What is recommended is a simple microcycle that is effective in timing and application (high intensity, medium intensity and active recovery day).
BIOENERGETICS OF EXERCISE This section goal is to teach basics of physiology and adaptations to training to improve fitness using basic principles of specificity, progression and overload.
The bodies ability to do work is considered to be referred to as work capacity composed of four basic components metabolic, cardiovascular,hormonal and neuromuscular systems.
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To develop work capacity a person needs to effectively utilize all components of work capacity as long as possible for performance results desired. The notion that everyone needs the same type of of fitness and that general training is superior to specific training because it develops all types of stimulus at same time is not only incorrect , it is downright ignorant.
Work-capacity of human bodyLet's compare your body to a car, the amount of horse power the engine can generate comes from many different factors. These factors include the size of the engine, the type of fuel use, how efficient is cooling system is, how well the cars's computer regulates everything. Therefore if you build a bigger engine, use higher octane fuel, increase airflow, reprogram the computer chip, you improve the car!
The caveat to specificity is that just because you adapt to a training stimulus it does not necessary transfer to skill. SO to get better at sport skill the athlete should practice
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the SPORT skill not just working-out in a gym. The other purpose of this manual is to not method or exercise that you chose, but the results from adaptation.
Common measurement terms to program for work capacity Cardiac output- is product of stroke volume and heart rate (8).
VO2max-maximal amount of oxygen that one can take during exercise(8)
Anaerobic threshold(lactate threshold)- refereed to the point at which you go from an aerobic state to anaerobic.
Heart rate recovery- The ability to recover after a bout of high intensity effort usually measured in beats per minute(1)
Heart rate variability-The time and distance that took place between each beat per minute a measure of your autonomic nervous system.
Rate of perceived exertion- a subjective measure of work often used as low tech option to indicate intensity(1)
F.I.T.T- Acronym for program design variables Frequency, Intensity, Type and Time (1).
What is Fitness?Fitness is a measure of how well an person is able to meet the energy production or demands of the sport or specific fitness goal. In the picture below from Physiological Aspects of Sports Training and Performance by Jay Hoffman, Doctor Hoffman
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Col 1 vs Col 2
-60 0 60 120 180 240 300 360
discusses the body demands when you go from rest to exercise. The longer or harder the exercise the more energy is required to replace to maintain workload.
To review fitness is about how fast you can produce energy, how long can you produce it for, how much total energy you're capable of generating and for how efficient is it this process.
The basic explanation of energy production can be seen in two systems of activity aerobic and anaerobic activity. Each system invest in body certain amount of return on energy depending on the ability of cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, neuromuscular system and hormonal state of the person. The ultimate catalyst of human movement is dependent upon ATP (aka the currency of human body). For muscle to contract ATP is used among other physiological mechanism and reactions that occur in chain reaction to cause a desired movement in the body.
When the body has a limitation in producing ATP the outcome usually yield poor performance or limitation in consistent performance. The aerobic or anaerobic systems yields a certain amount of ATP which is the bodies goal during exercise is to replenish fuel utilization via fuel production.
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In the picture below from Physiological Aspects of Sports Training and Performance by Jay Hoffman discuss that aerobic system is by far the greatest producer of ATP ( see below).
To sum this up all up regardless of aerobic or anaerobic training the body works during exercise to replace ATP. Certain activities demand predominantly from one source of energy but all energy sources work to reproduce the bodies main source of energy for activity, ATP. No system works in isolation so please do not think that you only utilize ones source of energy they ALL work simultaneous however one system may be more dominant based on activity time/intensity demands.
S.I.M.P.L.E Common indicators of intensity for metabolic training 1. Average Heart rate (AVGHR) is average intensity the heart beat for specific period
of time (usually per minute).
2. Maximum Heart rate (MHR) is the greatest peak achieved during test or activity. Some adaptations to training is that MHR may increase or may even decrease. Some reasons HR changes may be related to learning effect.
