of 88 /88
University of Arkansas, Fayeeville ScholarWorks@UARK eses and Dissertations 5-2012 Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education: Examining the Relationships Between Behaviors and Performance Outcomes for Individuals and Institutions Kevin Jimmy Rose University of Arkansas, Fayeeville Follow this and additional works at: hp://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd Part of the Higher Education Administration Commons , Higher Education and Teaching Commons , and the Organizational Behavior and eory Commons is Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by ScholarWorks@UARK. It has been accepted for inclusion in eses and Dissertations by an authorized administrator of ScholarWorks@UARK. For more information, please contact [email protected], [email protected]. Recommended Citation Rose, Kevin Jimmy, "Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education: Examining the Relationships Between Behaviors and Performance Outcomes for Individuals and Institutions" (2012). eses and Dissertations. 403. hp://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/403

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

  • Upload
    others

  • View
    5

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

Page 1: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

University of Arkansas, FayettevilleScholarWorks@UARK

Theses and Dissertations

5-2012

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in HigherEducation: Examining the Relationships BetweenBehaviors and Performance Outcomes forIndividuals and InstitutionsKevin Jimmy RoseUniversity of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd

Part of the Higher Education Administration Commons, Higher Education and TeachingCommons, and the Organizational Behavior and Theory Commons

This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by ScholarWorks@UARK. It has been accepted for inclusion in Theses and Dissertations byan authorized administrator of ScholarWorks@UARK. For more information, please contact [email protected], [email protected].

Recommended CitationRose, Kevin Jimmy, "Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education: Examining the Relationships Between Behaviors andPerformance Outcomes for Individuals and Institutions" (2012). Theses and Dissertations. 403.http://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/403

Page 2: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS IN HIGHER EDUCATION:

EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORS AND PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES FOR

INDIVIDUALS AND INSTITUTIONS

Page 3: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORS AND PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES FOR

INDIVIDUALS AND INSTITUTIONS

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Education in Workforce Development Education

By

Kevin Rose Oral Roberts University

Bachelor of Science in International Business, 2004 University of Arkansas

Master of Public Administration, 2008

May 2012 University of Arkansas

Page 4: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

Abstract

Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) have been described as employee behaviors that

are not required by job descriptions, are not formally rewarded, and contribute positively to the

organization. Previous research has shown that OCBs are related to both individual and organizational

performance. Given the importance of OCBs to individual and organizational effectiveness, the purpose

for conducting the study was to describe OCBs in the higher education context, describe the relationships

between OCBs and various aspects of faculty and staff performance, and explore the extent to which

institutional leaders should be concerned with the OCBs of both faculty and professional staff. The study

utilized a survey research design to gather information about OCBs in higher education. Both faculty and

staff were selected from eight institutions according to the institution’s performance in research funding

and graduation rates. The findings suggested that staff may exhibit higher levels of OCB than faculty,

that faculty OCBs were correlated with the number of presentations given, student contact hours, and

service on committees, and that staff OCBs were correlated with satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity.

Further, differences in OCB levels existed between high-performing staff and low-performing faculty as

well as staff in low-performing institutions when compared with staff in high-performing institutions and

faculty in low-performing institutions. The results are important for institutional leaders for understanding

the employment relationship for both faculty and staff as well as the relationship between OCBs and

performance of both individuals and institutions.

Page 5: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

This dissertation is approved for recommendation

to the Graduate Council.

Dissertation Director:

_______________________________________

Dr. Michael T. Miller

Dissertation Committee:

_______________________________________

Dr. Kit Kacirek

_______________________________________

Dr. Ketevan Mamiseishvili

Page 6: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

Dissertation Duplication Release

I hereby authorize the University of Arkansas Libraries to duplicate this dissertation when needed for research and/or scholarship.

Agreed _______________________________________

Kevin J. Rose

Refused ______________________________________

Kevin J. Rose

Page 7: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

Acknowledgements

Of all the sections of this dissertation, this is perhaps the most difficult to write. There have been

so many individuals who have given their time, energy, and support to me during this process and I wish

to thank everyone who has contributed to this accomplishment. It has been said that to achieve

something great, we must stand on the shoulders of giants. To everyone who has supported me during

this process: thank you for helping me see further than I could have alone.

I would like to recognize the following individuals in particular:

Dr. Michael Miller – As chair of my dissertation committee, your guidance and advice was of

utmost importance to me. Thank you for your support and encouragement to complete this goal. I

consider it an honor to be counted as one of your many successful doctoral students.

Dr. Kit Kacirek – You have provided me with immeasurable personal, professional, and academic

support. Thank you for helping me think “big picture” and for contributing to my development. You are

my mentor; but more importantly, you are my friend.

Dr. Kate Mamiseishvili – I cannot thank you enough for your advice, clarity, and input on my

research design and methods. Your smile and warm personality are encouraging, even when I was most

frustrated and confused.

My mother and father – Thank you for all of your love and encouragement in everything I do. My

argument was successful and it was marvelous. This work is dedicated to you.

My siblings, Keith, Kristie, and Chance and my friends Robin, Brian, and Debbie – You have been

supportive of me in many things, but especially in my educational endeavors. I hope this accomplishment

inspires you and makes you proud.

Dr. Théres Stiefer – You are the best boss anyone could ask for! Thank you for your consistent

positivity, your calm spirit, and your uplifting nature. I truly could never have done this without you.

Skyler Barry – What is a man without his work-wife? You have always been supportive of me,

especially through this process and I am eternally grateful for your friendship. Remember to include

demographics in your study.

Dr. Greg Fike – You were always willing to help and advise in any way that you could. Thank you

for listening and being a generous colleague.

Page 8: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

Ryan Miller, S.P. – Thank you for teaching me that focus and brevity are skills not easily

acquired. I hope when you are chancellor, you will consider hiring me.

Garrett Johannsen, Kaylin McLoud, and Reed Taylor – Without your assistance, I would never

have completed on time. This dissertation is a reflection of your hard work as well, and I thank each of

you for your willingness to help.

Page 9: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

Table of Contents

Chapter Page

I. INTRODUCTION

Background ..................................................................................................................................... 1

Purpose ........................................................................................................................................... 2

Research Questions ....................................................................................................................... 3

Operational Definitions .................................................................................................................... 3

Assumpions..................................................................................................................................... 4

Limitations and Delimitations .......................................................................................................... 5

Significance of the Study ................................................................................................................ 6

Conceptual Framework ................................................................................................................... 7

Summary of the Chapter ................................................................................................................. 7

I. LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 8

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors ............................................................................................. 8

Defining OCBs ................................................................................................................... 9

Predictors and Correlates ................................................................................................ 11

Satisfaction .......................................................................................................... 11

Fairness .............................................................................................................. 11

Justice ................................................................................................................. 12

Personality and Attitude ...................................................................................... 13

Commitment ........................................................................................................ 14

Leadership .......................................................................................................... 14

Less-studied Constructs ...................................................................................... 15

Effects of OCBs on Performance ..................................................................................... 16

Performance in Higher Education ................................................................................................. 19

Measuring Institutional Performance ................................................................................ 19

Measuring Faculty Performance ...................................................................................... 22

Page 10: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

Summary of the Chapter .................................................................................................. 24

III. RESEARCH METHODS

Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 26

Research Design .......................................................................................................................... 26

Institutional Type .............................................................................................................. 26

Institutional Performance ................................................................................................. 27

Academic Discipline ......................................................................................................... 28

Sample .......................................................................................................................................... 28

Data Collection .............................................................................................................................. 29

Instrument ........................................................................................................................ 29

Data Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 31

Summary of the Chapter ............................................................................................................... 33

IV. RESULTS

Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 34

Summary of the Study .................................................................................................................. 34

Data Results .................................................................................................................................. 36

Data Collection ................................................................................................................. 36

Results ............................................................................................................................. 37

Summary of the Chapter ............................................................................................................... 46

V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of the Study .................................................................................................................. 48

Conclusions................................................................................................................................... 49

Recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 50

For Practice ...................................................................................................................... 50

For Research ................................................................................................................... 51

Discussion ..................................................................................................................................... 52

Summary of the Chapter ............................................................................................................... 53

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 54

Page 11: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

APPENDICES

Appendix A: Faculty OCB and Performance Survey ....................................................... 60

Appendix B: Staff OCB and Performance Survey ........................................................... 66

Appendix C: IRB Approval Letter .................................................................................... 71

Appendix D: Survey Cover Letter .................................................................................... 73

Appendix E: Table 8 ........................................................................................................ 75

!

Page 12: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 1

Chapter 1

Introduction

Background.

Organizations are continually striving to become more successful in terms of financial

performance, product output, or service delivery (Goldberg & Fleming, 2010) and they turn to their

human, physical, and financial capital to search for ways to become more efficient and productive.

Scholars and practitioners alike have found that employees (human resources) have a significant impact

on the success or failure of organizations, and that by properly motivating them to perform, organizations

can see improved metrics of success (Caswell, 2009).

Organizational success, however, is defined differently for different organizations. Success for

corporations may be ultimately defined by profits and shareholder value. In the early 1990s, Kaplan and

Norton (1992) described a systematic method for organizations to measure success through certain

performance indicators. These performance indicators measured organizational success on four levels:

financial, customer, internal business processes, and learning and growth. Although this methodology of

measurement is popular with business and industry, it often does not provide a good fit for higher

education.

Measuring performance in higher education is a difficult endeavor because definitions of success

differ (Harvey & Green, 1993). Financial performance is seldom a good fit to measure performance, as

most institutions are not-for-profit; that is, they must be concerned with procuring and stewarding financial

resources, but do not seek to generate a profit. Identifying customers in the higher education industry is

also difficult as multiple stakeholders play a role in the institution (students, faculty, staff, administrators,

governance bodies, and government agencies, for example). Measuring internal business processes

may provide a slightly better fit for higher education, but institutions engage in such a variety of activities

that this may also be challenging. Learning and growth may also be a better fit for higher education, but

measures for this might need to focus on learning outcomes of students as well as employees.

Regardless of the type of measure used, institutions are increasingly concerned with performance

and accountability (Carey, 2007). This pressure comes from funding agencies and constituents desiring

effective use of scarce resources. Thus, the development of institutional performance indicators has

Page 13: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 2

garnered increased attention in recent years (Harvey & Williams, 2010). Yet defining these performance

indicators, especially indicators common across institutions, proves challenging. Perhaps equally

challenging is determining how to effectively influence performance metrics for positive results. Among

the options for carrying this out is influencing employee behavior and performance. As Nichols (2006)

noted regarding for-profit organizations, “employees are like a fulcrum – they can have a tremendous

effect on sales and profitability, both positive and negative” (para. 2).

Formal job descriptions are one way to guide employee behavior. However, it is also known that

there is more to employee performance than simply carrying out formal job duties (Organ, 1988). Some

activities are undertaken that are not part of employees’ job descriptions, are not rewarded by any formal

systems, and yet still contribute positively to the organization (LePine, Erez, & Johnson, 2002). These

activities, known as organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), have a profound impact on

organizations, teams, and individuals, and investigating them is crucial to understanding social constructs

that lead to organizational and team success (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983).

A good deal of empirical research has been conducted on OCBs in the for-profit sector examining

the antecedents and predictors of such behavior (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983). Such predictors include

employee satisfaction (Lapierre & Hackett, 2007), fairness perceptions (Williams, Pitre, & Zainuba, 2002),

organizational justice (Chiaburu, 2007), personality and attitude (Penner, Midili, & Kegelmeyer, 1997),

employee commitment (Schappe, 1998), and leadership (Deluga, 1994).

Examining OCBs through the lens of higher education may provide fuller understanding of the

employment relationship for faculty and professional staff, as well as provide insight for institutional

leaders.

Purpose.

Research on OCBs has largely taken place with individuals working in non-academic fields such

as manufacturing, retail, and service industries. Deckop, McClendon, and Harris-Pereles (1993)

examined levels of OCBs among university faculty and how unionization of those faculty might affect their

OCBs. Other studies have looked at OCBs within the educational context, albeit in primary and

secondary education (DiPaola & Hoy, 2005; Bragger, Rodriguez-Srednicki, Kutcher, Indovino, & Rosner,

2005). Given the importance of OCBs to individual and organizational effectiveness, the purpose for

Page 14: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 3

conducting the study was to describe OCBs in the higher education context, describe the relationships

between OCBs and various aspects of faculty and staff performance, and explore the extent to which

institutional leaders should be concerned with the OCBs of both faculty and professional staff.

Research questions.

The following research questions were investigated in this study:

1. What is the OCB and performance profile of faculty and staff in select higher education

institutions?

2. How do OCBs correlate with selected individual performance indicators for college faculty

members?

3. How do OCBs correlate with selected individual performance indicators for professional staff

members in higher education?

4. Do significant differences in OCB levels exist between high-performing and low-performing

employees?

5. Do significant differences in OCB levels exist between employees in high-performing institutions

and employees in low-performing institutions?

6. To what extent do the levels of OCBs differ between faculty and professional staff in higher

education across all institutions sampled?

7. To what extent do the levels of OCBs for all employees differ by academic discipline and

institution?

Operational definitions.

1. Organizational citizenship: in organizations, “innovative and spontaneous activity [of employees]

that goes beyond role prescriptions” (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983).

2. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB): “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly

or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the

effective functioning of the organization” (Organ, 1988, p. 4). Examples include assisting

colleagues who have been absent, defending and promoting one’s organization publicly, and

sharing personal property with others at work.

Page 15: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 4

3. Organizational citizenship behaviors – individual (OCBI): OCBs directed at individuals that

indirectly benefit the organization (Williams & Anderson, 1991). Examples include helping

colleagues, welcoming new employees, and listening when others have personal issues to

discuss.

4. Organizational citizenship behaviors – organizational (OCBO): OCBs directed at the organization

in general (Williams & Anderson, 1991). Examples include expressing loyalty to the organization,

attending non-required work functions, and defending the organization from criticism.

5. Institutional performance indicators: measures that are quantifiable, discrete, and can be used in

the management and evaluation of an institution’s effectiveness (examples include graduation

rates and total grant funding).

6. Individual performance indicators: measures that are quantifiable, discrete, and can be used in

the management and evaluation of an individual’s effectiveness (examples include performance

ratings, number of published works, and teaching evaluation scores).

7. Professional staff (or staff): employees in higher education institutions that are not classified

primarily as faculty and that typically hold salaried positions [(e.g. “The administrative/service

positions range from persons performing academic support, student services and institutional

support services to persons whose assignments involve primary and major responsibility for

management of the institution or a department or subdivision thereof.” (Kansas State University,

2011, para. 1)]

8. Faculty: employees in higher education institutions whose primary responsibilities include

teaching, research, or service

9. Academic discipline: a grouping of similar subject matter and knowledge. Although several

taxonomies of disciplines exist, for the purposes of this study I utilized business, education,

engineering, liberal arts, and natural sciences.

Assumptions.

This study accepted the following assumptions:

1. Organizational citizenship is a construct that can be measured quantitatively.

2. Employee performance affects organizational outcomes (including in higher education).

Page 16: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 5

3. The questionnaire used to measure levels of OCB is a reliable instrument.

4. Variables used in this study to indicate faculty performance adequately measure the concept.

5. Variables used in this study to indicate professional staff performance adequately measure the

concept.

6. Variables used in this study to indicate institutional performance adequately measure the

concept.

7. The academic discipline groupings in this study reflect groups that share similar paradigmatic

views regarding the nature of their work relationship.

