6
Japan’s Security and Defense Policy and the Japan-U.S. Alliance I I Part The “National Security Strategy” developed in December 2013 expresses Japan’s fundamental principle of national security, which is that Japan will continue to adhere to the course that it has taken to date as a peace-loving nation and to contribute even more proactively in securing the peace, stability and prosperity of the international community, while achieving its own security as well as peace and stability in the Asia- Pacific region, as a “Proactive Contributor to Peace” based on the principle of international cooperation. In order to achieve this principle, the strategy defined Japan’s national security, such as the maintenance of sovereignty and independence, defending territorial integrity, ensuring the safety of life, person and properties of its nationals, economic development, and the maintenance and protection of the international order based on rules and universal values. Based on that, the strategy clearly defines the security environment surrounding Japan and national security challenges, and specifies the strategic approaches centering on diplomatic and defense policies that Japan should implement, such as the establishment of a comprehensive defense architecture to protect Japan. National Security Strategy Relations among NSS, NDPG, MTDP, and Annual Budget NSS NDPG MTDP Annual budget based on NSS achieve target levels of defense force appropriate budget, develop specific projects Basic policy for national security centered around diplomatic and defense policies (approx. 10-year time frame) Prescribe future defense force and target levels of defense force that Japan should achieve (approx. 10-year time frame) Indicate (limits of) five-year total expenditures and quantity of major equipment Examine based on the current situations, appropriate annual budget as necessary The “National Defense Program Guidelines” developed in December 2013 based on the National Security Strategy defines basic policies for Japan’s future defense, the role of its defense capabilities, and objectives for specific Self-Defense Force (SDF) equipment. Japan’s Basic Defense Policy The guideline specifies (1) Japan’s own efforts, (2) strengthening of the Japan-U.S. Alliance, and (3) active promotion of security cooperation as the basic principles from the perspective of proactive contribution to peace based on international cooperation. Building a Dynamic Joint Defense Force To build a Dynamic Joint Defense Force, the MOD conducts capability assessments based on joint operations and builds a dynamic joint defense force, for the enhancement of deterrence and response capability by pursuing further joint operations, improving the mission-capable rate of equipment and its employment to conduct activities, as well as developing defense capabilities adequate both in quality and quantity that underpin various activities. Role of the Defense Forces The following points will be emphasized as effective means of deterrence and response to various situations: (1) ensuring the security of the sea and airspace surrounding Japan; (2) response to an attack on remote islands; (3) response to ballistic missile attacks; (4) responses in outer space and cyberspace; and (5) responses to major disasters. Promoting training and exercises, defense cooperation and exchanges, securing of maritime security, international peace cooperation activities, and capacity building assistance in order to stabilize the Asia-Pacific region and to improve the global security environment. Structure of the Self-Defense Forces The “appendix” specifies the target levels of the main formation and equipment. Foundation to Maximize Defense Capability Also strengthen the foundations underpinning the defense force. National Defense Program Guidelines Submarine unit Fighter aircraft (F-35A) Chapter 1 P. 169 Chapter 2 P. 173 9 Digest

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Page 1: Part I I and the Japan-U.S. Alliance Japan’s Security and ... · Part I I Japan’s Security and Defense Policy and the Japan-U.S. Alliance Human Foundation and Organization that

Japan’s Security and Defense Policy and the Japan-U.S. AllianceIIII

Part

� The “National Security Strategy” developed in December 2013 expresses Japan’s fundamental principle of national security, which is that Japan will continue to adhere to the course that it has taken to date as a peace-loving nation and to contribute even more proactively in securing the peace, stability and prosperity of the international community, while achieving its own security as well as peace and stability in the Asia-Pacifi c region, as a “Proactive Contributor to Peace” based on the principle of international cooperation.

� In order to achieve this principle, the strategy defi ned Japan’s national security, such as the maintenance of sovereignty and independence, defending territorial integrity, ensuring the safety of life, person and properties of its nationals, economic development, and the maintenance and protection of the international order based on rules and universal values.

� Based on that, the strategy clearly defi nes the security environment surrounding Japan and national security challenges, and specifi es the strategic approaches centering on diplomatic and defense policies that Japan should implement, such as the establishment of a comprehensive defense architecture to protect Japan.

