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Optimal protein intake and meal frequency to support maximal protein synthesis and muscle mass. Layne Norton, B.S. Division of Nutritional Sciences University of Illinois

Optimal protein intake and meal frequency to support ... · PDF filemeal frequency to support maximal protein synthesis and ... MPS becomes ‘refractory ... Optimal protein intake

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Page 1: Optimal protein intake and meal frequency to support ... · PDF filemeal frequency to support maximal protein synthesis and ... MPS becomes ‘refractory ... Optimal protein intake

Optimal protein intake and

meal frequency to support

maximal protein synthesis

and muscle mass.

Layne Norton, B.S.

Division of Nutritional Sciences

University of Illinois

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Overview

Background

Determining optimal protein intake

Optimal Frequency

Refractory Phenomenon

Future Research

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Background

High protein diets are popular amongst athletes and bodybuilders

Purported to have various beneficial effects

Increase muscle mass

Decrease bodyfat

Improve exercise performance and recovery

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Current RDA is 0.8g/kg for protein intake.

Current recommendations are based on minimum needs to achieve short-term nitrogen balance

Often do not control for protein distribution, protein source, and are often not applicable to meal feeding.

Empirical evidence suggests many trainers and coaches frequently recommend amounts that are 2-4g/kg or even greater.

How do we define optimal protein intakes to maximize muscle mass?

Background

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Determining Optimal Intake

Determine optimal protein intake at individual

meals to maximize protein synthesis (MPS)

Determine optimal frequency of meal intake

These variables will dictate total protein intake

Specific meal recommendations are likely more

beneficial than daily recommendations

MPS is regulated from meal to meal, not day to day.

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Leucine in regulation of protein synthesis

Leucine (leu) has been shown to stimulate protein

synthesis and translation initiation to the same extent as

a complete meal and is likely the major amino acid

responsible for the anabolic effects of a meal (1).

mTOR (+)

[Leucine]

p70S6K (+) 4E-BP1-eIF4E

eIF4E

eIF4G (+)

eIF4E-eIF4G (+)

Protein Synthesis (+)

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Possible that activating and

maximizing MPS is

dependant upon achieving a

specific post-prandial

concentration of leu in the

plasma.

A certain amount of dietary

leu is required to increase

plasma leu levels and

activate mTOR signaling

and MPS.

What level of dietary leu at

a meal is required to

maximize this response?

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Control 10% Protein

Wheat

Whey

Pla

sma

Leu

cin

e (µ

M)

*

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Control 10% Protein

Wheat

WheyF

SR

(%

/d

ay)

*unpublished data

*

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Padden-Jones et al. showed

that administration of an

essential amino acid (EAA)

solution containing 2.8g leu

increased MPS by ~60% in

adult humans (2).

Tipton et al. demonstrated

that amino acid solutions

containing 4.4g and 8.3g leu

stimulate MPS similarly (50-

70% increase) in adults (3).

It is likely ~3-4g leucine

(~0.045-0.06 g/kg) will

maximize MPS at a meal in

adults.

Combined data sets

% I

ncr

ease

fro

m c

on

tro

ls0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Controls 2.8g Leu 4.4g Leu 8.3g Leu

Padden-Jones

Tipton

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Leucine content of various protein sources

Protein Source

Leu % of total

protein)

Amount of protein from source to reach 3-4g

Leucine Amount of food source required

Whey Protein

Isolate 12.0% 25-33g 27-36g

Milk Protein

Isolate 9.8% 31-41g 34-46g

Casein 9.3% 32-43g variable depending upon casein powder type

Egg 8.6% 35-47g 280-376g or approx 4.5-6.5 large whole eggs

Fish 8.1% 38-50g 158-208g

Beef 8.0% 38-51g 126-170g

Pork 8.0% 38-51g 133-179g

Chicken 7.5% 41-54g 132-174g

Wheat 6.8% 44-59g 440-590g or 15-20 slices of bread

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Recap

MPS is maximized by an oral administration of

3-4g (0.045g-0.06g/kg) leu in adults and elderly.

Key Questions:

How long does the MPS response last?

When can this response be stimulated again?

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Optimal Frequency

The duration of MPS in response to a purified

leu or EAA solution has been previously

characterized and lasts approximately 2 hours in

rats and humans (4,5).

Bohe et al. infused EAA for 6 hours but this

only produced an MPS response lasting 2 hours

though plasma amino acids remained elevated

for the entire duration of the experiment.

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Our lab has characterized the

time course of MPS in rats

fed a complete meal

containing 20, 50, and 30%

of energy from protein,

carbohydrates, and lipids

respectively (6).

MPS time course was

complete at 3 hours but

plasma amino acids were still

elevated.

MPS decreasing though

plasma leu remains elevated.

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

0 45 90 135 180 300

Plasma Leucine (µM)

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

0 45 90 135 180 300

MPS (%/day)

* * * *

*

*

*

*different from baseline P<0.05; †p<0.10

*different from baseline P<0.05

Time (minutes)

Time (minutes)

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The Refractory Phenomenon

MPS becomes ‘refractory’ to constant elevations

in leu.

Perhaps leu availability stimulates MPS but

sustained elevations in plasma leu are

insufficient to maintain elevated MPS.

Why are constant elevations in plasma leu

unable to produce sustained increases in MPS?

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Possible explanations?

Reduced availability of intramuscular leu?

150

200

250

300

350

400

0 45 90 135 180 300

*

* **

Does not explain refractory nature of MPS.

mm

ol/

kg

wet

tis

sue

Time (minutes)

Intramuscular Leucine

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Possible Explanations?