Limitations and delimitations.

The study accepted the following limitations:

1. Self-report data are often biased in that respondents may report higher levels of behaviors or

attitudes that they deem to be more positive. For example, respondents may underreport

absenteeism and over report productivity.

2. This study only included faculty at the assistant, associate, and full professor level. Adjunct,

visiting, emeritus, and other instructional employees were not included.

3. This study only included staff that were full-time and who were considered professional or

administrative.

4. The final sample size may not allow for generalizability to the population.

5. The nature of staff employment created difficulty in identifying various roles of staff participants

and may have produced a heterogeneous group of respondents. For example, staff titles

included in the study ranged from directors to administrative assistants.

6. The academic disciplines included in this study did not represent all available disciplines in the

institutions sampled, but instead were limited to business, education, engineering, liberal arts,

and natural science. Furthermore, institutions organize disciplines differently which led to some

overrepresentation of certain colleges.

7. The variables used to measure staff performance are not direct measures of performance. Given

the research design, direct measures were not available so the closely related measures of

satisfaction, loyalty, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover intention were used.

Page 17: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 6

8. Measures of institutional performance used in this study (research funding and graduation rates)

are not comprehensive measures of the relative success or failure of an institution.

Significance of the study.

With the increasing call for accountability of higher education, institutional leaders concern

themselves with the effective functioning of the institution. At the highest level, chancellors, trustees, and

presidents may not be concerned with the citizenship behaviors of individuals, but with the effects of

aggregate citizenship behaviors over time. These behaviors have been shown to be connected with

organizational success (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff, & Blume, 2009). Thus, although the highest-level

leaders of institutions may not be concerned with the day-to-day behaviors of faculty and staff, they

certainly may see the aggregate outcomes of their performance.

Provosts and academic officers similarly may not be concerned with the behaviors of individuals,

but with their aggregate performance. It is not yet well understood if OCBs of faculty contribute to

institutional performance given the nature of faculty work. This study may shed some light on this topic

and inform leadership whether this is a construct worth paying attention to regarding faculty performance.

Similarly, those in leadership positions in finance, administration, human resources, and related

areas (or who generally oversee the affairs of staff members) should at least understand that institutional

employees engage in OCBs and that these behaviors may be contributing to the performance of their

institutions. Because professional staff often serve in roles that have more in common with jobs in

business and industry, OCBs may play a clearer role in effecting organizational performance for this

group of employees.

At a more micro level, deans and department heads may be concerned with the behaviors of

individuals and their contributions to school or departmental performance. At least one study has

confirmed a positive relationship between OCBs and group-level performance (Podsakoff, Ahearne, &

MacKenzie, 1997). Additionally, deans and department chairs may find that their jobs are easier with

faculty who exhibit higher levels of OCBs. As Organ (1997) described, OCBs may function to create a

more positive work environment where employees experience less tension.

The same would hold true for professional staff leaders who are responsible for academic and

non-academic units and centers. Additionally, professional staff that engage in higher levels of OCBs will

Page 18: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 7

contribute positively to unit- or group-level performance, where effectiveness is often measured. High

levels of OCB can indicate high levels of other positive workplace constructs, such as perceptions of

fairness and positive attitude.

Lastly, individuals in higher education should be concerned with OCBs if only for the simple

reason that these behaviors lead to more positive relationships with coworkers and supervisors. Again,

OCBs are generally connected with other positive workplace characteristics and may play a role in

fostering positive work environments.

Conceptual framework.

The basis for this study is the understanding that employee behaviors impact organizational

performance in some way. This notion is grounded in social-exchange theory, which posits that

individuals contribute more effort to relationships they deem as positive, and withdraw or withhold effort

from negative relationships (Deluga, 1994). In organizations, this means that employees may work

harder or exhibit more positive behaviors (such as organizational citizenship) in workplaces in which they

are more satisfied. This includes both in-role and extra-role behaviors. Employee efforts or behaviors

(both formal and extra-role) then contribute to organizational performance. Birnbaum (1988) described

social-exchange theory as “one orientation to leadership particularly suited to higher education” (p. 23).

The focus of this study is the behaviors that are not a part of the formal employee role and are not

formally rewarded as such.

Summary of the chapter.

This chapter introduces various aspects of the current study including the research questions,

purpose of the study, limitations and delimitations, and conceptual framework. Organizational citizenship

behaviors have been forwarded as a way of explaining employee extra-role behavior as it relates to

individual and organizational performance. This study seeks to examine this concept further within the

context of higher education. Though there may be certain limitations to the study, the results may still

prove useful for administrators and other leaders in higher education.

Page 19: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 8

Chapter 2

Literature Review

Introduction.

The current study focuses on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) within the context of

higher education and how the behaviors of both faculty and administrators relate to organizational and

individual performance outcomes. The literature review is divided into two primary components: an

examination of research on OCBs and a review of the literature pertaining to performance in higher

education. The review of OCB literature includes a discussion about both the predictors and impacts of

OCBs in organizations. The review of literature on performance in higher education covers how

performance can be defined for institutions as well as individual faculty and individual administrators.

Organizational citizenship behaviors.

Organizations are continually striving to become more successful in terms of financial

performance, product output, or service delivery (Goldberg & Fleming, 2010). Thus, they turn to their

human, physical, and financial capital searching for ways to become more efficient and productive.

Scholars and practitioners alike have known that employees (human resources) have a significant impact

on the success or failure of organizations, and that by properly motivating them to perform, organizations

can see improved metrics of success (Caswell, 2009). The notion of improving organizational success

through employee performance was studied early on by Frederick Taylor who proposed a system “to

increase output by discovering the fastest, most efficient, and least fatiguing production methods”

(Shafritz, Hyde, & Parkes, 2004, p. 4). His theory of how organizations ought to think of employees

became known as scientific management and viewed employees as “cog[s] in the machinery,” (Rosen,

1993, p. 139) efficiently performing their prescribed job duties.

However, there is more to employee performance than simply carrying out formal job duties

(Organ, 1988). Some activities are undertaken that are not part of employees’ job descriptions, are not

rewarded by any formal systems, and yet still contribute positively to the organization (LePine, Erez, &

Johnson, 2002). These activities, known as organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), have a

profound impact on organizations and teams, and investigating them is crucial to understanding social

constructs that lead to organizational and team success (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983).

Page 20: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 9

The construct of OCBs is a recent field of inquiry, taking root with Dennis Organ’s (1988) work,

Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Since then, researchers have begun

to expand the body of knowledge around OCBs and a great deal of empirical research has been devoted

to examining the antecedents and predictors of OCBs (Konovsky & Organ, 1996; Moorman, 1991; Organ,

1997; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1997; Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983).

Though the majority of research examining OCBs has focused on employees in the private

sector, a handful of studies have given attention to OCBs in the educational context, particularly among

secondary teachers and students (see for example, Allison, Voss, & Dryer, 2001; DiPaola & Hoy, 2005;

Jimmieson, Hannam, & Yeo, 2010). However, little research has been conducted regarding OCBs in the

higher education context. Even though some studies have included samples from higher education

employees, these studies have been undertaken to understand the linkages between OCBs and other

constructs rather than understanding OCBs in the work context of higher education.

Defining OCBs.

Organ (1988) defined OCBs as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly

recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective

functioning of the organization” (p. 4). His original definition of the concept included three characteristics:

OCBs are a) discretionary, b) not formally rewarded, and c) have a positive impact on the organization.

Other terms used to describe these types of behaviors among employees have included extra-role

behaviors and pro-social organizational behavior.

Although scholars have debated the issue, OCBs are generally divided into five dimensions:

altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic virtue (LePine, Erez, & Johnson, 2002).

Consensus, however, has not been reached regarding these dimensions and others have described OCB

dimensions as helping behavior, sportsmanship, organizational loyalty, organizational compliance,

individual initiative, civic virtue, and self-development (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine, & Bachrach, 2000).

Further, Williams and Anderson (1991) found operational differences in the dimensions and described

OCBs as consisting of behaviors that focus on the organization (OCB-O) and the individual (OCB-I).

Several years after his book was published, Organ (1997) addressed the issue of construct ambiguity and

Page 21: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 10

many of the questions that scholars had posed about OCBs, including the use of terms and the notion

that no behaviors in the organization go unrewarded (or unpunished) in some way. He wrote:

First, I would suggest that compared to task performance, OCB (now conceived as synonymous with contextual performance) is less likely to be considered an enforceable job requirement, to the extent that such requirements continue to exist in organizations. Second, I would suggest that OCB in its revised definition is less likely than task performance to be regarded by the performer as leading confidently to systemic rewards. (Organ, 1997, p. 91) There are yet others who will debate whether or not OCBs can be as expressely defined as they

are (i.e. extra-role, not formally rewarded, and contribute positively to the organization). OCBs may be

considered by some to be in-role behaviors (i.e. intrinsically part of an individual’s job). Vey and

Campbell (2004) found that employees classified most OCBs as being part of their jobs, rather than as

voluntary, extra-role behaviors. Vigoda-Gadot (2006) also hypothesized that managers and supervisors

could potentially turn OCBs into “compulsory citizenship behaviors” (p. 78) by requiring those behaviors of

subordinates and later supported this theory by showing that some employees felt pressured to engage in

behaviors traditionally thought of as OCBs (Vigoda-Gadot, 2007). Although further research is needed on

the topic, the notion that OCBs may not be considered by some employees to be “extra-role” could

potentially change the construct entirely. Yet, most researchers do consider OCBs as discretionary

(Williams & Anderson, 1991).

Most scholars believe that OCBs fall into the category of “extra-role” behaviors, or those

behaviors that are not part of a formal job description or work role (Chughtai, 2008). Extra-role behaviors

include both OCBs and those behaviors employees engage in that are counterproductive and negatively

impact the organization, such as retaliation, revenge, and aggression (Miles, Borman, Spector, & Fox,

2002). Although some may argue that counterproductive behaviors exist on a continuum (with OCBs at

the opposite end), empirical evidence indicates that OCBs are a separate and distinct construct from

negative workplace behaviors (Kelloway, Loughlin, Barling, & Nault, 2002). These two concepts are

related, but correlates and predictors differ. For example, Miles, Borman, Spector, and Fox (2002) found

that positive emotions in the workplace tend to produce more OCBs while negative emotions are

associated with counterproductive behavior. Further research has strengthened the claim that these two

sets of behaviors are separate constructs with differing predictors, and even indicate that these behaviors

can be simultaneously exhibited by the same individual (Sackett, Berry, Wiemann, & Laczo, 2006).

Page 22: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 11

Predictors and correlates.

Satisfaction.

A great deal of research has been devoted to both the predictors and correlates of OCBs,

primarily using correlational studies. One of the primary fields of investigation has been that of job

satisfaction. Williams and Anderson (1991) found support for job satisfaction as a predictor of OCBs, and

it has also been shown that postive relationships with supervisors can increase job satisfaction, which in

turn increases the prevalence of OCBs (Lapierre & Hackett, 2007). Personality may also play a role,

albeit limited, in predicting both job satisfaction and OCBs (Organ & Lingl, 1995). In a study of military

personnel, Turnipseed and Murkison (2000) found that satisfaction specifically with the organization

(rather than pay, the job, or other employees) contributed to higher instances of OCBs. Industrial workers

who engage in OCBs also tend to have greater job satisfaction, indicating a reciprocal relationship

between OCBs and satisfaction (Gyekye & Salminen, 2005). Job satisfaction has also been found to be

a mediating variable between job variety, job significance, and OCBs (Chiu & Chen, 2005). Other

research points in the same direction: that there is a positive link between job satisfaction and OCBs

(Bragger, Rodriguez-Srednicki, Kutcher, Indovino, & Rosner, 2005; Todd & Kent, 2006). However,

contrary evidence is available as others have shown that job satisfaction is not a significant predictor of

OCBs when measured with justice and organizational commitment (Schappe, 1998). This indicated that

OCBs ought to be viewed as being influenced by many different factors at once, including both internal

and external forces.

Fairness.

Research has focused on correlating the various dimensions of OCBs with other constructs.

Deluga (1994) found that supervisor fairness (as a dimension of supervisor trust) significantly correlates

with the OCB dimensions of conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and altruism, but not civic

virtue. In a survey of 154 healthcare workers, Johnson, Truxillo, Erdogan, Bauer, and Hammer (2009)

found that organizational fairness correlated with higher OCB-Is (behaviors directed at individuals) while

departmental fairness correlated with higher OCB-Os (behaviors directed at the organization). Further,

their study also showed that high quality (positive) leader-member exchanges increased the likelihood of

courtesy, conscientiousness, altruism, and sportsmanship behaviors (Johnson, Truxillo, Erdogan, Bauer,

Page 23: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 12

& Hammer, 2009). To show these connections, a survey instrument that measured perceptions of

organizational fairness, departmental fairness, and leader-member exchange quality was distributed to

employees. Employee OCB levels were measured using surveys distributed to supervisors throughout

the organization.

Although fairness is an important antecedent of OCBs, the type of fairness perception is

important to consider. Employees may judge fairness at the organizational level, with other employees,

with processes of the organization, or with their supervisors. In their study of distributive fairness, formal

procedural fairness, and interactional fairness, Williams, Pitre, and Zainuba (2002) surveyed 114

employees from a variety of industries and found that “employees who believed that they personally were

treated fairly by their supervisors also reported that they were significantly more likely to exhibit

citizenship behaviors” (p. 41). Their study showed statistically significant, positive correlations between

all three types of fairness perceptions studied and OCBs. Moore and Love compared levels of fairness

perceptions, trust, and OCBs among different work groups and found that lower levels of trust and

fairness correlated with lower levels of OCBs. Specifically, they found that

in sum, the IT [information technology] workers in this sample had significantly lower perceptions than non-IT counterparts of management trust, and of how fairly and respectfully policies and procedures were enacted. These lower perceptions contributed to lower levels of citizenship behaviors (Moore & Love, 2005, p. 91). Justice.

A highly related theme that has also been studied is justice and equity in the workplace context

and its effects on OCBs. Justice takes many forms in an organization, such as interactional justice.

Interactional justice, when supervisors treat subordinates fairly, is “an important precursor of citizenship

behaviors” (Chiaburu, 2007, p. 219). Such perceptions of justice are important to employees and these

perceptions can increase the quality of relationships between supervisors and subordinates. Because

these relationships improve in quality, employees are more likely to exhibit OCBs, even behaviors

targeted at the organization (OCBOs) (Burton, Sablynski, & Sekiguchi, 2008). Previous research has

also found that although individuals react differently to perceptions of justice within an organization,

overall higher prevelance of justice increases employee OCBs (Blakely, Andrews, & Moorman, 2005). To

determine these findings, surveys that measured OCBs, equity sensitivity, and justice perceptions were

distributed to full time employees enrolled in an MBA program. The sample of 114 respondents indicated

Page 24: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 13

a significant and positive (r=.26) correlation between OCBs and justice perceptions. A related construct,

equity sensitivity (how individuals react to unplanned or unfair events), can determine how an employee

might react to a sense of psychological contract breach by the organizaiton (an injustice). When an

injustice was perceived, employees typically responded by withdrawing OCBs (Blakely, Andrews, &

Moorman, 2005; Kickul & Lester, 2001).

Personality and attitude.