National Security Strategy

Relations among NSS, NDPG, MTDP, and Annual Budget

NSS

NDPG

MTDP

Annual budget

based on NSS

achieve target levels of defense force

appropriate budget, develop specific projects

Basic policy for national security centeredaround diplomatic and defense policies(approx. 10-year time frame)

Prescribe future defense force and target levels of defense force that Japan should achieve(approx. 10-year time frame)

Indicate (limits of) five-year total expendituresand quantity of major equipment

Examine based on the current situations, appropriate annual budget as necessary

� The “National Defense Program Guidelines” developed in December 2013 based on the National Security Strategy defi nes basic policies for Japan’s future defense, the role of its defense capabilities, and objectives for specifi c Self-Defense Force (SDF) equipment.

� Japan’s Basic Defense PolicyThe guideline specifi es (1) Japan’s own efforts, (2) strengthening of the Japan-U.S. Alliance, and (3) active promotion of security cooperation as the basic principles from the perspective of proactive contribution to peace based on international cooperation.

� Building a Dynamic Joint Defense ForceTo build a Dynamic Joint Defense Force, the MOD conducts capability assessments based on joint operations and builds a dynamic joint defense force, for the enhancement of deterrence and response capability by pursuing further joint operations, improving the mission-capable rate of equipment and its employment to conduct activities, as well as developing defense capabilities adequate both in quality and quantity that underpin various activities.

� Role of the Defense Forces � The following points will be emphasized as effective means of deterrence and response to

various situations: (1) ensuring the security of the sea and airspace surrounding Japan; (2) response to an attack on remote islands; (3) response to ballistic missile attacks; (4) responses in outer space and cyberspace; and (5) responses to major disasters.

� Promoting training and exercises, defense cooperation and exchanges, securing of maritime security, international peace cooperation activities, and capacity building assistance in order to stabilize the Asia-Pacifi c region and to improve the global security environment.

� Structure of the Self-Defense ForcesThe “appendix” specifi es the target levels of the main formation and equipment.

� Foundation to Maximize Defense CapabilityAlso strengthen the foundations underpinning the defense force.

National Defense Program Guidelines

Submarine unit

Fighter aircraft (F-35A)

Chapter 1 P. 169

Chapter 2 P. 173

9 Digest

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Digest2016 DEFENSE OF JAPAN

Defense-Related Expenditures

� In 2016, based on the increasingly severe security environment, in order to strengthen the posture of protecting the life and property of the people and Japan’s territorial land, sea, and air, Japan has increased defense-related expenditure, as in 2015 (increased 0.8% from the previous year)

� The “Mid-Term Defense Program” (FY2014-FY2018) developed in December 2013 based on the “National Defense Program Guidelines” specifi es the review of major units, major projects concerned with the capability of the SDF, policies to strengthen the Japan-U.S. Alliance, the maintenance scale of main equipment (“appendix”), and required expenses.

� Reorganization of the Major SDF Units � The Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF): Establish the Ground Central Command,

transform two divisions and two brigades into two rapid deployment divisions and two rapid deployment brigades, and establish a coast observation unit and area security units

� The Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF): Retain four escort fl otillas (mainly consisting of one helicopter destroyer (DDH) and two Aegis-equipped destroyers (DDG)) and fi ve escort divisions (consisting of other destroyers), and increase the number of submarines

� The Air Self-Defense Force (ASDF): At Naha Air Base, increase the number of fi ghter squadrons to two, and newly organize one airborne early warning squadron

Medium Term Defense Program

Amphibious vehicle (AAV7)

� In 2016, based on the National Defense Program Guidelines and the Mid-Term Defense Program, and as the third year of their implementation, Japan is steadily carrying out defense development efforts to build up its defense capability.

� Japan will improve its defense capabilities in order to seamlessly and dynamically fulfi ll its defense responsibilities, which include (1) providing an effective deterrence and response to a variety of security situations, and (2) supporting stability in the Asia-Pacifi c region.

Build-Up of Defense Capability in FY2016

Aerial refueling/transport aircraft (KC-46A; reference image)

Aerial refueling/transport aircraft Mobile combat vehicle (prototype)Mobile combat vehicle (prototype)

Trend in Defense-Related Expenditures Over the Past 15 Years

49,39249,262

48,760

48,297

47,903

47,815

47,426

47,02846,826

46,62546,453

46,804

47,838

48,22148,607

46,000

47,000

48,000

49,000

50,000

27 2826252423222120191817161514

Note: Does not include SACO-related expenses, portion meant to reduce the burden on the local community out of the U.S. forces realignment expenses, and expenses associated with the acquisition of a new government aircraft. The total defense expenditures when including these items are 4,955.7 billion yen for FY2002, 4,952.7 billion yen for FY2003, 4,902.6 billion yen for FY2004, 4,856.0 billion yen for FY2005, 4,813.6 billion yen for FY2006, 4,801.3 billion yen for FY2007, 4,779.6 billion yen for FY2008, 4,774.1 billion yen for FY2009, 4,790.3 billion yen for FY2010, 4,775.2 billion yen for FY2011, 4,713.8 billion yen for FY2012, 4,753.8 billion yen for FY2013, 4,848.8 billion yen for FY2014, and 4,980.1 billion yen for FY2015, and 5,054.1 billion yen for FY2016.

