PA Mammalian Predators Slide 2 Eastern Coyote AKA brush wolf, prairie wolf, coy- dog Largest wild canine in PA During wolf bounties of 1800s, many were turned in by mistake By 1990 populations had rebounded Slide 3 Eastern Coyote: Identification Larger than Western Coyote: may be due to hybridization with wolves Males: 45-55 lbs. Females: 35 to 40 pounds Many different coat colors and patterns: tri-color (German shepherd-like), red, blonde and dark brown (appears black at a distance) Slide 4 IDENTIFICATION Tri-color RED Slide 5 Black Phase BLONDE PHASE Slide 6 Slide 7 Eastern Coyote: Diet Generalist: small mice, voles, deer, rabbits, wood chuck, birds, plant matter Sometimes prey on domestic animals (sheep, chickens, ducks, dogs, cats) Slide 8 Slide 9 Eastern Coyote: General Biology Monogamous, but not for life May hunt alone or with family group, not a true pack animal like the wolf Nocturnal Smell and hearing are keen; very alert Prefer heavy brush, edges PA population estimated at 40,000 Slide 10 PA Game Commission Bag Limits COYOTES: No closed season. Unlimited. Outside of any big game season (deer, bear, elk and turkey), coyotes may be taken with a hunting license or a furtaker license, and without wearing orange. During any big game season, coyotes may be taken while lawfully hunting big game or with a furtakers license. Slide 11 Slide 12 Owl In an SUV grill http://www.cnn.com/video/?hpt=hp_c3#/vi deo/us/2013/02/11/dnt-owl-trapped-in- suv.wsvn Slide 13 Mustelid Family Predators Examples: Mink, Otter, Fisher, Weasels Others not in PA: Ferret, Badger, Wolverine LEAST WEASEL Slide 14 OTTER MINK Slide 15 FISHER Slide 16 WEASELS Mustelid family Strong musk odor Found worldwide except Antarctica 3 species in PA: ermine, long-tailed weasel, least weasel Long, slim bodies, short legs, 5 clawed toes Slide 17 WEASELS ERMINE Slide 18 WEASELS Least Weasel Slide 19 WEASELS Long tailed Weasel Slide 20 WEASELS: Diet Consummate Predators: kill and consume wide varieties of prey (including animals larger than themselves) Mice, voles, rats, shrews, snakes, birds, insects Very fast metabolism for size: eat 1/3 body weight every 24 hrs. Keen smell, sight, hearing Slide 21 WEASELS: Biology Aggressive and quick Secretive and wary=difficult to study in nature Delayed implantation: Mate in summer/fall Fertilized egg implants in uterus in spring WHY??? 1.Assures litters arrive when prey is abundant 2.Does not restrict mating to a short period Slide 22 FISHER Size of a house cat 12lbs.-30 lbs. Males 2 times heavier than females Appear black from a distance, really cream underneath; tri-colored hair Slide 23 FISHER: Habitat Climb trees very well: den in holes in the trees, rest in nests, pursue prey Continuous forest areas Slide 24 FISHER: Biology Low population densities and large home ranges: 30 square miles Nocturnal Produce 1 litter per year: 2 or 3 cubs Born and raised in a tree cavity Solitary and opportunistic predators: Snowshoe hare and porcupine RARELY EAT FISH!! Slide 25 FISHER: Population Widely distributed prior to 1800s Timber cutting and unregulated trapping almost eliminated by 1900s Reintroduced to Catskills, WV, PA 1994 PSU and Game Commission released in Allegheny National Forest Slide 26 Slide 27 BOBCAT 336 long with a 6 tail 115-35 lbs. GGrey brown fur, dark spots and bars NNeck and belly white RRuff of fur on ears Slide 28 Bobcat: Habitat Mountains, deep forest, swamp Very elusive, prefer to stay away from people Most common in North Central PA In 2000 estimated pop. was 3500 adults Very restricted hunting/trapping season Slide 29 PA Game Commission Bag Limits BOBCAT (WMUs 2A, 2C, 2E, 2F, 2G, 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, 4A, 4C, 4D and 4E): Jan. 15-Feb. 5. One bobcat per license year, but all licensed furtakers may obtain one permit. Slide 30 Slide 31 Bobcat Eye Adaptation Nocturnal Pupils: slit shaped, open wide Slide 32 Slide 33 Bobcat: Diet Mice, wood rat, shrew, squirrel, chipmunk, bird, rabbit, hare, porcupine, mink, muskrat, fish, frog Sick/injured deer: cover and save carcass Slide 34 Bobcat: Breeding Males can travel up to 20 miles in a single night to find a female Males play no part in raising young Females guard litter; young often killed by males, owls, foxes Mature bobcat has few enemies except man Slide 35 Bobcat: Hunting Adaptations Sharp sight, smell and especially hearing 4 large canines: pierce and hold 5 retractable, hooked claws on front 4 on rear Slide 36 Bobcat: Retractable Claws Slide 37 Red Fox: Appearance Slide 38 Gray Fox: Appearance Slide 39 Red Fox And Gray Fox Canidae family (coyote, wolf, domestic dog, fox) Gray only member of Canidae to climb trees Slide 40 Red Fox and Gray: Biology Males: dogs Females: vixen Young are born in dens underground Both parents care for young Do not hibernate but will use bushy tail to conserve heat in severe weather Slide 41 Red Fox and Gray: Biology Swift runners, can swim Nocturnal Opportunistic predators: mice, rabbits, woodchucks, opossum, cats, chickens, squirrels, fruits, grasses Bury uneaten food in ground Slide 42 Habitat Red: prefers rolling farmland, woods, marshes and streams Gray: heavy woods, rugged, mountains Slide 43 Exit Ticket..To leave this room you must answer these questions. 1. List one surprising new idea you learned about mammalian predators. 2. Name 2 weasels found in PA. 3. See #2. 4. What is the common characteristic shared by the Mustelid family? 5. Name 2 adaptations that help the canines locate prey.