Employees’ beliefs about themselves, their personalities, and their attitudes towards the

organization naturally have an impact on the display of OCBs. Early theoretical models were built around

the idea that both attitude and personality as well as organizational factors contribute to OCBs. Further,

Penner, Midili, and Kegelmeyer (1997) theorized that these concepts can lead to high levels of OCBs that

eventually give rise to the creation of a “citizen role identity” (p. 127). Employee perceptions of fairness,

justice, trust, leadership capability, and a host of other environmental factors contribute to exmployees’

positive or negative attitudes and emotions. These emotions are then manifest, at least in part, through

the display of either OCBs (associated with positive attitude) or counterproductive behaviors (associated

with negative attitude) (Miles, Borman, Spector, & Fox, 2002). In a study that surveyed 117 temporary

employees’ OCBs, their attitudes towards their staffing organization, and their attitudes towards their

client organization, Moorman and Harland (2002) found that positive employee attitudes towards both the

staffing organization and the client organization correlated positively (at r=.20 or higher) with higher

instances of OCBs for those employees as measured by their supervisors. In a similar, but more specific

study, employees with attitudes or personalities that included pro-social values and organizational

concern contributed to both OCBIs and OCBOs. Conversely, attitudes of self-enhancement showed little

relation to OCBs in general (Finkelstein & Penner, 2004).

Organizational members who are high self-monitors, that is, they modify their behavior based on

social cues from others, tend to exhibit higher OCBs directed at individuals, but not toward the

organization (Blakely, Andrews, & Fuller, 2003). Blakely, Andrews, and Fuller’s longitudinal study

provided evidence that these attitude-OCB interactions persist over time. A similar study indicated that

an individual with a conscientious personality, defined as someone who is concerned with dependability,

reliability, and carefulness for example, was a positive predictor of the compliance dimension of OCBs

Page 25: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 14

(Organ & Lingl, 1995). In looking at what psychologists call the “big five” personality dimensions

(openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability), Sackett, Berry,

Wiemann, and Laczo (2006) found evidence that OCBs can be predicted by the agreeableness,

openness, extraversion, and conscientiousness personalities. Related to this, Vey and Campbell’s (2004)

study regarding the in-role versus extra-role nature of OCBs showed that those with emotional stability

personalities regarded OCBs as truly extra-role behavior. Other research has shown a connection

between conscientiousness, agreeableness, and value for achievement (an additional personality

dimension) to be strongly correlated with all five OCB dimensions (Neuman & Kickul, 1998). Thus, there

is strong evidence to support connections between certain personality dispositions, attitudes, and OCBs.

Commitment.

A useful definition of organizational commitment is “the relative strength of an individual’s

identification with and involvement in an organization” (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979, p. 226 as cited in

Schappe, 1998). Schappe (1998) examined organizational commitment along with job satisfaction and

justice as predictors of OCBs and found that only organizational commitment is a significant predictor of

OCBs. Conversely, Williams and Anderson (1991) found little support for commitment as a strong

predictor of OCBs. In a study of school teachers, contradictory evidence was presented that showed that

permanently employed teachers had higher organizational commitment that led to increased OCBs

(Feather & Rauter, 2004). In a holistic study of military personnel, commitment was also found to

contribute positively to the engagement of OCBs (Turnipseed & Murkison, 2000). In yet another study of

teachers, Bragger, Rodriguez-Srednicki, Kutcher, Indovino, and Rosner (2005) found that OCBs were

positively correlated with organizational commitment. Though contradictory evidence exists, a greater

amount of empirical data have shown that organizational commitment and OCBs are significantly and

positively related.

Leadership.

A few investigations have looked into the relationship between OCBs and the concept of leader-

member exchange with emphasis on its mediational nature. Leader-member exchange theory postulates

that the relationship between a supervisor and subordinate is negotiated over time and can either be high

quality (typified by trust, loyalty, influence, and support) or low quality (adequate performance by

Page 26: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 15

subordinates with standard benefits of employment) (Deluga, 1994). Deluga (1994) found evidence for a

positive relationship between high quality leader-subordinate relationships and OCBs. Lapierre and

Hackett (2007) refined this relationship between high quality leader-member exchanges and OCB

showing that the relationship is more reciprocal. That is, high-quality leader-member exchanges

influence OCBs and OCBs also create higher quality leader-member exchanges. In a study examining

OCBs and these supervisor-employee relationships, it was found that “when an individual perceives a

good quality relationship with his/her supervisor and sees the formal procedures of the organization as

fair, he/she goes above and beyond his/her ‘normal’ duties by helping the organization in any way he/she

can” (Burton, Sablynski, & Sekiguchi, 2008, p. 57). A high quality relationship between the supervisor

and employee has also been shown to mitigate feelings of uncertainty and unfairness and helps maintain

higher levels of OCB-O (Johnson, Truxillo, Erdogan, Bauer, & Hammer, 2009). While studying a major

collegiate athletic department, Kent and Chelladurai (2001) also found a positive relationship between

OCBs and leader-member exchanges.

Less-studied constructs.

Aside from the major areas of research for OCBs, a handful of studies have focused on other

constructs such as altruism, feedback, or mood. For example, one study linked altruism (concern for the

wellbeing of others and acting to benefit them) with OCBs, but showed little significant connection

between OCBs and all but one aspect of employee burnout (diminished personal accomplishment),

despite significant past research that supported the opposite hypothesis (Emmerik, Jawahar, & Stone,

2005). These findings were somewhat consistent with the findings of Chiu and Miao-Ching (2006) who

showed that OCBs have a negative relationship with the burnout dimensions of emotional exhaustion and

diminished personal accomplishment, but not depersonalization. Employee emotional strain, which may

include aspects of burnout, also has a negative relationship with OCBs (Chang, Johnson, & Yang, 2007).

Although most research has been conducted between one and three constructs in relation to

OCBs, one study (Turnipseed & Murkison, 2000) focused on several more issues in relation to OCBs.

The results of this study showed a positive connection between OCBs and autonomy, job clarity,

supervisor support, relationships with peers, and even a pleasant physical environment among other

variables already dicussed. Chiu and Chen (2005) found a positive relationship between job significance,

Page 27: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 16

job variety and OCBs, but contrary to others found no significant relationships between OCBs and

autonomy, feedback, and job interdependence. Contrary evidence was found to support a positive

conection between OCBs and job feedback (Vigoda-Gadot & Angert, 2007).

Effects of OCBs on performance.

In Organ’s (1988) original theoretical construct, he proposed that OCBs, when considered over

time, impact organizational success. However, the bulk of empirical research on the topic of OCBs has

foucsed on their predictors and correlates rather than their consequenes (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff,

& Blume, 2009). As the OCB concept has become more well-understood, recent inquiry has attempted to

examine correlations between OCBs and organiational performance. For example, Podsakoff, Ahearne,

and MacKenzie (1997) postulated that OCBs enhance organizational productivity by

• reducing the need to devote resources to maintenance functions and freeing up these resources

for more productive purposes

• enhancing coworker or managerial productivity

• serving as a way to coordinate activities between team members and groups

• enhancing the organization’s employee retention by making it a more attractive place to work.

Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1997) conducted a meta-analysis of the research available at that

time regarding OCBs and organizational performance. Their review only included four articles, but

generally reported support for the notion that OCBs positively effect organizational performance. For

example, in one of the articles included in their analysis, a study was conducted with employees in a

limited-menu restaurant (Walz & Niehoff, 1996). Results from this study show a significant, positive

relationship between helping behavior and several objective measures of performance (e.g. efficiency,

reduced costs) as well as significant, negative relationships between sportsmanship and civic virtue with

other measures of performance (e.g. percentage of waste, number of complaints). In another study in

this analysis, Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1994) found positive correlations between the unit-level

effectivess of sales teams and most forms of citizenship behaviors. Helping behavior, in this context, was

found to be negatively associated with unit-level performance.

Chahal and Mehta (2010) summarized the findings of other studies in framing OCBs as an

important consideration for the healthcare industry. Their synopsis stressed the importance of OCBs’

Page 28: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 17

impact on reduced absenteeism, reduced turnover, and employee satisfaction and loyalty. Noting the

relationship between OCB and these performance factors, Chahal and Mehta (2010) said that

“organizational citizenship behavior has been recognized as a key factor to organizational performance”

(p. 29). Specific examples of research linking performance and OCBs follows.

Messersmith, Patel, and Lepak (2011) conducted a study examining the effects of high

performance work systems on organizational performance. The sample included 1,755 subjects working

in governmental offices in the United Kingdom. Included in this study were measures of OCB. Their

findings indicated that work systems “enhanced citizenship-related behavior that in turn work to enhance

performance” (Messersmith, Patel, & Lepak, 2011, p. 9). While the correlation coeficient for OCBs and

performance in this study was fairly weak (!=.318), it still indicated a positive relationship between OCBs

and organizational performance outcomes.

Other researchers have attempted to clarify this relationship. Ozer (2011) tested the relationship

between OCBs and performance by positing that the quality of team members’ social exchanges (called

TMX) mediated the relationship between OCBs and performance. He also hypothesized that autonomy

would moderate the relationships between OCBs and team member exchange. His findings indicated

that team member exchanges mediated the relationship between OCBIs and performance but not

OCBOs and performance (Ozer, 2011). This study provided further evidence that OCBs indeed impact

organizational performance outcomes.

Another meta-analysis conducted by Whitman, Van Rooy, and Viswesvara (2010) looked at the

relationship between job satisfaction, OCBs, and organizational performance. The analysis included 60

studies for a total of 5,849 work units that were surveyed. The authors found that “OCB significantly

predicted performance even after controlling for job satisfaction” (Whitman, Van Rooy, & Viswesvaran,

2010, p. 62). However, contrary to other research, little evidence was found that OCBs had a mediating

effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and performance. Again, evidence shows that the

positive relationship between OCBs and organizational performance may be more than intuitive.

Organizations measure effectiveness and success in different ways. In the service industry,

performance can be measured by levels of customer satisfaction. To test the relationship between

customer satisfaction and OCBs, Nishii, Lepak, and Schneider (2008) surveyed 4,208 employees in 95

Page 29: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 18

supermarket stores (all from the same company). Although their study divided OCBs into somewhat

different constructs as other studies (OCB-helping and OCB-conscientiousness), they found a significant,

positive relationship (!=.54) between OCB-helping behaviors and customer satisfaction. The relationship

between OCB-conscientiousness and customer satisfaction was non-significant. This supports the notion

that OCBs may impact organizational effectiveness as measured by customer satisfaction levels.

Several studies have narrowed the scope of their research to specific work contexts. For

example, Podsakoff, Ahearne, and MacKenzie (1997) surveyed 218 employees in a paper mill regarding

their helping behavior, sportsmanship, and civic virtue. They then compared these ratings to the quality

and quantity of work groups’ production output. Their results showed positive and significant

relationships between the OCB dimensions of sportsmanship and helping behavior and the performance

indicator of quantity of paper produced. The helping behavior dimension was negatively and significantly

correlated with the amount of paper rejected because of defects. The civic virtue dimension was not

significantly related to either quantity or quality of production.

Finally, a recent meta-analysis of research on the consequences of OCBs looked at the

relationship between citizenship behaviors and individual as well as organizational performance

outcomes. Most of the research included in the analysis focused on individual-level performance

outcomes (168 samples). Unit-level outcomes received slightly less attention with 38 samples included

(Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff, & Blume, 2009). They hypothesized that OCBs were related to both

individual performance indicators and organizational performance indicators. A summary of their findings

is included in Table 1. Overall, support was found for the notion that OCBs are related to both individual

and organizational outcomes. Further, as the authors noted, “Thus, it appears that one concrete way for

managers to enhance organizational performance is by encouraging employees to exhibit OCBs”

Posdakoff et. al (2009, p. 132).

Page 30: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 19

Performance in higher education

Over the past two to three decades, increased emphasis has been given to ensuring the

accountability of higher education, especially for public institutions. The impetus for this stems from the

need for governments to allocate scarce resources effectively (Liefner, 2003). Additionally, policymakers

struggle for ways to equitably distribute allocated funds to the various higher education institutions in a

particular state. These issues inevitably lead to a discussion around accountability and performance

indicators for higher education.

Measuring institutional performance.

Defining what quality and performance mean is a difficult endeavor. As Harvey and Lee

commented, “quality is relative to the user of the term and the circumstances in which it is invoked”

(Harvey & Green, 1993, p. 10). The quality of an institution will be determined differently by its various

stakeholders including its students, faculty and staff, the public, accrediting bodies, and government

agencies to name a few. Further, quality is contextual and will vary by institutional mission (e.g.

community college versus a research institution) and other factors (Alexander, 2000). A consequence of

the debate over the definition and meaning of quality is that the mechanisms by which quality are

measured also largely go undefined (Liefner, 2003). These performance indicators may also differ by

institutional characteristic, but may typically include such factors as graduation rates, enrollment, diversity

Table 1 Summary of findings from Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff, and Blume (2009)

Individual-Level Outcomes

rc

Managers’ Ratings of Employee Performance .60 Rewards Allocated to Employees .57 Employee Turnover -.14 Employee Turnover Intentions -.22 Employee Absenteeism -.16

Organizational-Level Outcomes Overall Effectiveness .37

Productivity .37 Efficiency .40 Costs -.52 Profitability .15

Customer Satisfaction .23 Group- or Unit-Level Turnover -.22

Note. Rc = average correlation coefficient corrected for measurement and sampling error

Page 31: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 20

of student and employee body, graduate employment, research productivity, and level of grant and

private funding (Harvey & Green, 1993; McLendon & Hearn, 2006).

Over time, there has been an evolution in the meaning of accountability for colleges and

universities (Harvey & Green, 1993). Traditionally, institutions had self-monitored issues of quality and

accountability with little involvement from external agencies. Accountability in recent decades has shifted

to an externally monitored control mechanism (Huisman & Currie, 2004). Performance indicators have

also shifted in many cases from inputs (e.g. enrollment) and efficiencies (e.g. student-teacher ratios) to

include outcomes as well (e.g. graduation rates) (McLendon & Hearn, 2006). Yet there is still no

consistent definition of quality in higher education and as Harvey and Williams (2010) noted, “national

performance indicators are viewed with suspicion especially when they simply measure the easily

measurable, rather than being carefully designed to evaluate the underlying issue” (p. 25).

A simultaneous and related discussion has taken place in higher education regarding what some

scholars refer to as the “corporate university” (p. 5) whereby educational interests are being supplanted

by corporate ideologies of efficiency, performance, and the bottom line (Giroux & Myrsiades, 2001). This

has a heavy bearing on issues of accountability and performance and what measures of performance are

rewarded and encouraged (Giroux, 2001). These scholars argue that forcing business values onto higher

education strips the institution of its inherent purpose and meaning, leaving behind such notions as

teaching civic and social responsibility for teaching job skills alone. The issue of the corporatization of

higher education merits consideration as many colleges and universities have increasingly turned to the

private sector for funding. The business world, in turn, looks for “good investments” of their resources in

quality institutions (Washburn, 2005).

Thus, a discussion around defining and measuring the quality of higher education has taken

place not only in academic circles, but also in the public and private arena. Public institutions of higher

education must compete against secondary and post-secondary education, social welfare programs, and

health care for public funding provided by the government (Serban, 1998). This competition necessitates

a process by which government officials can effectively allocate scarce resources to bring the greatest

value. This brings about the need for performance indicators and performance funding (Serban, 1998).

Moreover, as Bogue (1998) noted,

Page 32: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 21

!a well-conceived profile of performance indicators allows an educational program, an institution, or a system of institutions to offer an operational expression of its quality, to satisfy simultaneously the calls of improvement and accountability, and to enhance its decision capacity (p. 14).