Chapter 2 P. 183

Chapter 2 P. 189

Chapter 2 P. 190

10Digest

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IIIIPart

Japan’s Security and Defense Policy and the Japan-U.S. Alliance

Human Foundation and Organization that Supports the Defense Force

� For the Ministry of Defense (MOD)/SDF to exercise its defense capability effectively to the full extent, it is vitally important to enrich and enhance the human resource foundation supporting it. Also, the various activities of the MOD/SDF are hard to implement without understanding and cooperation by each and every person and local governments. Therefore it is necessary to further deepen the trust between local communities and people, and the SDF.

� Recruitment and Employment � Due to the declining birthrate and the popularization of higher education, the general recruitment

condition of uniformed SDF personnel is increasingly severe. In light of this, the SDF is recruiting personnel with superior abilities and a strong desire to enlist from all over Japan under various categories. There are also systems in place such as the SDF Reserve Personnel system, under which they engage in their respective occupations in peacetime and serve as uniformed SDF personnel in cases such as the issuing of defense call-up orders.

New SDF members undergoing training

� Promotion of the Careers of Female Personnel � The MOD/SDF is implementing the “Action Plan for Promoting the Active Participation of Female

Employees and Work-Life Balance,” which incorporates three reforms–“Working style reform,” “Reform to realize a successful career with a balanced life between childrearing and nursing, etc.,” and “Reform for promoting successful female personnel,” (the development of internal crèche facilities, etc.) in order to promote the work-life balance of the personnel in a unifi ed manner whilst further expanding the recruitment and promotion of female personnel.

� As the result of reviewing the deployment restriction of female SDF personnel and lifting the restriction preventing women from working in fi ghter squadrons, anti-tank helicopter units and missile boats , female uniformed SDF personnel can now be assigned to all posts of the MSDF except for submarines, and all posts of the ASDF.

� Measures Aimed at Ensuring Effective Use of Human ResourcesMeasures are being implemented with regard to personnel system reform, in order to respond to the advancement of equipment as well as diversifi cation and internationalization of SDF missions, from the perspective of ensuring the robustness of the SDF and making effective use of human resources under the constrained budget.

Female SDF personnel/pilot

Legislation for Peace and Security

� The Legislation for Peace and Security was passed and enacted in September 2015 and came into force in March 2016.� With the security environment surrounding Japan becoming increasingly severe, the Legislation for Peace and Security has historical

signifi cance in further ensuring the peace and security of Japan through enhancing the deterrence and making contributions to the peace and stability of the region and the international community more proactively than ever before, and has been highly rated and supported by many countries and organizations in the world.

� Revision of the Self-Defense Forces Law � Establishment of the provisions for measures to rescue Japanese nationals overseas – In addition to the existing mission of “transportation of Japanese

nationals and others overseas,” “rescue measures,” including guarding and rescue of Japanese nationals and others overseas, became possible. � Establishment of the provisions for the protection of weapons and other equipment of the units of the U.S. Armed Forces and armed forces of

other foreign countries – Enable SDF personnel to protect the weapons and other equipment of the units of the U.S. Armed Forces and armed forces of other foreign countries that are, in cooperation with the SDF, currently engaged in activities that contribute to the defense of Japan.

� Expansion of the provision of supplies and services to the U.S. Armed Forces – Expand the range of scenes where the provision of supplies and services is possible as well as the scope of supplies and services available.

� Law Concerning Measures to Ensure Peace and Security of Japan in Situations that Will Have an Important In� uence on Japan’s Peace and Security (Revision of the Law Concerning Measures to Ensure Peace and Security of Japan in Situations in Areas Surrounding Japan)

� The name of situations that will have an important infl uence on Japan’s peace and security has been changed from “situations in areas surrounding Japan” to “situations that will have an important infl uence.”