3. Time in Zone- Distribution of time in a specific target zone.
4. Speed- Miles, meters, yards per hour or minute
5. Distance= yards, meters, miles
6. Rate of perceived exertion
8. Heart rate recovery
9. Exercise time
Steps ATP Yielded
ATP-CP 1 1
Glycolitic 10 2
Oxidative 11 38
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Certain sources of energy yield a higher returns on investment. As you see in the metabolic process chart( page 11)the body uses oxygen and fat very effectively to make during Krebs cycle 38 units of ATP. The anaerobic system do not effectively produce ATP as the aerobic system. Certain researchers describe training positive training adaptation as improvement in the turnover rate of ATP from a specific properly progress working out. As seen below at higher intensities your body is not able to replace ATP as effectively or equally to lower intensities.
As an example running in 8 minute mile was your personal record and you average 156 HR and had a lactate of 60mmol. Next time trial you run not only faster 7:15 but have a average 152HR and 72mmol a better turnover and more importantly a significant improvement in power/pace.
The chart above according Doctor Roy Shephard Doctor Per-Olof Astrand, in Endurance in Sport: Volume II of the Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine they describe fuel utilization when we run a at higher intensities we deplete our major source of energy ATP and lactate increases linear with exercise intensity. So what? Well lets take the example of a car again as you start driving at higher speeds and you start burning more gas and increase in engine speed/heat. Eventually you run out of gas and car needs to stop or slow down.
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The increase in lactate is like motor oil during engine heat it eventually needs to be cleaned or cool downed with in areas of motor to cool or lubricate the key parts during high speed. Eventually motor oil needs to be removed because it becomes to thick and dirty. Which can lead to motor breakdown or poor economy of movement.
The take home message for energy production is depended upon the work capacity and energy utilization of person but by knowing the numbers via a fitness test for Vo2 max, critical velocity and anaerobic threshold we can better program the correct training stimulus for the proper desired adaptations.
What is fatigue?Not so easy of a question. In fact no one truly knows. Some common thoughts are:
1.Central governing theory-The central governor theory states that rather then muscles themselves, it's your brain's regulation of energy output that ultimately is cause of fatigue and limiting factor in performance. This theory has been and shown that it design and function is more for protecting the body from harm and could be trained to push further beyond our thoughts on fitness.
2. Lactic acid- a byproduct created from exercise misunderstood in the past as the cause of fatigue. Actually this is energy source that can be used to produce ATP so when people feel the burning with in muscle that is just what WORK feels like and if done with a purpose could be very effectively.
3. Hydrogen- chemically we need certain sources and elements present to manage performance output. Some research indicates the the cell limitation in hydrogen leads to the body slowing or deficiency in output.
What now? Well fatigue occurs for many reasons. The question is does the body fatigues due to much intensity or to soon adding volume in a training cycle? That is why we progress exercise thoughtfully and with balance between hard and low intensity work outs.
What identifies a person efficiency during training? In car it's miles per gallon. In human body it's anaerobic threshold which is trainable. The size of engine is some what limited since the almighty gave use a specific size heart and lung.
The best method to find out what training to do is to test for size and efficiency. Next we will layout in this manual a good, better, best method of testing for these numbers to identify the size and efficiency of the metabolic system.
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TESTING FOR CAPACITY AND EFFICIENCY. For the treadmill test we propose a Modified Balke/Ware protocol to fit a number
of fitness levels. Balke/Ware suggest using a constant speed and increasing the incline every minute ( either 1 or 2%). We have adjusted the protocol to fit your clients while staying within the intent of Balke/Ware ('Advanced Fitness Assessment & Exercise Prescription' 2nd Ed by Vivian Heyward, Balke and Ware, 1959)
Before starting any test, please remember to warm up and stretch properly. Incorporate part of test to educate the customer. For example have the customer step up on treadmill and start subject at walking pace and increase his pace every minute until you get them to running pace notice the mechanics. Keep in mind that it should be running test not a sprint!
A good warm up should last between five to ten minutes with the goal of increasing your internal, core body temperature. This increase in core temperature is normally defined when a substantial sweat is achieved. Please review the appendix 1.5 on asking better questions to identify what test to select from appendix 1.2(TREADMILL) OR 1.3(BIKE) to review the quick start guide later in the manual.