The question still remains, however, as to what performance indicators are appropriate for higher

education and if, indeed, those indicators are a true measure of institutional quality. Some indicators are

mandated of universities while others are voluntarily given and these indicators can range from graduate

job placement rates to student satisfaction to funding amounts for research (Burke, 2003). Many states

have now mandated performance reporting for institutions, but criteria vary from state to state. In many

states, performance indicators are becoming linked to funding levels. Several different views of potential

performance indicators for higher education are listed below.

Table 2 Suggested Performance Indicators for Higher Education Institutions

Bogue (1998)

Umayal and Suganthi (2010)

Burke (2003)

McLendon and Hearn (2006)

Enrollment trends Pedagogy enhancement

Funding Student retention and graduation rates

Student performance on admissions exams

Technology leadership

Affordability Undergraduate access

Retention and graduation rates

Quality-driven process College/school collaboration

Measures of institutional efficiency

Student and alumni satisfaction

Upgrading curriculum Participation Student scores on licensure exams

Teaching and learning skills

Articulation Job placement rates

Enhancing facilities Completion Faculty productivity Reputation of the

institution among the public

Degree attainment Campus diversity

Placement of students Job placement Quality of faculty Sponsored research Good citizenship Student development Increased grants and

contracts

Resource accountability

Increased revenue streams

Budgeting Shin (2010), on the other hand, argued that institutional performance could be measured by two

main criteria: teaching and research. Teaching is comprised of measures such as graduation rates,

alumni satisfaction, transfer rates, and licensure test scores with graduation rates as “the most widely

Page 33: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 22

adopted performance indicator” (Shin, 2010, p. 52). Research can be measured by total number of

publications, total number of citations, and total amounts of external grant funding with grant funding as

the most accepted indicator of research productivity (Shin, 2010).

Measuring faculty performance.

The concept of faculty work performance has received considerable attention in the literature and

rightly so. Hardre and Cox (2009) described faculty performance as “critical to the health of institutions of

higher education and to the education of citizens” (p. 383). Indeed, employee performance in any

organization contributes to the success or failure of that organization (Yu, Hamid, Ijab, & Soo, 2009).

However, there is disagreement regarding what measures should be used to evaluate faculty

performance and these measures may differ based on institutional mission and control (public versus

private) (Rosenfeld & Long, 1992).

Criteria for measuring faculty productivity or performance typically fall into three categories:

research, teaching, and service. Different institutions will put more or less emphasis on a given category

depending on the institution’s mission and goals. Hardre and Cox (2009) examined the evaluation

policies of 62 academic departments in research universities in the United States. Their aim was to

determine the relative weights that departments assign the three categories of evaluation (research,

teaching, and service). Although not all departments quantify the weightings, Hardre and Cox found that

71% of the departments they surveyed give research higher priority than teaching. Additionally, 98% of

departments placed service as least critical in faculty evaluations.

Rosenfeld and Long (1992) described a detailed system of faculty evaluation used in a research

university. The rubric they outlined was developed and adopted by a department of 15 faculty members

and was used to determine merit pay adjustments for faculty. A partial listing of the criteria is included in

Table 3.

Page 34: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 23

Table 3 Faculty Performance Criteria (Rosenfeld and Long, 1992)

Criteria

Examples

Assigned Weight

Research 0.45 Publications and papers Scholarly books

Articles in journals Chapter in edited book Book review Research award Editor of a journal

Festival, production, and performance work Festival production Production tour Performances Script adaptations

Grants Federal grant State or local grant University grant Multi-year funding

Teaching 0.35 Textbooks and related works Advanced-level text

Beginning-level text Edited book Workbook Editor of a journal

Class-related activity Teaching fellowship/chair Teaching awards Class evaluation New course development TA supervision

Thesis work Thesis director Thesis committee member

Critical work Major or minor critic Other activities Invited visiting professor

Conference attendance

Service 0.20 National, regional, or state organizations Officer

Chairperson Member Program planner

Departmental service Associate chairperson Committee chairperson Member of a committee Director of graduate or undergraduate studies

University service Committee chair or member Sponsor of campus organization Invited, on-campus lecture

Production work Festival director Conference director

Other service Program reviewer Service award Workshop conductor Unpaid consultation

Page 35: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 24

Evaluation of faculty performance has particular import for the tenure and promotion process. In

his study on criteria to measure faculty productivity, Fairweather (2002) noted:

Other than hiring new faculty members, the principal expression of academic values about faculty work lies in the promotion and tenure decision. It is here rather than in institutional rhetoric that the faculty seek clues about the value of different aspects of their work. It is here that productivity is most meaningfully defined and evaluated. (p. 27).

His framework for assessing faculty performance consisted of several criteria in the areas of research and

teaching and included:

• Research productivity

o Number of refereed publications during the last two years

o Principal investigator on an externally-funded research project

o Total research funds generated

o Number of conference presentations or workshops during the last two years

o Number of exhibitions or performances during the last two years

• Instructional productivity

o Student classroom contact hours per semester

o Independent study contact hours per week

o Number of thesis or dissertation committees served on

o Use of collaborative or active learning as the primary instructional approach in any course

taught over the previous year

In his study, he compared mean scores in each of the areas above for faculty across different four-year

institutions and different academic disciplines. His data were gathered from the National Survey of

Postsecondary Faculty, which yielded a sample of 7,835 tenure-track faculty from various four-year

institutions (Fairweather, 2002).

Summary of the chapter.

Organizational citizenship behaviors include behaviors that are not included in an employee’s job

description, go formally unrewarded, and contribute positively to the organization. Other studies have

shown that OCBs may be positively related to employee and organizational performance. Although it is

difficult to define performance for faculty, staff, and institutions, some measures may provide good

Page 36: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 25

indicators of the relative impact of an individual or an organization. For faculty, these include research

productivity, teaching load, and amount of service. Staff performance measures are more difficult to

pinpoint, but like employees in other industries, may include measures such as satisfaction, loyalty,

productivity, absenteeism, and turnover intention. Finally, institutional performance indicators are varied,

but two commonly used measures of performance are graduation rates and total research funding (Shin,

2010).

Page 37: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 26

Chapter 3

Research Methods

Introduction.

The purpose for conducting the study was to describe OCBs in the higher education context,

describe the relationships between OCBs and various aspects of faculty and staff performance, and

explore the extent to which institutional leaders should be concerned with the OCBs of both faculty and

professional staff. Research on OCBs has typically focused on predictors of behaviors using samples

from business and industry, not higher education. Recent research on OCBs has also examined the

connection between these behaviors and individual and organizational performance. Utilizing the

literature on both OCBs and higher education, an instrument was developed to measure levels of OCB

among faculty and professional staff in both high-performing and low-performing instittutions, as defined

in this study.

Non-experimental, quantitative methods were used to answer each of the research questions.

This chapter discuses the sample that was chosen, explains the research design, and explains data

collection and analysis.

Research design.

Non-experimental, quantitative methods were used to gather data about the OCB levels of faculty

and staff in various disciplines in high-performing and low-performing insitutions. According to Creswell

(2008), quantitative methods are useful for research “in which trends or explanations need to be made”

(p. 62) and are ideal for comparing groups of individuals to each other. Furthermore, past research on

OCBs has largely tended to be quantitative. Thus, utilizing quantitative methods for this study would

allow the results to be compared more easily to previous studies.

Institutional type.

The first stage of stratification included identifying the type of instittuion to be included in the

study. In order to to allow for better comparison of results, only universities classified as doctoral-granting

institutions by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching were included in the study.

Carnegie classifications are a widely used system of classifying institutions based on a variety of

Page 38: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 27

characteristics (Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 2011). Doctoral-granting

universities are defined by the Carnegie Foundation as including:

institutions that awarded at least 20 research doctoral degrees during the update year (excluding doctoral-level degrees that qualify recipients for entry into professional practice, such as the JD, MD, PharmD, DPT, etc.). Excludes Special Focus Institutions and Tribal Colleges (p. 1).

Institutions were narrowed down even further within this stratum to include only doctoral institutions with

very high research activity (RU/VH). From this list, I selected eight universities classified as RU/VH. The

method for selecting the specific institutions is described below.

Institutional performance differences.

Institutions were also divided into high-performing and low-performing categories based on two

criteria: total amount of research funding received and graduation rates. Four universities were

considered high-performing and four universities were considered low-performing. Data for research

funding were gathered from the National Science Foundation WebCASPAR database (National Science

Foundation, 2010). WebCASPAR is a useful source of data because the resource “emphasizes S&E

[science and engineering], but its data resources also provide information on non-S&E fields and higher

education in general” (National Science Foundation, 2010). The specific dats source utilized to gather

information about research funding was the NSF Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at

Universities and Colleges for the 2009 reporting year. Variables included in the requested database were

the name of the institution, institutional control, total academic R&D expenditures, and total non-S&E

academic R&D expenditures.

After removing all private institutions, a total of 400 public institutions remained in the data set.

Then, the total academic expenditures and total non-S&E academic expenditures were summed for each

institution to create a new variable called total research funding. Mean total research funding for

institutions included in this data set was $98,362,920 per institution. According to Shin (2010), institutions

with higher than average research funding may be considered high-performing. Institutions were ordered

according to total research funding. Of the 400 institutions in the data set, 98 received greater than

average funding.

Page 39: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 28

Institutions were also ranked according to graduation rates as reported in IPEDS. The mean

graduation rate was calculated. Again, Shin (2010) indicated that institutions with higher than average

graduation rates may be considered high-performing.

Differences in academic discipline.

To test for differences among different academic disciplines across institutions, subjects were

also categorized by generic academic areas. The following disciplines were selected, as they were

common across the universities involved in the study: business, education, engineering, liberal arts, and

natural sciences. Because institutions organize disciplines somewhat differently, some faculty and staff

were sampled from the same college at one institution but resided in different colleges at another

institution. For example, universities often housed both liberal arts disciplines and natural sciences

disciplines in one college of arts and sciences. This was not true across the board, however, as other

institutions maintained different colleges or schools for each.

Sample.

This study utilized a multi-stage, stratified sampling level at the individual level of

measurement. According to Creswell (2008), stratified sampling can be useful for researchers who wish

to include certain characteristics in the sample. Thus, from the entire population of higher education

employees, individuals were selected for certain characteristics according to the aims of the research

questions. The first stage of stratification included identifying the type of institution to be included in the

study. In this case, only public universities classified as having very high research activity were included.

The second stage involved selecting institutions based on institutional performance. Four high-

performing and four low-performing universities were selected for inclusion in the study. The third stage

of stratification was to select participants based on academic discipline. The fourth stage of stratification

classified respondents by type of employment (faculty or staff).

Participants were selected from research universities with a status of RU/VH according to the

Carnegie Classification system. Specific institutions were chosen based on two factors: total research

funding and graduation rates. According to Shin (2010), both of these factors are useful, albeit not

comprehensive, in determining the performance of an institution. Four universities considered high-

performing and four universities considered low-performing were selected for inclusion in the study. To

Page 40: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 29

test for possible differences between academic disciplines, participants were grouped according to

college, school, or discipline. Academic disciplines not represented at all institutions (agriculture, for

example) were excluded from this study. Five academic disciplines were chosen for inclusion in the

study: business, education, engineering, liberal arts, and natural sciences. Publicly available faculty and

staff email addresses were collected from each institution’s website. A total of 15 faculty addresses and

15 staff addresses were collected within each discipline at each institution. If more than 15 email

addresses were available, only the first 15 (when sorted alphabetically) were collected.

Data collection.

Surveys were distributed electronically to each of the participants selected for the study. The

distibution occurred in three phases to account for periods of time when faculty and staff may be absent

from the office (e.g. spring break). An email was sent to one-third of the list with a reminder email one

week after the initial contact. A week later, the second-third of the email list was contacted with a

reminder one week later. The last-third of the list was then emailed the survey with a final reminder one

week afterewards.

Instrument.

Research Question One: What is the OCB and performance profile of faculty and staff in select

higher education institutions?

OCB Level – OCB level was measured using Lee and Allen’s (2002) OCB Measures Survey.

This survey consisted of eight questions measuring OCBs directed towards individuals (OCBIs) and eight

questions measuring OCBs directed at the organization (OCBOs). The authors reported reliability levels

of .83 for the OCB-I scale and .88 for the OCB-O scale.

Institutional Performance – This variable was calculated based on the instiution’s graduation rate

as well as the institution’s total research funding. Data on federal grant funding for 2010 was obtained

from the National Science Foundation Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development on the

WebCASPAR website. Only funding data from institutions in the classifications described in the study

were included. Mean research funding was calculated and institutions with grant funding greater than the

mean were considered high performing. Graduation rates were obtained from the National Center for

Education Statistics. Mean graduation rates were calculated and a school was considered high

Page 41: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 30

performing if total federal research funding and graduation rates were above the mean. Conversely, a

school was considered below-average performing if both its research funding and graduation rates were

below the mean. Table 4 depicts the decision matrix for this variable.

Table 4 Institutional Performance Matrix

Below average graduation rate

Above average graduation rate

Below average research funding Low-performing Average-performing Above average research funding Average-performing High-performing

College or school – Disciplines are organized differently at different institutions, so only the most

common colleges or schools were included in the study. Those common to all institutions in this study

were: business, education, engineering, liberal arts, and natural sciences.

Faculty performance – Faculty performance was measured by twelve variables take from the

National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Research productivity

was made up of variables such as number of refereed journal articles published in the past year, total

research funds generated over the past year, and number of conference presentations or workshops in

the past year. Instructional productivity consisted of measures such as student classroom contact hours

over the past year and number of theses or dissertations chaired over the past year. Service was

measured by items addressing the number of personnel, governance, and other committees served on

which an individual served.

Staff performance – Performance of professional staff was more difficult to measure because of

the variability of staff roles, job duties, and success indicators. Thus, a collection of variables were

chosen from the literature that represent easily measurable but still relevant characteristics of

performance. These variables included self-report measures such as satisfaction, loyalty, productivity,

and absenteeism. Messersmith, Patel and Lepak (2011) reported reliability of .83 for measures of

satisfaction which included questions such as “in general, I like working here” and “all things considered, I

feel pretty good about this job.” They also reported reliability of .84 for the loyalty scale which included

questions like “I would be happy to spend the rest of my career in this department” (Messersmith, Patel, &

Lepak, 2011). Productivity was measured by four items which included statements such as “the quality of

my work is top-notch” and this scale had a reliability of .74 (Kuvaas, 2006). Absenteeism was measured

Page 42: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 31

by the question “How many days were you absent from work in the past year? This refers to absenteeism

for any reason excluding vacations and scheduled days off” (Johns, 2011).

Research Question Two: How do OCBs correlate with selected individual performance indicators

for college faculty members? The variables of OCB level and faculty performance variables were utilized

to answer this research question.

Research Question Three: How do OCBs correlate with selected individual performance

indicators for professional staff members in higher education? The variables of OCB level and

satisfaction, loyalty, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover intention were utilized to answer this

research question.

Research Question Four: Do significant differences in OCB levels exist between high-performing

and low-performing employees? Performance indicator variables were aggregated for each respondent

to determine a new variable of overall performance. OCB scores of low-performing employees were

compared to OCB scores of high-performing employees.

Research Question Five: Do significant differences in OCB levels exist between employees in

high-performing institutions and employees in low-performing institutions? Institutions were classified as

either high-performing or low-performing based on the variables of total funded research and graduation

rate. OCB rates for all employees were compared between these institutions.