� “Armed forces of other foreign countries engaged in activities contributing to the achievement of the objectives of the U.N. Charter,” etc. were added as the armed forces, etc. responding to situations that will have an important infl uence on Japan’s peace and security subject to Japan’s support. The law revision expanded the types of supplies and services the SDF can provide in situations that will have an important infl uence on Japan’s peace and security and also set forth the measures to avoid integration with the use of force by a foreign country.

Chapter 2 P. 194

Chapter 3 P. 208

11 Digest

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Digest2016 DEFENSE OF JAPAN

� Amendment to the International Peace Cooperation Act � “Internationally coordinated operations for peace and security” (humanitarian relief support and safety-ensuring tasks not under the

control of the United Nations) were added as operations Japan can participate in. In addition to the satisfaction of the Five Principles for Participation, Japan can participate in these operations based on U.N. resolutions or at the request of the United Nations, or other prescribed organizations.

� The so-called “safety-ensuring operations” and the so-called ‘kaketsuke-keigo” operations, etc. were added as tasks in U.N. peacekeeping operations, etc., and the authority to use weapons was also reviewed. Prior Diet approval is required, in principle, for the “safety-ensuring operations.”

� Revision of the Legislation for Responses to Armed Attack Situations � “Survived-Threatening Situation(*1)” was newly added to the situations to which Japan has to respond under the Armed Attack Situations

Response Act. � Necessary revisions were made to relevant laws to make it possible to issue an order for defense operations to respond to a “Survived-

Threatening Situation” for the SDF’s primary mission of the defense of Japan, and also to require prior Diet approval for this, in principle, in the same manner as for defense operations in the case of the armed attack situations, etc.

� Enactment of the International Peace Support Act (New) � The International Peace Support Act is a newly enacted law that enables Japan to conduct cooperation and support operations, search and rescue

operations and ship inspection operations for the armed forces of foreign countries engaged in operations for peace and security of the international community in situations threatening the international peace and security that the international community is collectively addressing(*2).

� The operations of armed forces of foreign countries need to have competent U.N. resolutions as well as meet some other requirements in order for Japan to provide support. The Act also sets forth measures in order to avoid “integration” with the use of force by a foreign country, such as those not allowing the SDF to conduct support activities “in the scene where no combat operations are conducted at that time” in situations threatening the international peace and security that the international community is collectively addressing.

� Prior Diet approval is required without exception, and re-approval is necessary in the case of a lapse of more than two years since the commencement of the response measures.

� Revision of the Act for Establishment of the National Security Council � Responses to “Survived-Threatening Situation,” “situations that will have an important infl uence on Japan’s peace and security” and

“situations threatening international peace and security that the international community is collectively addressing” were added as the items for deliberation.

� “Rescue measures for Japanese nationals and others overseas,” and “decisions on and changes in implementation plans for the implementation of safety-ensuring operations or “kaketsuke-keigo” operations were added as the items the National Security Council must deliberate without fail.*1 A situation where an armed attack against a foreign country that is in a close relationship with Japan occurs and as a result threatens Japan’s survival and poses a clear

danger to fundamentally overturn the people’s right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness*2 Situations that threaten peace and security of the international community, and the international community is collectively addressing the situations in accordance with

the objectives of the U.N. Charter to remove the threat, and Japan, as a member of the international community, needs to independently and proactively contribute to these activities

Key Points regarding the Legislation for Peace and Security

The exercise of the right of collective self-defense is not permitted for the purpose of the so-called defense of a foreign country, namely, for the purpose of turning back an attack made against a foreign country.

Images of Situations and Conditions

Concerning Japan and Japanese NationalsConcerning International Cooperation

Reorganizing the Agenda Items of the National Security Council (NSC) [Act for Establishment of the National Security Council]

(Note) Cabinet Decisions on accelerating procedures to issue orders for public security operations and maritime security operations in cases of responding to a situation where an infringement that does not amount to an armed attack occurs in areas surrounding remote islands, etc., and police forces are not present nearby (Development of no new legislation)

International Peace Cooperation Activities[International Peace Cooperation Act]

The “Three New Conditions”(1) When an armed attack against Japan occurs or when an armed attack

against a foreign country that is in a close relationship with Japan occurs and as a result threatens Japan’s survival and poses a clear danger to fundamentally overturn people’s right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness

(2) When there is no other appropriate means available to repel the attack and ensure Japan’s survival and protect its people

(3) Use of force limited to the minimum extent necessaryShip Inspection Operations (Expansion)[Ship Inspection Operations Act]

・ Enable ship inspection operations in situations that the international community is collectively addressing for international peace and security