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Methods to identify Anaerobic Threshold during graded exercise test
1. Estimate AT with Maffetones formula- collect name, height, weight, age and active level.
- Maffetones formula is : (180-Age(+ or - Activity)= estimated AT - For Activity give a subject
- +10 beats for very active(works out 4-5 times week), - For an active (works out 2-3 times) give them 0 beats- For an inactive subject give them minus 10 beats.
- Establish a preliminary AT to compare to this graded exercise test protocol.
2. Rate of perceived exertion(RPE) Modified Borg scale 1-10- Research indicates that on RPE scale between 16-18 will also predict AT. The subject is shown the chart below explain to them that they need to appraise the effort as honest as possible( Borg scale provided by NSCA Essential of Strength and Conditioning)
3. Talk Test- the inability to speak in a clear and controlled fashion. Research by Carl Foster a professor of University of Wisconsin has shown that the level of intensity that corresponds to an individual inability to talk in a clear and controlled fashion is a valid indicator of their anaerobic threshold. Subject need to be explained that at the end of each stage they are require to repeat a phrase. It will soon become apparent that subject will have labored breathing, will only be able to speak between breaths and will be unable to repeat the phrase in a clear and controlled manner. When this occurs the subject will have failed the "Talk test" and will be above their AT.
4. Measuring ventilation where a subject wears a mask that measure the greatest change in ventilation during a graded exercise test has been indicated to be associated with AT. Especially when you can measure O2 and Co2 however this method require expensive technology that require proper calibration to properly indicate AT. These devices are not new however today they are smaller and portable. Even today certain devices have no mask. These devices have provided very important data regarding a good number to gauge the body’s ability to train. The
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trainable number for improvement in fitness and performance is anaerobic threshold which can now be track during activity (breathing rate).The golden standard has always been measuring athlete’s capacity to consume oxygen during work which is known as V02 max. The dilemma with this measurement tool is that is highly depended upon genetics and the athlete with the highest score is not the fittest or best athlete. Therefore what is trainable is the anaerobic threshold of an athlete. This was often coveted by the sport coach as an art of coaching but today we can effectively say that this can be tested objectively (sorry coach)(2,3).Alternatively new technology that are mask less such a BioHarness(image below) that measure multiple points of data such as heart rate, breathing rate, skin temperature, accelerometer and posture are now more available for consumer application. Historically develop for military to monitor the solder in the field and now being used in medical and fitness arena.
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Performance Technology is a critical, yet often underutilized component of an athlete's preparation is the efficient use of technology to facilitate performance measurement, proper feedback, and scouting. Performance Technology delivers sport-specific technology solutions to improve athlete, team, and coaching performance.
The test above provides your subV02max, Anaerobic threshold, Heart rate recovery, Peak heart rate and heart rate at start of test these data points are what we will use to create an energy system program to improve you fitness and performance.
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SET YOUR TARGET HEART RATE ZONES (THR ZONE) OR INTENSITY ZONES:
(1) CHART BELOW FROM THE NSCA ESSENTIAL OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING
BASED ON THE GRADED TEST YOU MAY USE V02 MAX AND MAXIMUM HEART RATE ACHIEVED ACHIEVED DURING THE TEST RECOMMENDED. SEE EXAMPLES IN APPENDIX 1.6
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Set your zones based on Hr@AT, these heart rate zones are based on anaerobic threshold.
Target Training Zones
Benefits/Training Effect Activity Rate of Perceived Exertion
HR BASED ON AT HR
Increase anaerobic tolerance, Improves high speed endurance All out Effort 8-10
1. Collect all necessary data- name, age, height, weight and history of activity.2. Predetermine the expected HR@AT for comparison only3. Choose the proper testing mode. Based on asking them what activities to the
prefer treadmill or bike. 4. Explain test protocols5. Using a device like a heart rate monitor (HRM) to provide HR data that can be
record during test or using a Zephyr BioHarness to determine VT2(aka:Anaerobic Threshold).