Research Question Six: To what extent do the levels of OCBs differ between faculty and

professional staff in higher education across all institutions sampled? No new data were needed for this

comparison.

Research Question Seven: To what extent do the levels of OCBs for all employees differ by

academic discipline and institution? Again, no new data were needed for this comparison.

Data analysis.

Research Question One: What is the OCB and performance profile of faculty and staff in select

higher education institutions? Mean OCB scores and standard deviations were calculated for all faculty

and staff groups in each academic unit in each institution. These data provide a general view of the OCB

profile for employees in select institutions. Responses to survey questions 1-16 (OCB scores), 19-27

(faculty performance), and 28-35 (staff performance) were used to answer this research question.

Page 43: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 32

Research Question Two: How do OCBs correlate with selected individual performance indicators

for college faculty members? Pearson product moment correlations were performed for faculty OCB

scores and each of the faculty performance variables. Responses to survey questions 1-16 (OCB

scores) and 19-27 (faculty performance) were used to answer this research question.

Research Question Three: How do OCBs correlate with selected individual performance

indicators for professional staff members in higher education? Similar to research question two, Pearson

correlations were calculated for professional staff OCB scores and each of their respective performance

indicators. Responses to survey questions 1-16 (OCB scores) and 28-35 (staff performance) were used

to answer this research question.

Research Question Four: Do significant differences in OCB levels exist between high-performing

and low-performing employees? Means were calculated for faculty performance measure scores as well

as professional staff performance measure scores. Individual scores falling below the mean for each

group were considered low-performing while those above the mean were considered high-performing.

After grouping both faculty and staff as either high or low performing, an ANOVA was performed to

compare the mean OCB scores for each group. Responses to survey questions 1-16 (OCB scores), 19-

27 (faculty performance), and 28-35 (staff performance) were used to answer this research question.

Research Question Five: Do significant differences in OCB levels exist between employees in

high-performing institutions and employees in low-performing institutions? To answer this question,

employees were grouped by their respective institutional position according to the criteria in Table 4

(either high or low performing). An ANOVA performed to compare the mean OCB scores for each group.

Responses to survey questions 1-16 (OCB scores) and 17-18 (institutional performance) were used to

answer this research question.

Research Question Six: To what extent do the levels of OCBs differ between faculty and

professional staff in higher education across all institutions sampled? All OCB scores obtained were

grouped according to employee status (faculty or professional staff). Descriptive statistics were utilized to

compare groupings. Responses to survey questions 1-16 (OCB scores) were used to answer this

research question.

Page 44: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 33

Research Question Seven: To what extent do the levels of OCBs for all employees differ by

academic discipline and institution? All OCB scores were grouped according to academic discipline.

Descriptive statistics were utilized to compare groupings. Responses to survey questions 1-16 (OCB

scores) were used to answer this research question.

Summary of the chapter.

This chapter detailed the research methodology used in this study. The sample was described

along with the data collection instrument and the way in which data analysis was performed. Further, a

description of how each research question was answered using specific data and analysis techniques

was provided.

Page 45: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 34

Chapter 4

Results

Introduction.

Organizational citizenship behaviors are an important aspect of employee behavior in the

workplace. The purpose for conducting the study was to describe OCBs in the higher education context,

describe the relationships between OCBs and various aspects of faculty and staff performance, and

explore the extent to which institutional leaders should be concerned with the OCBs of both faculty and

professional staff. This chapter discusses the results of the study and provides answers to each of the

research questions posed. It begins with a summary of the study, outlining the basis for the research and

providing a synopsis of the literature. Following is information regarding the distribution of the survey

instrument. Lastly, the data results are presented according to each research question.

Summary of the study.

All organizations have goals and performance measures that allow them to understand if they are

achieving their intended goals. Each member of the organization contributes in his or her own way to the

organizational goals (Caswell, 2009). Some behaviors that employees engage in contribute positively

while others have negative consequences for the organization. One set of positive workplace behaviors

that was first described by Smith, Organ, and Near (1983) are known as organizational citizenship

behaviors (OCBs).

OCBs are distinguished from other types of workplace behaviors by three characteristics: they

are extra-role, they are unenforceable, and they contribute positively to the organization (Organ, 1997).

By extra-role it is meant that these behaviors are not part of employees’ formal job descriptions. OCBs

are also unenforceable in that managers and supervisors neither reward nor punish employees who

exhibit or withhold these behaviors, respectively. Over time, it is argued, OCBs contribute positively to

the organization by creating more positive workplace environments (Turnipseed & Murkison, 2000).

Research has also shown that OCBs are linked with both individual and organizational performance

(Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine, & Bachrach, 2000). The relationship between OCBs and performance is

not fully understood, but it is often suggested that OCBs promote the effective functioning of the

Page 46: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 35

organization through various means including increased employee satisfaction, improved workplace

relationships, and increased efficiencies (Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1997).

Although much research has been done on OCBs in general, studies of specific industries or in

specific work contexts are lacking. For that reason, the current study focused on obtaining a better

understanding of OCBs in the higher education employment context. Specifically, the study was

designed to better understand any possible relationships between employee OCBs, individual

productivity, and institutional productivity by surveying various employees in higher education institutions.

To understand the relationship between OCBs and productivity, the concept of productivity must

first be explored. From an organizational standpoint, productivity can be measured in a variety of ways

including alumni satisfaction, economic impact, research funding, and reputation among others (Bogue,

1998; McLendon & Hearn, 2006). Shin (2010) argued that two of the most common ways to measure

institutional effectiveness are through research funding and graduation rates. Though there are many

other ways to define institutional performance, these two characteristics provide a common starting point

to begin examining the concept.

Institutional performance, however, is a product of the behaviors of the individuals who comprise

the organization (Deluga, 1994). Therefore, individual performance should also be considered when

looking at institutional performance and OCBs. For faculty in higher education, performance is often

defined by three criteria: research, teaching, and service (Hardre & Cox, 2009). Institutions define these

categories differently depending on the mission and control of the institution (public or private), but most

faculty work activity falls into one or concurrently into all of the three categories. Staff performance is

more difficult to characterize and is much more subjective. Like employees in any other organization,

staff members perform jobs that may be very different from one another even in the same institution. For

this reason, it is difficult to objectively measure staff productivity in a way that allows direct comparison

with others. Some research has pointed to surrogate information for direct measures of staff

performance. These indicators include absenteeism (Johns, 2011), satisfaction and loyalty (Messersmith,

Patel, & Lepak, 2011), and self-report productivity (Kuvaas, 2006).

This study was designed to attempt to understand each of these three aspects (institutional

performance, individual performance, and OCB) for employees in higher education. To do that, a survey

Page 47: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 36

was constructed that included questions regarding OCB levels as well as certain performance measures

according to employment status (faculty or staff). The OCB questionnaire contained 16 items, 8 of which

pertained to behaviors directed at individuals and 8 regarding behaviors directed at the organization. For

faculty members, 12 items inquired about specific productivity measures such as number of classes

taught, number of grants funded, and number of committees served on. Staff members received the

same OCB items, but received items measuring satisfaction, loyalty, productivity, absenteeism, and

turnover intention. Several statistical analyses were used to answer each of the research questions

presented in this study.

Data results.

Data collection

The survey was distributed to a list of facutly and staff from eight higher education institutions.

These institutions were selected based on their respective graduation rates and research funding. Four

institutions were considered low-performing and four were considered high-performing. Additionally,

facutly and staff were categorized in five disciplines: business, education, engineering, liberal arts, and

natural science. The survey was distributed to 1,168 individuals using an online survey tool, Qualtrics.

Of the total distribution, 179 responses were received for a reponse rate of 15.3%. Some of the survey

responses were incomplete, but usable responses were kept in the data set. Incomplete responses were

not included in statistical analysis where necessary and the sample size is noted in the reporting for each

analysis. The reponse rate was determined to be acceptable based on Alreck and Settle’s (1985)

findings that respondent variance is minimal in sample responses over 100; the low response rate does,

however, suggest a caution in generalizing study findings.

The survey was distributed in three waves. Wave one was sent to approximately the first one-

third of the target sample in early Febraury. A reminder to this list was sent one week after the initial

email. The second was was sent in mid-February and the third wave in early March with reminders

following one week afterwards. A third, final reminder was sent approximately three weeks after each

initial contact. Approximately 29% of the survey reponses were received in the first wave, 23% in the

second wave, and 48% in the third wave.

Page 48: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 37

Results

Research Question One: What is the OCB and performance profile of faculty and staff in select

higher education institutions?

Table 5 displays the OCB scores for faculty in the study. Respondent OCBs were made up of

three scores: overall OCB, OCBs directed towards individuals (OCB-I) and OCBs directed at the

organization (OCB-O). OCB scores and turnover intention were measured on 7-point scales, while all

other performance variables were measured on a 5-point scale. On average, OCB-O scores tended to be

higher than OCB-I scores for all faculty sampled.

Table 5 Faculty OCB Profile

Variable Sample

Size (n) Mean (!) Median Mode Standard

deviation (s)

OCB 74 5.058 5.0625 5.31 .851 OCB-I 75 4.8617 5.0000 5.38 1.00790 OCB-O 79 5.2073 5.2500 4.63 1.01252

Faculty performance indicators are reported in Table 6. Indicators were measured according to

the following scale: 0 items (1 point), 1-2 items (2 points), 3-4 items (3 points), 5-6 items (4 points), 7 or

more items (5 points). For example, if a respondent reported serving on 3-4 graduate committees, that

response was given a scale point value of 3. A majority of respondents (54.4%) reported having 1-2

publications over the past year and a majority (51.9%) also reported teaching 3-4 classes over that same

time period. The highest committee participation was on “other committees” where 58.5% of respondents

reported serving on 3-4 committees. However, this item also received the lowest response rate of all the

faculty variables reported (n=65). This may be due to the ambiguity of the term or misunderstanding of

the question. Most faculty (59.5%) reported serving on no undergraduate committees, but 24.1%

reported serving on 3-4 graduate committees.

Page 49: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 38

Table 6 Faculty Performance Profile Variable Sample

Size (n) Most Common Response (% of responses)

Median Mode Standard deviation (s)

Publications 79 1-2 (54.4%) 2 2 1.031 Presentations 79 1-2 (40.5%) 2 2 1.031 Undergraduate Committees 74 0 (59.5%) 1 1 .934 Graduate Committees 79 3-4 (24.1%) 3 3 1.358 Classes Taught 79 3-4 (51.9%) 3 3 .774 Contact Hours 78 1-2 (43.6%) 2 2 1.217 Principal Investigator 78 0 (44.9%) 2 1 .954 Grants 79 1-2 (49.4%) 2 2 1.028 Curriculum Committees 76 1-2 (55.3%) 2 2 .544 Governance Committees 75 0 (47.2%) 2 1 .783 Personnel Committees 72 1-2 (50.7%) 2 2 .784 Other Committees 65 1-2 (58.5%) 2 2 .704 Turnover Intention 79 Very unlikely

(33%) 2

1 1.955

Table 7 summarizes the OCB and performance data for staff included in the study. Average OCB

scores and the subscales of OCB-I and OCB-O for staff were very similar to each other. The

performance indicators of satisfaction and productivity were higher when compared with the loyalty

variable. Absenteeism was measured on a 5-point scale, so the raw mean cannot be directly compared

to the other performance indicators. Of the staff that responded to the survey, 70.2% reported being

absent from work 4 or fewer days over the most recent calendar year. Average turnover intention was

higher for staff (!=3.45) than for faculty (!=2.81).

Table 7 Staff OCB and Performance Profile

Variable Sample

Size (n) Mean (!) Median Mode Standard

Deviation (s)

OCB 92 5.3485 5.4375 5.44 .89118 OCB-I 93 5.2782 5.3750 5.13 .97856 OCB-O 95 5.3855 5.6250 5.75 1.04259 Satisfaction 92 5.8297 6.0000 7.00 1.18445 Loyalty 94 5.0505 5.3750 5.75 1.32317 Productivity 93 5.9211 6.0000 6.33 .79612 Absenteeism

a 94 2.94 3.00 2 1.326

Turnover Intention 95 3.45 3.00 1 2.240 Note.

a Absenteeism was reported on a 5-point scale.

Page 50: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 39

In short, faculty reported lower scores for overall OCBs, OCB-I (behaviors directed individuals),

and OCB-O (behaviors directed at the organization) than staff. However, faculty reported a lower

turnover intention than staff. Faculty reported relatively high committee participation (except governance

and undergraduate committees) and publication activity when compared with the other performance

variables. Staff reported high levels of both satisfaction and productivity when compared with other staff

performance variables.

Research Question Two: How do OCBs correlate with selected individual performance indicators

for college faculty members?

To address this research question, Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for

each of the variables measured in this study for faculty across all disciplines and institutions. The faculty

correlation matrix is presented in Table 8 in Appendix A. Although all correlations are shown between

variables, this research question specifically addresses the correlations between OCBs and the

measured performance indicators.

Overall OCB scores were correlated at a statistically significant level after performing a two-tailed

test at "=.05 with only two performance indicators, presentations and other committees. There was a

weak positive correlation between OCB scores and presentations, r=.255, n=73, p=.030. Likewise, a

weak positive correlation was found between OCB and other committees, r=.261, n=61, p=.042.

Correlations for the subscales of OCB-I and OCB-O and the performance variables were also

calculated. OCB-I correlated at a significant level with only one performance variable, student contact

hours (r=.374, n=73, p=.001). This correlation was slightly stronger than correlations for overall OCB

scores and at a greater significance level. OCB-O scores, in contrast, were correlated at a statistically

significant level with four performance variables: presentations (r=.225, n=77, p=.049), governance

committees (r=.240, n=71, p=.044), personnel committees (r=.288, n=73, p=.013), and other committees

(r=.355, n=63, p=.004). Each of these variables showed only weak positive correlations with the OCB-O

construct.

The results of this analysis indicate that faculty with higher overall OCB scores also have higher

numbers of presentations and serve on other committees at a higher rate. Faculty who exhibit more

OCB-I behaviors also tend to report more student contact hours. Finally, faculty members with higher

Page 51: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 40

OCB-O scores report more presentations as well as more service on governance, personnel, and other

committees.

Research Question Three: How do OCBs correlate with selected individual performance

indicators for professional staff members in higher education?

Similar to research question two, question three addressed possible correlations between OCBs

and performance indicators for staff. Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for each of

the variables included in the staff survey instrument. To answer the research question, only correlations

between overall OCB, OCB-I, and OCB-O with the other variables were examined.

Table 9 shows the correlation matrix for staff OCB and performance variables. Overall OCB

scores were significantly correlated with the satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity measures. The

strongest correlation occurred with the productivity scale (r=.386, n=90, p=.000). Satisfaction and loyalty

were still positively correlated, but less strongly. OCB-I showed a statistically significant, positive

correlation only with productivity (r=.301, n=91, p=.004). OCB-O, on the other hand, was correlated with

satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity. The strongest correlation between any OCB construct and

performance variable among staff or faculty was found to be between OCB-O and productivity (r=.402,

n=93, p=.000). No significant relationships were revealed to exist between OCB and either absenteeism

or turnover.