Transportation of Japanese nationals overseas, etc. [Self-Defense Forces Act]

Rescue of Japanese nationals overseas, etc. (New)

Protection of SDF’s weapons/other equipment [Self-Defense Forces Act]

Protection of weapons/other equipment of the U.S. and other countries’ armed forces (New)

Provision of supplies and services to the U.S. Armed Forces in peacetime [Self-Defense Forces Act] (Expansion)・ Expand situations where supplies/services can be provided, such

as the guarding of facilities of the U.S. Armed Forces stationed in Japan

U.N. PKO (Addition)

・ Additional roles by Japanese Corps in operation (e.g. security of specified areas including protection of local population)  

・ Review of authority to use weapons (small arms) to better align with current U.N. standard

Internationally coordinated operations for peace and security (Multinational cooperation outside U.N. PKO framework)

Support activities (including logistics support) in situations that will have an important influence on Japan’s peace and security (Expansion)

[Act Concerning Measures to Ensure Peace and Security of Japan in Situations that will Have an Important

Influence on Japan’s Peace and Security](Revision of the Act Concerning Measures to Ensure Peace and

Security of Japan in Situations in Areas Surrounding Japan)

・ Clarification of the purpose of the revision(Revision of the purpose of the Act)

・ Support activities for armed forces of foreign countries (not only the U.S.)

・ Expansion of the scope of support activities

Support activities (including logistics support) to armed forces of foreign countries in situations that the international community is collectively addressing for international peace and security (New) [International Peace Support Act (New)]

Response to armed attack situations, etc[Legislation for Responses to Situations]Responses to “Survived-Threatening Situation” (New)

・ “Use of force” permitted under the “Three New Conditions”

12Digest

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IIIIPart

Japan’s Security and Defense Policy and the Japan-U.S. Alliance

Outline of the New Guidelines

� Defense Cooperation and the Objectives of the GuidelinesThe new Guidelines newly specifi ed the matters to be emphasized in security and defense cooperation. The objectives of the new Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation are retained in line with the approach of the 1997 Guidelines.

� Strengthened Alliance CoordinationEstablishment of the Alliance Coordination Mechanism to be utilized from peacetime; development and update of bilateral plan.

� Seamlessly Ensuring Japan’s Peace and SecurityThe new Guidelines present directions for achieving “seamless” cooperation, from peacetime to contingencies.

� Cooperation for Regional and Global Peace and SecurityThe new Guidelines set forth specifi c forms of Japan-U.S. cooperation for regional and global peace and security.

� Outer Space and Cyberspace CooperationThe new Guidelines newly incorporate cooperation in outer space and cyberspace.

� Bilateral EnterpriseThe new Guidelines, in order to enhance the effectiveness of bilateral cooperation, newly incorporate initiatives in the three areas of defense equipment and technology cooperation, intelligence cooperation and information security, and educational and research exchanges that serve as the foundation of security and defense cooperation.

� Procedures for the ReviewThe new Guidelines newly incorporate the implementation of the regular evaluation.

Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements

� Based on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements, together with Japan’s own efforts, constitute the cornerstone for Japan’s security.

� The Japan-U.S. Alliance, centering on bilateral security arrangements, functions as “public goods” that contribute to the stability and prosperity, not only of Japan but also of the Asia-Pacifi c region and the world at large.

� As the security environment surrounding Japan becomes increasingly severe, and the United States, at the same time, maintains and strengthens its engagement and presence in the Asia-Pacifi c region, it has become more important than ever to strengthen the Japan-U.S. Alliance for the security of Japan. Prime Minister Abe shakes hands with U.S. President Obama on the occasion of his

attendance at the APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting in November 2015[Photo courtesy of the Cabinet Public Relations Offi ce]

Initiatives to Build the Foundation for Strengthening the Alliance

� Japan-U.S. Defense Ministerial MeetingThe Japan–U.S. Defense Ministerial Meeting (June 4, 2016)� Regarding the arrest of a member of the civilian component in Okinawa,

the Ministers confi rmed their intent to continue to work closely together to devise a set of effective prevention measures, including the review of the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) implementation practices related to U.S. personnel with SOFA status, including the civilian component.

� The Ministers agreed that they oppose unilateral attempts to change the status quo by force in the East China Sea and the South China Sea.

� In light of the developments regarding North Korea, the Ministers agreed to maintain close Japan-U.S. cooperation.

� The Ministers affi rmed their intent to continue efforts to ensure the effectiveness of the new Guidelines.