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General overview of goals of each phase
Phase 1 Base Training The goal in this phase is to understand basic movement and energy used during exercise and to establish a base level of work, to progress into phases that are more specific. Also, consider an important phase for developing V02 and weight loss. The VO2 max of professional athletes do improve significantly in the pre-season period when there is an emphasis on aerobic training (8) Please see appendix 1.1 for 4 week program below are sample work session.
Exercise Target Active Reco/ Base
Time 30-40 minutes
Hill Walking workout
1:00 15-20 minutes 20 minutes
0:20 20 minutes
Light Zone Moderate Zone Hard Zone
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Phase 2 Interval Training(intensive intervals) The goal is to build the glycolic system using cardio equipment (treadmill, bike, Stair master). The emphasis in the workouts is to achieving a specific intensity for each workout. The following are three sample workouts that you can chose to do with typical gym equipment. In this phase, individual preference of cardio equipment will be allowed.
Research states that interval training compared to long continuous training is
more effective in about half the training volume and time thus diminishing the risk of overuse injuries (6). However it is important that each participant has the proper base strength and conditioning to properly benefit from these workouts(6).
Treadmill Bike Step Mill
5 minute warm up at Zone 2
90 sec run at < mile pace at >zone 3 Recover for 30 seconds at zone 2 repeat 20
5 minute warm up at Zone 2 at 75 RPM
15 sec sprints at Zone 3 at >90 RPM 30 sec rest periods at RPM> 70 Repeat 18 times
5 minute warm up at Zone 2
2 minutes at Zone 3 Recover at 1 minutes of Zone 2
Repeat 4 times
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3 5 yds
Workout B : “L” Drill Following the numbered arrows for directions, start at the left hand side of the bottom (red) cone, sprint to the 1st cone that is directly 5 yds in front of you (green), touch down on the ground next to the cone with the right hand, turn to the outside (left side) and sprint back to the starting (red) cone. Touch the ground by that cone with your right hand, sprinting back to the green cone, and then immediately around following the path of line #4, circling around the blue cone. Stay to the outside of the L and sprint immediately back to the green cone, and cut to sprint back to the beginning red cone to end the drill. Just like the 5-10-5 drill, keep all cuts sharp and all travel as much as you can in a straight line, avoiding any “looping” around the cone. Focus once again on quick changes in direction, working your arm action around the cone, “breaking down” your steps and spotting techniques. You can also change the direction of the cones to go left to change things up. Does 1 set with out ball focus on acceleration and deceleration max intent. Time this effort. Repeat next set with ball and time this set compare these numbers. The goal is to get these numbers to be almost the same.
The goal in this phase is to get out on track to run and jog in linear motions. Linear speed is determined by stride length and rate. Therefore, improvement to these two variables will allow one to run faster. Stride length may be improved by increasing strength, power, and flexibility in body’s extremity (1). The goal of each interval is to finish them in specific time, intent and to recover to a Zone 2 (70% MHR), and go thru the following workouts.
Phase 4 Complex training The focus in this phase is to use multiple directional runs and reinforcing proper acceleration mechanics, deceleration mechanics, and use specific movement patterns by sport position. The emphasis in this phase will be intended than actual velocity of movement. In the article: Intended rather than actual movement velocity determines velocity- specific training response research done by David Behm and Digby Sale. The research suggests, “The results suggest that the principal stimuli for the high-velocity training response are repeated attempts to perform ballistic contractions and the high rate of force development of the ensuing contraction. The type of muscle action appears to be lesser importance”. Therefore, our focus will be specific goal efforts for endurance and power including every day skill reaction with maximum intent and make the drills specific to goal.
Workout A :The Star Drill Each cone should be set at least 5 yards from the middle cone. Start at middle cone, in athletic position, ready to move. Take turns sprinting out to each cone, and back to center cone, first set clockwise, and then counter clockwise. Emphasize quick reaction at each cone, exploding off the ground with each push. ALWAYS return to a quick feet/ready position at middle cone. Advanced/reaction time option: Have a partner assign a number to each cone, and call out various numbers for you to sprint back and forth, to and from. (Have the partner only call out 6-8 sprints). Does 1 set with out ball focus on acceleration and deceleration max intent. Time this effort. Repeat next set with ball and time this set compare these numbers. The goal is to get these numbers to be almost the same.