Page 52: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 41

Table 9 Correlations of OCB and Performance Indicators for Staff

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. OCB 1

- 92

2. OCBI .884** .000 92

1 - 93

3. OCBO .894** .000 92

.572**

.000 93

1 - 95

4. Absenteeism -.119 .267 89

.013

.903 90

-.180 .086 92

1 - 94

5. Turnover -.046 .666 91

-.021 .842 92

-.038 .713 94

.166

.111 93

1 - 95

6. Satisfaction .213* .045 89

.135

.206 90

.238*

.022 92

-.178 .094 90

-.514** .000 92

1 - 92

7. Loyalty .271** .009 91

.174

.096 92

.282**

.006 94

-.148 .159 92

-.411** .000 94

.713**

.000 92

1 - 94

8. Productivity .386** .000 90

.301**

.004 91

.402**

.000 93

-.007 .950 91

-.048 .646 93

.239*

.023 91

.119

.255 93

1 - 93

These data show that staff that report higher levels of satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity will

also report higher levels of both OCB and OCB-O. This is particularly true for self-reported productivity.

Staff with high levels of OCB-I also tend to report higher productivity.

Research Question Four: Do significant differences in OCB levels exist between high-performing

and low-performing employees?

To compare high-performing employees and low-performing employees, a new variable called

“performance score” was calculated. For faculty, each of the 12 surveyed indicators was averaged to

determine an overall performance score. Turnover intention was not included in this score as this

variable was measured on a different scale. The mean for the new performance score variable was

!=2.17, s=.513, n=55. Because an objective measure of faculty performance does not exist, for the

purposes of this study, high- and low-performance was determined by comparing cases with a

performance score below the mean (low-performing) to those with performance scores above the mean

(high-performing).

Page 53: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 42

Similarly, a performance score was calculated for staff using the questionnaire items measuring

satisfaction, loyalty, productivity, and turnover intention. Each of these four variables was averaged to

determine a new performance score for each case. Absenteeism was not included in this analysis as it

was measured on a different scale. The new variable for staff performance had a mean of !=5.35,

s=1.04, n=91. Like faculty, staff cases with performance scores below the mean were considered low-

performing while scores above the mean were considered high-performing. Because faculty performance

and staff performance were measured using different variables and scales, standardized z-scores were

computed for each. A one-way ANOVA was completed to test for differences in OCB ratings between

four groups: high-performing faculty, low-performing faculty, high-performing staff, and low-performing

staff. The results of this analysis are presented in Table 10.

Table 10 ANOVA Test for Faculty and Staff Performance Groups

Sum of

Squares Degrees of Freedom

Mean Square

F Value Significance

OCB Between Groups 6.194 3 2.065 2.739 .046 Within Groups 102.506 136 .754 Total 108.701 139 OCB-I Between Groups 8.913 3 2.971 3.218 .025 Within Groups 127.409 138 .923 Total 108.701 139 OCB-O Between Groups 4.125 3 1.375 1.278 .284 Within Groups 151.759 141 1.076 Total 155.884 144

The ANOVA test showed significant differences in group means for the variables OCB and OCB-

I. A Tukey HSD post-hoc analysis was performed to further examine these differences. This analysis

was not performed for OCB-O as no significant differences arose from the ANOVA test. The Tukey post-

hoc test revealed a mean difference of .569 between the group means of high-performing staff and low-

performing faculty at a significance level of p=.03 on the OCB variable. Further, this test also showed a

mean difference of .696 (p=.012) between high-performing staff and low-performing faculty for the OCB-I

variable. These tests showed that significant differences in OCB and OCB-I levels do exist between high-

performing staff and low-performing faculty and that high-performing staff tend to exhibit higher OCB and

Page 54: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 43

OCB-I scores. No other groups showed significant differences in mean OCB scores.

Research Question Five: Do significant differences in OCB levels exist between employees in

high-performing institutions and employees in low-performing institutions?

To address this question, subjects were labeled according to their employment status (faculty or

staff) and institutional performance (high-performing or low-performing). Thus, four groups were created:

faculty in high-performing institutions, faculty in low-performing institutions, staff in high-performing

institutions, and staff in low-performing institutions. An ANOVA was used to test for differences in group

means for the four groups on the OCB, OCB-I, and OCB-O variables. The results of this test are

presented in Table 11.

Table 11 ANOVA Test for Institutional Performance Groups

Sum of

Squares Degrees of Freedom

Mean Square

F Value Significance

OCB Between Groups 8.702 3 2.901 3.903 .010 Within Groups 120.398 162 .743 Total 129.099 165 OCB-I Between Groups 16.614 3 5.538 5.903 .001 Within Groups 153.862 164 .938 Total 170.476 167 OCB-O Between Groups 6.089 3 2.030 1.945 .124 Within Groups 177.423 170 1.044 Total 183.513 173

Because the ANOVA test showed significant differences in group means on the OCB and OCB-I

variables, a Tukey HSD post-hoc test was performed to further explain these differences. This test

revealed significant mean differences between staff in low-performing institutions when compared with

faculty in low-performing institutions and staff in high-performing institutions. This was true for both the

overall OCB variable and the OCB-I variable. Table 12 summarizes the findings from the Tukey post-hoc

test for institutional performance groups. Only mean differences that were statistically significant were

reported in the table.

Page 55: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 44

Table 12 Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test for Institutional Groups Faculty in Low-Performing

Institutions (B) Staff in High-Performing Institutions (B)

OCB Mean Differences (A-B) Staff in Low-Performing Institutions (A) .49166

(p=.018) .48618 (p=.041)

OCB-I Mean Differences (A-B) Staff in Low-Performing Institutions (A) .74823

(p=.000) .59509 (p=.020)

The largest mean difference (.74823) was found between staff in low-performing institutions and

faculty in low-performing institutions on the OCB-I variable. That is, staff in low-performing institutions

reported higher OCB-I scores, on average, than faculty in low-performing institutions. Staff in low-

performing institutions also reported higher mean overall OCB scores than both faculty in low-performing

institutions and staff in high-performing institutions.

Reseach Question Six: To what extent do the levels of OCBs differ between faculty and

professional staff in higher education across all institutions sampled?

The sample sizes, means, and standard deviations for all OCB variables were computed for

faculty and staff across all institutions. These data are presented in Table 13. The highest mean OCB

was for staff OCB-I (!=5.3855). The lowest mean OCB score occurred for faculty in the OCB-I variable

(!=4.8617). All OCB mean scores for staff were at similar levels to each other and were all higher than

respective faculty scores. Other than OCB-I scores, faculty and staff did not differ greatly on other

variables.

Table 13 Faculty and Staff OCB Levels

Faculty Staff Sample

size (n) Mean (!! Standard

Deviation (s)

Sample size (n)

Mean (!! Standard Deviation (s)

OCB 74 5.0583 .85146 92 5.3458 .89433 OCB-I 75 4.8617 1.00790 93 5.2782 .97856 OCB-O 79 5.2073 1.01252 95 5.3855 1.04259

Page 56: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 45

Research Question Seven: To what extent do the levels of OCBs differ byacademic institution

and discipline?

Mean OCB scores were first grouped by institution. Table 14 shows the means, standard

deviations, and sample size for each of the institutions in the study. To protect respondent anonymity,

institutions’ names were replaced with pseudonyms according to performance category. The lowest

overall OCB score was found at institution Hi1 (!=4.8828). The highest OCB mean occurred at Lo2

(!=5.4824). This represents just over half a scale point difference between these two institutions. The

number of cases for the OCB variable at each institution should also be noted with the most cases

coming from Lo3 (n=33). The least amount of cases came from institution Hi2 (n=9). Each of the means

is above the scale midpoint of 4 (7-point Likert scale), but large differences were not found between each

of the targeted institutions.

The highest OCB-I mean was found at Lo4 (!=5.4779) and the lowest at Lo3 (!=4.8144). Similar

to overall OCB means, OCB-O scores tended to be higher at Lo2 (!=5.5846) and lowest at Hi1

(!=4.8750). The highest standard deviation was found at institution Hi2 in the OCB-O variable suggesting

that responses from this institution varied more than at other institutions.

Table 14 Faculty and Staff OCB Levels by Institution

School OCB OCB-I OCB-O n ! s n ! s n ! s Lo1 26 5.1442 .88314 26 5.1106 .88199 26 5.1779 1.14901 Lo2 32 5.4824 .68414 33 5.3485 .84477 34 5.5846 .78258 Lo3 33 5.1951 .82499 33 4.8144 .99664 34 5.5386 .85199 Lo4 17 5.4081 .92098 17 5.4779 1.06547 19 5.2171 1.14704 Hi1 16 4.8828 1.13626 16 4.9062 1.27516 17 4.8750 1.28847 Hi2 9 5.2639 1.26313 10 5.1750 1.09640 9 5.2361 1.56181 Hi3 17 4.9669 .89544 17 4.9632 1.14117 19 4.9145 .90720 Hi4 16 5.2266 .76949 16 4.9688 .95906 16 5.4844 .82143 Total 166 5.2176 .88455 168 5.0923 1.01035 174 5.3046 1.02994

Means for OCB, OCB-I, and OCB-O were then grouped by academic discipline and are displayed

in Table 15. The highest mean OCB score was found in the engineering discipline (!=5.396, n=27) and

the lowest occurred in education (!=5.0977, n=44). However, the number of samples in both of these

groups represented the largest and smallest response groups, respectively. While large differences do

Page 57: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 46

not exist between these means, the data indicate that a larger sample size may tend to have means

closer to the scale midpoint.

On average, OCB-I scores tended to be lower in the education discipline (!=4.8872) and higher in

the engineering discipline (!=5.2930). In contrast, OCB-O scores were, on average, lowest for the natural

sciences (!=5.0500) and highest in engineering (!=5.5000). In all but one discipline, the mean of OCB-I

scores was higher than mean of OCB-O scores. In the natural science discipline, the OCB-O mean score

(!=5.0500) was higher than the mean OCB-I score (!=5.1865). Overall, employees in the engineering

discipline had higher OCB scores in all three categories when compared with the other disciplines.

Education had the lowest mean OCB and OCB-I scores, while Natural Science had the lowest OCB-O

score.

Table 15

Faculty and Staff OCB Levels by Discipline

Discipline OCB OCB-I OCB-O n ! s n ! s n ! s

Business 39 5.1982 .96662 39 5.0810 1.0559 39 5.3141 1.0327 Education 47 5.0977 .79186 44 4.8872 .89490 44 5.2999 1.0321 Engineering 27 5.3960 .84330 27 5.2930 1.0648 27 5.5000 .88320 Liberal Arts 31 5.2056 1.0012 31 4.9942 1.2240 31 5.4153 .95164 Natural Science

36 5.1136 .79816 36 5.1865 .85802 35 5.0500 1.1766

While levels of OCB do not vary a great deal among disciplines and institutions, there were small

differences found among respondents of the study. The institution labeled as Hi1 had the lowest overall

OCB and OCB-O scores, while Lo3 had the lowest OCB-I scores. Engineering faculty and staff reported

the highest levels of citizenship behaviors of all types. Education, on the other hand, reported the lowest

overall OCB and OCB-I scores, while personnel in the natural science discipline reported the lowest

OCB-O scores.

Summary of the chapter.

This chapter discussed the distribution of the survey and results of data analysis. Each research

question was answered according to results of specific statistical tests. In research question one, it was

found that faculty tended to exhibit more OCB-O behaviors than OCB-I behaviors. The most commonly

cited performance indicator was the number of graduate committees served on while number of

Page 58: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 47

undergraduate committees and curriculum committees received the least participation. Staff data showed

that they exhibited higher levels of productivity and satisfaction than loyalty. Similar to faculty, staff had

higher levels of OCB-O than OCB-I, albeit the differences were not as pronounced as with faculty.

Correlations were calculated and significant relationships found between OCBs and number of

presentations and number of other committees served on for faculty. Correlations for staff performance

indicators revealed that OCBs are correlated with levels of satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity. ANOVA

tests revealed that high-performing staff tended to report higher OCBs than low-performing faculty.

Additional analysis showed that staff in low-performing institutions had higher OCB scores, on average,

than faculty in low-performing institutions and staff in high-performing institutions. Finally, employees at

institution Lo2 and employees in the engineering discipline across all institutions reported the highest

levels of OCBs, respectively.

!

Page 59: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 48

Chapter 5

Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary of the study.

The purpose for conducting the study was to describe OCBs in the higher education context,

describe the relationships between OCBs and various aspects of faculty and staff performance, and

explore the extent to which institutional leaders should be concerned with the OCBs of both faculty and

professional staff. To address the purpose of the study, seven research questions were put forward that

dealt with various aspects of the nature of the OCB and performance relationship. These questions were

influenced by the organizational context of the study, that is, higher education. To this end, the questions

on the survey that was distributed as well as the groupings of the responses received were done in such

a way as to inform the practice of higher education and further understanding of the employment

relationship for both faculty and staff.

Though higher education institutions have very unique characteristics that distinguish them from

other types of organizations, at the core they are still groups of individuals coming together for a common

purpose. The literature on industrial psychology and employee behavior speaks to a construct called

organizational citizenship behaviors that furthers understanding of the employer/employee relationship

(Organ, 1988). This concept has been studied to a great degree, but seldom examined within the context

of higher education. OCBs have been shown to be linked with higher departmental performance

(Podsakoff, Ahearne, & MacKenzie, 1997), greater organizational performance (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, &

Podsakoff, 2011), and individual performance (Ozer, 2011). Thus, value should be placed on

understanding these behaviors further.

This study was an exploratory study in that the focus was on garnering a greater understanding

on the prevalence of OCBs in higher education, their connection with various performance outcomes, and

variances of OCB levels between differing groups. To accomplish this, the study utilized a quantitative

approach with various statistical tests to determine significant findings. Eight institutions were included in

the study (four high-performing and four low-performing) so that subjects could be grouped according to

institutional performance. Subjects were also selected based on academic discipline. Although different

Page 60: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 49

classifications of discipline exist, I utilized five categories: business, education, engineering, liberal arts,

and natural science. From each of these disciplines, both faculty and staff were selected to participate.

The survey instrument was composed of various items regarding OCBs as well as performance

indicators for both faculty and staff. The OCB items were the same for both faculty and staff and were

taken from Lee and Allen’s (2002) study. Measures of faculty performance were taken from the National

Study of Postsecondary Faculty (U.S. Department of Education, 1999) and focused on areas of teaching,

research, and service. The staff survey utilized different performance measures because of the nature of

their work. These items were absenteeism (Johns, 2011), turnover intention (NSOPF), satisfaction

(Messersmith, Patel, & Lepak, 2011), loyalty (Messersmith, Patel, & Lepak, 2011), and productivity

(Kuvaas, 2006).

Conclusions.

Based on the analysis of the data, several conclusions can be made regarding the nature of

organizational citizenship behaviors in higher education:

1. Both faculty and staff tend to exhibit higher levels of citizenship behaviors directed toward the

organization than behaviors directed towards individuals.

2. Correlation analyses revealed that, for faculty, overall OCB scores are positively correlated with

the number of presentations given. OCB-Is are positively correlated with the number of student

contact hours and OCB-Os are positively correlated with service on various committees. This

also provides further evidence that OCB-I and OCB-O are highly related, but distinct facets of the

OCB construct.

3. For staff, overall OCB levels are significantly, positively correlated with levels of satisfaction,

loyalty, and productivity. OCB-I is positively correlated with productivity only and OCB-O is

positively correlated with satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity.

4. High-performing staff exhibit higher levels of OCB and OCB-I than low-performing faculty. No

statistically significant results arose from analyses of other groups.

5. Staff in low-performing institutions exhibit higher levels of OCB than both faculty in low-performing

institutions and staff in high-performing institutions.