Possible that translation factor activation is reduced?

Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and p70S6K were closely associated with plasma leuconcentrations.

Translation factor activation remained elevated at 180 minutes but MPS had returned to baseline.

Does not explain refractory phenomenon.

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0 45 90 135 180 300

Gam

ma

form

/to

tal

4E-BP1 Phosphorylation

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0 45 90 135 180 300

Gam

ma

+B

eta

form

s/to

tal

p70S6K Phosphorylation

*

*

* *

*

*

**

*

*different from baseline P<0.05

*different from baseline P<0.05

Time (minutes)

Time (minutes)

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Possible Explanations?

Reduced eIF4E*eIF4G binding?

Time (minutes)

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0 45 90 135 180 300

‡‡

*

*

eIF

4G

bo

un

d t

o e

IF4E

/to

tal 4E

eIF4E*eIF4G Binding

Unlikely to be responsible for MPS becoming refractory

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Possible Explanations?

Reductions in other plasma EAA?

At 180 minutes most EAA were still elevated above

baseline levels.

Bohe et al. maintained elevated EAA during an

infusion for 6 hours but could not overcome the

refractory phenomenon.

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Possible Explanations?

Insulin?

Similar time course as MPS.

Similar time course to MPS in other studies (4,5).

Cause or coincidence?

Insulin exerts stimulatory effects on MPS through mTORpathway.

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

0 45 90 135 180 300

Insulin

Time (minutes)

Insu

lin (

pm

ol/

L)

*

*

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Possible Explanations?

At the moment the cause of the refractory phenomenon to constant elevations in amino acids is unknown but may involve insulin.

Likely downstream of the mTOR pathway.

Possible that changes in leu concentrations are more important than absolute leu concentrations?

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Possible explanations?

Paddon-Jones et al. demonstrated MPS could be

improved by taking an EAA supplement

containing 2.8g leu in between meals consumed

every 5 hours compared to an unsupplemented

group consuming the same meals (7).

Possible that a free amino acid supplement is

able to increase plasma leu concentrations

greater than a meal alone and improve MPS.

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Optimal Meal Frequency?

Unlikely that another meal will stimulate MPS while it is refractory.

Possible that plasma leu levels may need to fall before MPS can be stimulated again.

Unlikely that consuming small amounts of protein over many meals will produce sustained elevations in MPS.

It is likely better to consume larger doses of protein to maximize the MPS response and spread these doses apart by at least 4-6 hours.

Consuming an EAA/leu supplement in between meals may help optimize MPS.

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General recommendations?

Example: 200 lb male athlete/bodybuilder

5 meals per day (one meal every 4-6 hours)

Goal: 4g/leu per meal (0.045g leu/kg BW/meal)

Meal protein sources:

2 meals: whey (33g protein at each meal)

2 meals: chicken (54g protein at each meal)

1 meal: beef (51g protein)

Total protein intake: 225g/day

3-4g leu supplement consumed between meals may optimize MPS response.

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Other Considerations

Age

Digestion rates of protein sources

Total calorie intake

Training intensity and duration

Protein degradation

Countless variables will make pinpointing

specific numbers very difficult.

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Future research

Determine when MPS can be stimulated again after a complete meal.

Further examine the role of insulin in maintaining MPS after a meal.

Determine if an oral dose of BCAAs producing supraphysiological concentrations of plasma leu can overcome the refractory response of MPS.

Elucidate differences in MPS responses to meals containing different isonitrogenous protein sources with varying leu contents.

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References

1. Norton LE and Layman DK. Leucine regulates translation initiation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after exercise. J Nutr. 2006; 136(2):533S-537S.

2. Padden-Jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Zhang XJ, Volpi E, Wolf SE, Aarsland A, Ferrando AA, Wolfe RR. Amino acid ingestion improves muscle protein synthesis in the young and elderly. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Mar;286(3):E321-8.

3. Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle Jr, Wolfe RR. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol. 1999 Apr;276(4 Pt 1):E628-34.

4. Anthony JC, Lang CH, Crozier SJ, Anthony TG, MacLean DA, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS.

Contribution of insulin to the translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by

leucine. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;282(5):E1092-101.

5. Bohe J, Low JF, Wolfe RR, Rennie MJ. Latency and duration of stimulation of human muscle protein synthesis during continuous infusion of amino acids. J Physiol. 2001 Apr 15;532(Pt 2):575-9.

6. Norton, L.E., Layman, D.K., Garlick, P.J., Brana, D., Anthony, T.G., Zhao, L., Devkota, S. and Walker, D.A., (2007) Translational controls of skeletal muscle protein synthesis are delayed and prolonged associated with ingestion of a complete meal. 2007 Experimental Biology meeting abstracts [on CD-ROM], Abstract #694.6

7. Paddon-Jones D, Sheffield-Moore M, Aarsland A, Wolfe RR, Ferrando AA.

Exogenous amino acids stimulate human muscle anabolism without interfering with the response to mixed meal ingestion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Apr;288(4):E761-7. Epub 2004 Nov 30.

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Acknowledgments

Dr. Don Layman

Dee Walker

Suzanne Devkota

Chris Moulton

Gabe and Jacob Wilson

Dr. Tracy Anthony

Piwan Bunpo

My wife, Isabel

Page 27: Optimal protein intake and meal frequency to support ... · PDF filemeal frequency to support maximal protein synthesis and ... MPS becomes ‘refractory ... Optimal protein intake

Questions?