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Appendix 1.1: Phase 1 Base Training Length: 4 weeks / 16 sessions
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Week Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday
1 Off 35 minute total
30 minutes Off 35 minute total 30 minutes
10 minutes in Zone 1
10 minutes in Zone 1
25 minutes in Zone 2
In zone 1 In zone 1
25 minutes in Zone 2
2 Off 40 minute total
30 minutes Off 40 minute total 30 minutes
10 minutes in Zone 1
15 minutes in Zone 1
15 minutes in zone 1
15 minutes in zone 1
30 minutes in Zone 2
25 minutes in Zone 2
15 minutes in
15 minutes in
Zone 2 Zone 2
3 Off 45 minute total
30 minutes Off 45 minute total 30 minutes
10 minutes in Zone 1
10 minutes in Zone 1
10 In zone 1 10 minutes In zone 1
35 35 minutes in Zone 2
minutes in Zone 2
20 minutes in Zone 2
20 minutes in Zone 2
4 Off 60 minute total
30 minutes Off 45 minute total 30 minutes
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Phase 2 Interval Training(walking in Z1 and running in Z2 working up to Z3) Length: 4 weeks / 16 sessions
The research recommended the use of a specific sentence when determining a subjects ability to pass the talk test. Each subject will be asked any sentence. As an example" My favorite sports team is ________________" across the last 15 seconds of each treadmill stage the test subject will be asked to fill in the blank. The subject will have failed the talk test when they can no longer repeat sentence in a clear an controlled fashion.
Appendix 1.6 Criteria for Testing
1. question to ask-
a. Do you work out? b. What to you prefer to do bike or run? c. If customer answer yes to question A, then- What is averaged pace? d. If customer answer no to question A, select walking or general bike test.
3. Have prepared you explanation of the test, borg scale and recording sheet.
4. Prepare the subject to do a mini ramp up warmup.
5. Review quick start quick on page 10.
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ACSM Algorithm Running/Jogging
VO2= (0.2 x S) + (0.9 x S x G) + 3.5
ACSM Algorithm Walking
VO2= (0.1 x S) + (1.8 x S x G) + 3.5
VO2= (10.8 x watts) / M (wt. in kg) + (7)
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1. Baechle, Thomas R., Earle, Roger W. (eds.).(2000). Essential of Strength and Conditioning.
Human Kinetics, 2 edition : (pp 427-493)
2. Buchhelt, M. , Laursen, P.B , Millet, G.P. , Pactat, F , Ahmaidi, S. Predicting Intermittent
Running Performance: Critcal Velocity versus Endurance Index
3. Behm, D.G., Sale, Digby. (1993). Intended rather than actual movement velocity determines
velocity- specific training response. J. Appl. Physiology. Vol 74, (1): (pp 359-368)
4. Bangsboo, J. The physiological profile of soccer players. Sports Exercise and Injury, 4,
5. Bangsboo, J. Soccer & Science- in an Interdisciplinary Perspective Munksgaard, Institute of
Exercise and Sport Science, University Copenhagen 2000
6. Glasiter, Mark Multiple Sprint Work Physiological Response, Mechanism of Fatigue and
Influence of Aerobic Fitness. Sports Med. 2005; 35(9): 757-777
7. Hoffman, Jay Physiological Aspects of Sport Training and Performance. Human Kinetics 2002;
8. Komi, P.V.(Oct. 2000). Stretch- Shortening Cycle: a powerful model to study normal and
fatigued muscle. Journal of Biomechanics, Vol 33, issue 10: (pp1197-1206)
9. Roy Shephard, Per-Olof Astrand, Endurance in Sport: Volume II of the Encyclopedia of Sports
Medicine: An IOC Med Commission Publication. (91-99)
10. Siegler, Jason., Gaskill, Steven. Ruby, Brent. (2003). Changes Evaluated in Soccer Specific
Power endurance either with or without a 10 week, In season, intermittent, High intensity
training protocol. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. Vol 17, number(2) : (pp