6. On average, staff tend to exhibit higher levels of OCBs than faculty.

Page 61: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 50

7. Levels of OCB tend to vary across discipline and institution, regardless of institutional

performance.

Recommendations.

For practice

Organizational citizenship behaviors are typically not overtly measured and tracked in

organizations like other concepts such as loyalty or employee engagement. Yet, employees both exhibit

and experience these behaviors on a frequent basis. It is also now understood that OCBs do have an

impact on individuals, work groups, and organizations, albeit sometimes indirectly. Given this relative

importance to organizational performance, more attention should be given to understanding OCBs and

their role in organizational effectiveness. Knowing how much (or how little) employees exhibit these

behaviors can help administrators and staff leaders better understand the people that work for and with

them.

This study has shown that OCBs often correlate positively with certain performance indicators for

both faculty and staff. Much attention is given to motivating employees with the end goal of increasing

output or performance. However, little attention is paid to the ancillary behaviors that lead to greater

performance. Although OCBs do not directly contribute to performance measures, they can help provide

a more productive environment where employees can thrive and feel connected. Certainly, leaders

should have a firm grasp of their work cultures and environments as well as the behaviors that help build

and maintain those environments. Knowing more about levels of OCBs in an organization, either through

quantitative means or through anecdotal means, provides leaders with unspoken indicators of positive or

negative trajectory.

As with any performance influencer, managers may be tempted to manipulate or encourage

exhibition of OCBs with the end goal of increasing performance. However, this violates the very definition

of the OCB construct. Knowing more about employee behaviors in the workplace is important, but

attempting to control citizenship behaviors can be counterproductive. Instead, managers should focus on

promoting higher levels of citizenship behaviors through other means such as increasing employee

satisfaction or improving the quality of the leader-employee relationship.

Page 62: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 51

For leaders in higher education, this study provides specific insights that may be helpful. First, it

is important to note that this study shows that the employment relationship is clearly different for faculty

and staff. Staff tend to have higher OCB levels that faculty, but this may be because of the nature of their

work and how they accomplish goals. Yet, this difference should not go unnoticed. In fact, faculty and

staff leaders alike should pay more attention to the various micro-cultures that may exist within their

institution or college and how those may be impacting performance. Second, although an institution may

be considered low-performing, its employees (specifically staff from this study’s results) may still exhibit

high levels of OCB. For institutional leaders, this indicates that there may be other ways in which OCB

contributes to organizational success. However, caution should be taken in interpreting the relationship

between OCBs and institutional performance as this study included only two specific indicators of

institutional performance. Lastly, leaders should be aware that individuals might differ in their behaviors

towards individuals versus their behaviors towards the organization.

For research

OCBs have almost always been studied using quantitative methods. A recommendation for

further exploration of the topic, especially as it pertains to higher education, is to conduct a study using

qualitative methods. This would help provide rich information on how OCBs fit within the institutional

environment and the view employees have of these behaviors in practice. Further, a qualitative study

may help to tease out nuances of OCBs that may be different for higher education employees.

A second area of possible research may include replicating the study with other institutional

types, according to mission and control. This study included only public universities that were considered

top research schools. Further research may find differences in OCB levels depending upon institutional

mission (such as a master’s comprehensive university or community college) or institutional control

(public versus private). Similarly, although this study examined differences in OCBs between specific

institutions, to protect respondent anonymity, institutions were given pseudonyms. Because of this,

specific conclusions could not be reached regarding possible reasons for institutional differences.

However, institutions may vary by geographic region, size, and other factors that could make direct

institutional comparisons important.

Page 63: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 52

Another area of possible study would include analyzing OCB levels according to demographic

data that may be specialized to higher education. For example, many studies have looked at differences

between genders and race. However, a study on the higher education environment could examine

differences between tenured, tenure-track, and non-tenure track faculty. Length of employment or

educational background may also be other variables to consider for further research. In that same vein,

regression studies could be undertaken to select certain predictors of higher levels of OCBs.

Lastly, OCBs could be measured longitudinally to get a better understanding of whether these

behaviors change over time and how. This may prove very useful for institutions that may be going

through very difficult or large change processes or enrollment growth (or decline). Further, researchers

may be interested in performing more experimental type studies with OCB levels. Although this might

take considerable time and effort, the results could be very interesting.

Discussion.

Organizational citizenship behaviors were described by Organ (1988) as one way of

understanding the employer/employee relationship. Their impact on the organization has been seen time

and time again in a variety of settings. Yet, managers often fail to recognize their significance (if they are

even aware of the concept at all) to organizational development and effectiveness. Those responsible for

organizational results should attempt a better understanding of these behaviors and how they relate to

overall effectiveness.

Increased calls for higher education accountability put greater pressure on institutional leaders to

ensure that the organization is performing as it should be. As this study has indicated, OCBs may play a

role in helping individuals and organizations meet these performance expectations. By “lubricating the

social machinery of the organization, reducing friction, and/or increasing efficiency,” (Podsakoff &

MacKenzie, 1997, p. 135) institutions begin to meet the higher expectations of the public, governments,

and other stakeholders.

A theme furthered by this study is the notion that workplace behaviors differ for different groups of

employees. Faculty and staff differ in their levels of OCBs. Disciplines and certain institutions also differ

somewhat in this regard. The crux of the issue is that employees across the board are engaging in

positive behaviors in different ways. While the present research does not predict whether certain

Page 64: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 53

employees will engage in these behaviors, it does show that higher education employees indeed engage

in them and levels of engagement vary.

In summary, the theoretical framework of the study suggested that employees contribute more to

organizations that they feel also contributes to them. Social-exchange theory explains this interaction as

taking place through various means, including extra-role contributions of employees like organizational

citizenship behaviors. The behaviors that employees exhibit, in turn, contribute to the overall success of

the organization. The findings of this study seem to support the notion that for higher education, OCBs

do play a role in individual performance to some extent. However, higher OCBs may not directly

contribute to the organization’s perceived success. This suggests that, like in any organization, there are

many other variables to consider when attributing success. Further, the difficulty in quantifying

performance for a higher education institution may have bearing when measuring constructs such as

OCBs.

Summary of the chapter.

This chapter provided several conclusions regarding the concept of organizational citizenship

behavior in higher education, including the notion that OCB levels vary by institution, employment status,

and discipline. Several recommendations were made both for practice and for further research. Lastly,

this chapter included a discussion around OCBs in higher education.

Page 65: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 54

References

Alexander, F. K. (2000). The changing face of accountability. The Journal of Higher Education, 71 (4), 411-431.!

Allison, B. J., Voss, R. S., & Dryer, S. (2001). Student classroom and career success: The role of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Education for Business, 76(5), 282-289.

Alreck, P. L., & Settle, R. B. (1985). The Survey Research Handbook. Homewood, IL: Irwin.

Birnbaum, R. (1988). How Colleges Work: The Cybernetics of Acadmic Organization and Leadership. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Blakely, G. L., Andrews, M. C., & Moorman, R. H. (2005). The moderating effects of equity sensitivity on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20(2), 259-273.

Blakely, G., Andrews, M., & Fuller, J. (2003). Are chameleons good citizens? A longitudinal study of the relationship between self-monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business & Psychology, 18(2), 131-144.

Bogue, E. G. (1998). Quality assurance in higher education: The evolution of systems and design ideals. New Directions for Institutional Research, 25(3), 7-18.

Bragger, J., Rodriguez-Srednicki, O., Kutcher, E., Indovino, L., & Rosner, E. (2005). Work-family conflict, work-family culture, and organizational citizenship behavior among teachers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20(2), 303-324.

Burke, J. (2003). Trends in higher education performance. Journal of State Government, 76(2), 23-24.

Burton, J., Sablynski, C., & Sekiguchi, T. (2008). Linking justice, performance, and citizenship via leader-member exchange. Journal of Business & Psychology, 23(1), 51-61.

Carey, K. (2007, September-October). Truth without action: The myth of higher education accountability. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 39(5), pp. 24-29.

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (2011, December 1). Classification Descriptions. Retrieved from Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Website: http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/

Caswell, B. (2009). Stimulating 'Lazy' Employees. Canadian HR Reporter, 22(2), 21.

Chahal, H., & Mehta, S. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB): A conceptual framework in reference to health care sector. Journal of Services Research, 10(2), 25-44.

Chang, C., Johnson, R. E., & Yang, L. (2007). Emotional strain and organizational citizenship behaviours: A meta-analysis and review. Work & Stress, 21(4), 312-332.

Chiaburu, D. S. (2007). From interactional justice to citizenship behaviors: Role enlargement or role discretion? Social Justice Research, 20(2), 207-227.

Chiu, S., & Chen, H. (2005). Relationship between job characteristics and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediational role of job satisfaction. Social Behavior and Personality, 33(6), 523-540.

Chiu, S., & Miao-Ching, T. (2006). Relationships among burnout, job involvement, and organizational citizenship behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 140(6), 517-530.

Page 66: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 55

Chughtai, A. A. (2008). Impact of job involvement on in-role job performance and organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 9(2), 169-183.

Creswell, J. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Deckop, J. R., McClendon, J. A., & Harris-Pereles, K. L. (1993). The effect of strike militancy intentions and general union attitudes on the organizational citizenship behavior of university faculty. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 6(2), 85-97.

Deluga, R. (1994). Supervisor trust building, leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67(4), 315-326.

DiPaola, M. F., & Hoy, W. K. (2005). Organizational citizenship of faculty and achievement of high school students. High School Journal, 88(3), 35-44.

Emmerik, I. H., Jawahar, I. M., & Stone, T. (2005). Associations among altruism, burnout dimensions, and organizational citizenship behaviour. Work & Stress, 19(1), 93-100.

Fairweather, J. S. (2002). The mythologies of faculty productivity: Implications for institutional policy and decision making. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(1), 26-48.

Feather, N. T., & Rauter, K. A. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviours in relation to job status, job insecurity, organizational commitment and identification, job satisfaction and work values. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 81-94.

Finkelstein, M. A., & Penner, L. A. (2004). Predicting organizational citienship behavior: Integrating the functional and role identity approaches. Social Behavior and Personality, 32(4), 383-398.

Giroux, H. A. (2001). Vocationalizing higher education: Schooling and the politics of corporate culture. In H. A. Giroux, & K. Myrsiades, Beyond the Corporate University (pp. 29-44). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Giroux, H. A., & Myrsiades, K. (2001). Beyond the Corporate University. (H. A. Giroux, & K. Myrsiades, Eds.) Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Goldberg, A. J., & Fleming, W. P. (2010). Cost-containment and cost-management strategies. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(5), 308-311.

Gyekye, S. A., & Salminen, S. (2005). Are "good soldiers" safety conscious? An examination of the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and perception of workpace safety. Social Behavior and Personality, 33(8), 805-820.

Hardre, P., & Cox, M. (2009). Evaluating faculty work: Expectations and standards of faculty performance in research universities. Research Papers in Education, 24(4), 383-419.

Harvey, L., & Green, D. (1993). Defining quality. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 18(1), 9-26.

Harvey, L., & Williams, J. (2010). Fifteen years of Quality in Higher Education. Quality in Higher Education, 16(1), 3-36.

Huisman, J., & Currie, J. (2004). Accountability in higher education: Bridge over troubled water? Higher Education, 48(4), 529-551.

Jimmieson, N. L., Hannam, R. L., & Yeo, G. B. (2010). Teacher organizational citizenship behaviours and job efficacy: Implications for student quality of school life. British Journal of Psychology, 101(3), 453-479.

Page 67: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 56

Johns, G. (2011). Attendance dynamics at work: The antecedents and correlates of presenteeism, absenteeism, and productivity loss. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(4), 483-500.

Johnson, J., Truxillo, D. M., Erdogan, B., Bauer, T., & Hammer, L. (2009). Perceptions of overall fairness: Are effects on job performance moderated by leader-member exchange? Human Performance, 22(5), 432-449.

Kansas State University. (2011, November 2). Office of Affirmative Action. Retrieved November 2, 2011 from Kansas State University web site: http://www.k-state.edu/affact/Opportunities/unclass.htm

Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (1992). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 71-79.

Kelloway, E. K., Loughlin, C., Barling, J., & Nault, A. (2002). Self-reported counterproductive behaviors and organizational citizenship behaviors: Separate but related constructs. International Journal of Selection & Assessment, 10(1/2), 143-152.

Kent, A., & Chelladurai, P. (2001). Perceived transformational leadership, organizational commitment and citizenship behavior: A case study in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sports Management, 15(2), 135-160.

Kickul, J., & Lester, S. W. (2001). Broken promises: Equity sensitivity as a moderator between psychological contract breach and empoyee attitudes and behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(2), 191-217.

Konovsky, M. A., & Organ, D. W. (1996). Dispositional and contextual determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(3), 253-266.

Kuvaas, B. (2006). Work performance, affective commitment, and work motivation: The roles of pay administration and pay level. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 27(3), 365-385.

Lapierre, L. M., & Hackett, R. D. (2007). Trait conscientiousness, leader-member exchange, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviour: A test of an integrative model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 60(3), 539-554.

Lee, K., & Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: The role of affect and cognitions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 131-142.

LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 52-65.

Liefner, I. (2003). Funding, resource allocation, and performance in higher education systems. Higher Education, 46 (4), 469-489.

MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2011). Challenge-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational effectiveness: Do challenge-oriented behaviors really have an impact on the organization's bottom line? Personnel Psychology (64), 559-592.

McLendon, M. K., & Hearn, J. C. (2006). Called to account: Analyzing the origins and spread of the state performance-accountability policies for higher education. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 28(1), 1-24.

Messersmith, J. G., Patel, P. C., & Lepak, D. P. (2011, July 25). Unlocking the black box: Exploring the link between high-performance work systems and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1-14.

Page 68: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 57

Miles, D. E., Borman, W. E., Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). Building an integrative model of extra role work behaviors: A comparison of counterproductive work behavior with organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Selection & Assessment, 10(1/2), 51-58.

Moore, J. E., & Love, M. S. (2005). IT professionals as organizational citizens. Communications of the ACM, 48(6), 88-93.

Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(6), 845-855.

Moorman, R. H., & Harland, L. K. (2002). Temporary employees as good citizens: Factors influencing their OCB performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(2), 171-187.

National Science Foundation. (2010, October 12). WebCASPAR. Retrieved from WebCASPAR: Integrated Science and Engineering Resource Data System: https://webcaspar.nsf.gov

Neuman, G. A., & Kickul, J. R. (1998). Organizational citizenship behaviors: Achievement orientation and personality. Journal of Business and Psychology, 13(2), 263-279.

Nichols, M. (2006, March). Great employees make a great business. Retrieved 2011 from Business Week Online: http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/content/mar2006/sb20060331_447002.htm

Nishii, L. H., Lepak, D. P., & Schneider, B. (2008). Employee attributions of the "why" of HR practices: Their effects on employee attitudes and behaviors, and customer satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 61, 503-545.

Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It's construct clean-up time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books.

Organ, D. W., & Lingl, A. (1995). Personality, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135(3), 339-350.

Ozer, M. (2011). A moderated mediation model of the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), 1328-1336.

Penner, L. A., Midili, A. R., & Kegelmeyer, J. (1997). Beyond job attitudes: A personality and social psychology perspective on the causes of organizational citizenship behavior. Human Performance, 10(2), 111-131.

Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 122-141.

Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and suggestions for future research. Human Performance, 10(2), 133-151.

Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research, 31, 351-363.

Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 262-270.

Page 69: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 58

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513-563.

Rosen, E. D. (1993). Improving Public Sector Productivity: Concepts and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Rosenfeld, L. B., & Long, B. W. (1992). An evaluation system for measuring faculty performance. Association Communication Administration Bulletin, 79, 36-44.

Sackett, P. R., Berry, C. M., Wiemann, S. A., & Laczo, R. M. (2006). Citizenship and counterproductive behavior: Clarifying relations between the two domains. Human Performance, 19(4), 441-464.

Schappe, S. P. (1998). The influence of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and fairness perceptions on organizational citizenship behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 132(3), 277-290.

Serban, A. M. (1998). Precursors of performance funding. New Directions for Institutional Research, 25(97), 15-24.

Shafritz, J. M., Hyde, A. C., & Parkes, S. J. (2004). Classics of Public Administration (5th Edition ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Shin, J. C. (2010). Impacts of performance-based accountability on institutional performance in the U.S. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 60(1), 47-68.

Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653-663.

Todd, S. Y., & Kent, A. (2006). Direct and indirect effects of task characteristics on organizational citizenship behavior. North American Journal of Psychology, 8(2), 253-268.

Turnipseed, D., & Murkison, G. (2000). Good soldiers and their syndrome: Organizational citizenship behavior and the work environment. North American Journal of Psychology, 2(2), 281-303.

U.S. Department of Education. (1999). National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Washington D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics.

Umayal, K. P., & Suganthi, L. (2010). A strategic framework for managing higher educational institutions. Advances in Management, 3(10), 15-21.

Vey, M. A., & Campbell, J. P. (2004). In-role or extra-role organizational citizenship behavior: Which are we measuring? Human Performance, 17(1), 119-135.

Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2006). Compulsory citizenship behavior: Theorizing some dark sides of the good soldier syndrome in organizations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 36(1), 77-93.

Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2007). Redrawing the boundaries of OCB? An empirical examination of compulsory extra-role behavior in the workplace. Journal of Business & Psychology, 21(3), 377-405.

Vigoda-Gadot, E., & Angert, L. (2007). Goal setting theory, job feedback, and OCB: Lessons from a longitudinal study. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29(2), 119-128.

Walz, S. M., & Niehoff, B. P. (1996). Organizational citizenship behaviors and their effect on organizational effectiveness in limited-menu restaurants. Academy of Management best papers proceedings (pp. 307-311). Briarcliff Manor, NY: Academy of Management.

Page 70: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 59

Washburn, J. (2005). University Inc.: The Corporate Corruption of Higher Education. New York: Basic Books.

Whitman, D. S., Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Satisfaction, citizenship behaviors, and performance in work units: A meta-analysis of collective construct relations. Personnel Psychology, 63(1), 41-81.

Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601-618.

Williams, S., Pitre, R., & Zainuba, M. (2002). Justice and organizationa citizenship behavior intentions: Fair rewards versus fair treatment. Journal of Social Psychology, 142(1), 33-44.

Yu, M. L., Hamid, S., Ijab, M. T., & Soo, H. P. (2009). The e-balanced scorecard (e-BSC) for measuring academic staff performance excellence. HIgher Education, 57(6), 813-828.

!

!

! !

Page 71: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 60

APPENDIX A

FACULTY OCB AND PERFORMANCE SURVEY

!

! !

Page 72: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 61

Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey.

The purpose for conducting the study is to describe organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) in the higher education context, describe the relationships between OCBs and various aspects of faculty and staff performance, and explore the extent to which institutional leaders should be concerned with the OCBs of both faculty and professional staff.

The results of the study may help leaders and administrators in higher education further understand the nature of the employment relationship for faculty and staff. There are no risks associated with participating in this study.

Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you maintain the right to withdraw at any time. Only group data will be reported, and all individual responses will be held in strictest confidence. This survey should take you approximately ten minutes to complete.

Should you have questions about the study, please feel free to contact either Kevin Rose ([email protected]; XXX-XXX-XXXX) or Dr. Michael Miller ([email protected]; 479-575-3582) at the University of Arkansas. Questions may also be directed to the University of Arkansas Institutional Review Board Compliance Coordinator, Ro Windwalker ([email protected]; 479-575-2208).

By clicking the 'proceed' button, you consent to participate in this study.

Page 73: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 62

Below are a number of statements that describe behaviors individuals may engage in at work. Please indicate how often you engage in the following behaviors.

Very seldom

Seldom Somewhat seldom

The same Somewhat often

Often Very often

Help other who have been absent

Willingly give your time to help others who have work-related problems

Adjust your work schedule to accommodate other employees’ requests for time off

Go out of the way to make newer employees feel welcome in the work group

Show genuine concern and courtesy toward coworkers, even under the most trying business or personal situations

Give up time to help others who have work or non-work problems

Assist others with their duties

Share personal property with others to help their work

Attend functions that are not required but that help the organizational image

Keep up with developments in the organization

Defend the organization when other employees criticize it

Show pride when representing the organization in public

Offer ideas to improve the functioning of the organization

Express loyalty toward the organization

Take action to protect the organization from potential problems

Demonstrate concern about the image of the organization

Page 74: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 63

The following questions ask about specific work activities. Please answer each question for the most recent calendar year. This would include the spring 2011, summer 2011, and fall 2011 academic terms.

How many refereed journal publications have had in the past year?

0

1-2

3-4

5-6

7 or more

How many conference presentations or workshops OR exhibitions or performances have you had in the past year?

0

1-2

3-4

5-6

7 or more

During the past year, how many undergraduate or graduate thesis or dissertation committees, comprehensive exams or orals committees, or examination or certification committees did you serve on or chair at your institution?

0 1-2 3-4 5-6 7 or more Undergraduate thesis honors committees; comprehensive exams or orals committees; examination/certification committees

Graduate thesis or dissertation committees; comprehensive exams or orals committees (other than as part of thesis/ dissertation committees); examination/certification committees

Page 75: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 64

During the past year, what was the total number of classes or sections you taught at your institution (not counting overload course instruction)?

• Do not include individualized instruction, such as independent study, individual performance classes, or working with individual students in a clinical or research setting.

• Count multiple sections of the same course as a separate class (e.g., if you taught Sociology 101 to two different groups of students during the term, count this as two separate classes).

• Count lab or discussion sections of a class as the same class (e.g., if you taught Biology 202 to a group of students during the term and the class consisted of a lecture two times a week, a lab one day a week, and a discussion section one day a week, count this work as one class).

0

1-2

3-4

5-6

7 or more

On average, how many contact hours per week did you spend with students you were assigned to advise?

0

1-2

3-4

5-6

7 or more

During the past year, how many times did you serve as a principal investigator (PI) or co-principal investigator (Co-PI) for any grants or contracts?

0

1-2

3-4

5-6

7 or more

Page 76: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 65

What were the total number of grants/contracts from all sources over the previous year?

0

1-2

3-4

5-6

7 or more

During the past year, how many of the following types of administrative committees did you serve on at this institution? Include committees at the department or division level, the school or college level, and institution- and system-wide committees.

0 1-2 3-4 5-6 7 or more Curriculum Committees Personnel Committees (e.g., search or recruitment committees)

Governance Committees (e.g., faculty senate, student retention, budget, or admissions)

Other

During the next three years, how likely is it that you will leave this job either for employment at another institution, employment outside of higher education, or retirement from the labor force?

Very Unlikely

Unlikely

Somewhat Unlikely

Undecided

Somewhat Likely

Likely

Very Likely

!

! !

Page 77: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 66

APPENDIX B

STAFF OCB AND PERFORMANCE SURVEY

!

! !

Page 78: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 67

Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey.

The purpose for conducting the study is to describe organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) in the higher education context, describe the relationships between OCBs and various aspects of faculty and staff performance, and explore the extent to which institutional leaders should be concerned with the OCBs of both faculty and professional staff.

The results of the study may help leaders and administrators in higher education further understand the nature of the employment relationship for faculty and staff. There are no risks associated with participating in this study.

Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you maintain the right to withdraw at any time. Only group data will be reported, and all individual responses will be held in strictest confidence. This survey should take you approximately ten minutes to complete.

Should you have questions about the study, please feel free to contact either Kevin Rose ([email protected]; XXX-XXX-XXXX) or Dr. Michael Miller ([email protected]; 479-575-3582) at the University of Arkansas. Questions may also be directed to the University of Arkansas Institutional Review Board Compliance Coordinator, Ro Windwalker ([email protected]; 479-575-2208).

By clicking the 'proceed' button, you consent to participate in this study.

Page 79: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 68

Below are a number of statements that describe behaviors individuals may engage in at work. Please indicate how often you engage in the following behaviors.

Very seldom

Seldom Somewhat seldom

The same Somewhat often

Often Very often

Help other who have been absent

Willingly give your time to help others who have work-related problems

Adjust your work schedule to accommodate other employees’ requests for time off

Go out of the way to make newer employees feel welcome in the work group

Show genuine concern and courtesy toward coworkers, even under the most trying business or personal situations

Give up time to help others who have work or non-work problems

Assist others with their duties

Share personal property with others to help their work

Attend functions that are not required but that help the organizational image

Keep up with developments in the organization

Defend the organization when other employees criticize it

Show pride when representing the organization in public

Offer ideas to improve the functioning of the organization

Express loyalty toward the organization

Take action to protect the organization from potential problems

Demonstrate concern about the image of the organization

Page 80: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 69

The following questions ask about specific work activities and attitudes. Please answer each question for the most recent calendar year. This would include the spring 2011, summer 2011, and fall 2011 academic terms.

How many days were you absent from work in the past year? This refers to absenteeism for any reason excluding vacations and scheduled days off.

0

1-2

3-4

5-6

7 or more

Please indicate your level of agreement or disagreement with the following statements.

Strongly disagree

Disagree Somewhat disagree

Neither agree nor disagree

Somewhat agree

Agree Strongly agree

I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to my department.

I often put in extra effort in my work.

In general, I don't like my job.

I try to work as hard as possible.

In general, I like working here.

I give up time to help others who have work or non-work problems.

The quality of my work is top-notch.

I do not feel 'emotionally attached' to this department.

I often perform better than can be expected from me.

I show genuine concern and courtesy toward coworkers, even under the most trying business or personal situations.

All things considered, I feel pretty good about this job.

Page 81: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 70

I intentionally expend a great deal of effort.

I almost always perform better than an acceptable level.

This department has a great deal of personal meaning for me.

I would be happy to spend the rest of my career in this department.

During the next three years, how likely is it that you will leave this job either for employment at another institution, employment outside of higher education, or retirement from the labor force?

Very Unlikely

Unlikely

Somewhat Unlikely

Undecided

Somewhat Likely

Likely

Very Likely

!

!

! !

Page 82: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 71

APPENDIX C

IRB APPROVAL LETTER

!

! !

Page 83: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 72

!

!

!

!

!

!

! !

Page 84: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 73

APPENDIX D

SURVEY COVER LETTER

!

! !

Page 85: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 74

Hello:

My name is Kevin Rose and I am a current doctoral student at the University of Arkansas. I am completing my dissertation in Workforce Development Education.

You have been selected as a participant for my research study. If you are willing to complete this survey, please click here or copy and paste this URL into your browser: https://uark.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_1LEiZX0I117GoCw&

The purpose for conducting the study is to describe organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) in the higher education context, describe the relationships between OCBs and various aspects of faculty and staff performance, and explore the extent to which institutional leaders should be concerned with the OCBs of both faculty and professional staff.

The results of the study may help leaders and administrators in higher education further understand the nature of the employment relationship for faculty and staff. There are no risks associated with participating in this study.

Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you maintain the right to withdraw at any time. Only group data will be reported, and all individual responses will be held in strictest confidence. This survey should take you approximately ten minutes to complete.

Please respond by February 29, 2012.

Should you have questions about the study, please feel free to contact either Kevin Rose ([email protected]; XXX-XXX-XXXX) or Dr. Michael Miller ([email protected]; 479-575-3582) at the University of Arkansas. Questions may also be directed to the University of Arkansas Institutional Review Board Compliance Coordinator, Ro Windwalker ([email protected]; 479-575-2208).

Thank you in advance for your help in completing my study.

Sincerely,

Kevin Rose

!

!

! !

Page 86: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 75

APPENDIX E

TABLE 8: VARIABLE CORRELATIONS FOR FACULTY

!

Page 87: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

!

Table 8

Variable Correlations for Faculty

Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1. OCB 1

-

74

2. OCB-I .835**

.000

74

1

-

75

3. OCB-O .839**

.000

74

.402**

.000

74

1

-

79

4. Pubs. .033

.785

73

.081

.495

74

-.044

.976

77

1

-

79

5. Pres. .255*

.030

73

.164

.162

74

.225*

.049

77

.384**

.000

79

1

-

79

6.

UComm.

.025

.843

68

.173

.155

69

-.135

.260

72

.188

.108

74

-.055

.640

74

1

-

74

7.

GComm.

.226

.055

73

.161

.169

74

.197

.086

77

.407**

.000

79

.392**

.000

79

.191

.103

74

1

-

79

8. Classes .100

.398

73

-.008

.948

74

.201

.080

77

-.092

.419

79

-.112

.326

79

-.025

.832

74

-.084

.463

79

1

-

79

9. Hours .226

.056

72

.374**

.001

73

.003

.977

76

.276*

.014

78

.381**

.001

78

.301**

.010

73

.394**

.000

78

-.068

.554

78

1

-

79

10. PI .014

.909

72

-.029

.809

73

.047

.687

76

.378**

.001

78

.250*

.027

78

.147

.214

73

.461**

.000

78

-.261*

.021

78

.269*

.018

77

1

-

79

76

76

Page 88: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education

! 2

11. Grants .087

.466

73

.052

.658

74

.091

.430

77

.409**

.000

79

.306**

.006

79

.153

.194

74

.433**

.000

79

-.168

.138

79

.182

.111

78

.785**

.000

78

1

-

79

10.

CComm.

.210

.079

71

.144

.228

72

.225

.054

74

-.040

.729

76

.130

.262

76

-.061

.610

72

.171

.140

76

.240*

.037

76

-.050

.668

75

-.031

.793

75

.006

.962

76

1

-

79

11.

GovComm

.

.229

.062

67

.144

.242

68

.240*

.044

71

.121

.310

72

.112

.351

72

.153

.209

69

.308**

.009

72

.025

.836

72

.227

.057

71

.136

.257

71

.165

.167

72

-.007

.956

70

1

-

79

12.

PComm.

.234

.053

69

.108

.373

70

.288*

.013

73

.023

.847

75

.046

.698

75

.104

.387

71

.188

.107

75

.073

.534

75

.145

.217

74

.139

.238

74

.162

.164

75

.108

.366

72

.185

.126

70

1

-

79

13.

OComm.

.261*

.042

61

.100

.440

62

.355**

.004

63

.173

.169

65

.063

.619

65

.184

.156

61

.486**

.000

65

.029

.821

65

.302*

.014

65

.255*

.040

65

.275*

.027

65

-.006

.964

63

.091

.484

61

.284*

.024

63

1

-

79

14.

Turnover

-.072

.545

73

-.066

.574

74

-.029

.803

77

-.249*

.027

79

-.082

.473

79

-.135

.251

74

-.095

.406

79

.026

.821

79

-.124

.280

78

-.103

.370

78

-.053

.642

79

-.110

.344

76

-.214

.071

72

-.062

.595

75

-.201

.109

65

1

-

79

77