� The Ministers agreed to further deepen bilateral cooperation for defense equipment and technology.

� The Ministers agreed to continue to cooperate in mitigating the impact on Okinawa.

The Japan-U.S. Defense Ministerial Meeting in Singapore (June 2016)The Japan-U.S. Defense Ministerial Meeting in Singapore (June 2016)

Chapter 4 P. 228

Chapter 4 P. 230

Chapter 4 P. 238

13 Digest

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Digest2016 DEFENSE OF JAPAN

� Major Initiatives for Strengthening the Alliance � In order to respond to the increasingly severe security environment, Japan and the

United States will establish a seamless cooperation structure in all phases from peacetime to contingencies, including cooperation in “gray zone” situations, while enhancing the Japanese and U.S. presence in the Western Pacifi c. The two countries are continuing to promote the expansion of joint training and exercises as well as joint intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) activities, and also the expansion of the joint use of facilities and areas of both countries that serve as the bases for these activities.

� In November 2015, based on the new Guidelines, the two governments established the Alliance Coordination Mechanism (ACM) that enables bilateral information sharing and coordination at various levels from peacetime, and upgraded the Bilateral Planning Mechanism (BPM) for the development and update of bilateral plans.

Stationing of the U.S. Forces in Japan

� Signi� cance of the Presence of the U.S. Forces in JapanFor the Japan-U.S. Alliance to adequately function as a deterrence that contributes to Japan’s defense as well as to the peace and stability of the Asia-Pacifi c region, it is necessary to secure the presence of the U.S. Forces in Japan and to maintain a posture to respond swiftly and expeditiously to emergencies. For this purpose, based on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, Japan allows the stationing of the U.S. Forces in Japan, which is a core part of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements.

� Host Nation Support (HNS)The Government of Japan, while paying adequate attention to its tight fi scal conditions, has been providing HNS from the perspective that HNS is of extreme importance in supporting the smooth and effective operation of the U.S. Forces in Japan. In April 2016, the new Special Measures Agreement (SMA) related to HNS took effect.

� Realignment of the U.S. Forces in JapanRealignment of the U.S. Forces in Japan is extremely important in mitigating the impact on local communities, such as those in Okinawa, while maintaining the deterrence capabilities of the U.S. Forces. The MOD plans to proceed with the U.S. Forces realignment and other initiatives while making continuous efforts to gain understanding and cooperation from local communities accommodating facilities and areas of the U.S. Forces in Japan.

� Stationing of the U.S. Forces in Okinawa � The relocation of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Futenma to the Camp Schwab Henokosaki area (Nago City) is the only solution to avoid

the continued use of MCAS Futenma while maintaining the deterrence capabilities of the U.S. Forces in Japan, and will fully contribute to mitigating the impact on Okinawa. The return of MCAS Futenma is also expected to be followed by further growth of Okinawa through the reuse of the area. Thus, the Government of Japan is making all-out efforts to realize the relocation of MCAS Futenma.

� In December 2015, the Governments of Japan and the United States agreed on an early return of part of the land of MCAS Futenma as well as on an early return of part of the land of Makiminato Service Area.

� Through the Consultation between the Central Government and Okinawa Prefecture, established in January 2016 to discuss ways to mitigate the impact on Okinawa and further develop Okinawa, the Government of Japan is holding discussions with Okinawa prefectural government on the relocation and return of MCAS Futenma and the early return of a major portion of Northern Training Area. As part of its initiatives to mitigate the impact on Okinawa in a tangible manner, the Government of Japan is also addressing issues such as the return of land areas south of Kadena Air Base, the reduction of U.S. troops stationed in Okinawa and its relocation to Guam and the training relocation of MV-22 Osprey aircraft.

� Stationing of the U.S. Forces in Regions Other than OkinawaIn regions other than Okinawa, the MOD is implementing measures to consolidate facilities and areas of the U.S. Forces in Japan and to proceed with the realignment of the U.S. Forces in Japan. Such measures are aimed at securing the stable presence of the U.S. Forces while maintaining its deterrence abilities and trying to mitigate the impact on local communities.

� Initiatives toward Prevention of Incidents and Accidents Caused by U.S. Forces PersonnelOn July 5, 2016, the Governments of Japan and the United States released the Japan-United States Joint Statement on Reviewing Implementation Practices of the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) related to U.S. Personnel with SOFA Status, including the Civilian Component.

SDF members on the lookout in joint fi eld training exercises, Orient Shield, with the U.S. Army

Chapter 4 P. 253

14Digest