North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia

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North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia. What makes this A Region?. Deserts and Mountains Population that practices one of the three major monotheistic religions Possession of more than half of the worlds known oil reserves A need for freshwater resources - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia

North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia

North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia

1What makes this A Region?Deserts and MountainsPopulation that practices one of the three major monotheistic religionsPossession of more than half of the worlds known oil reservesA need for freshwater resourcesA history of external cultural influences

2Physical GeographyTectonic activity responsible for shaping landscape4 tectonic plates converge in this regionShifting plates have built mountains and frequently cause earthquakesAtlas mountains are found in North AfricaPrecipitation on northern side of mountains makes this an agriculturally productive regionAlong the coast of the Arabian Peninsula two mountain ranges, Hejaz and Asir, Asir region the most agriculturally productive region in Southwest AsiaCaucus Mountains are found between the Caspian and Black Seas

3Physical GeographyCoastal Plains are the most fertile regions and support agricultureMajor peninsulas- Arabian, Sinai, AnatolianLandlocked bodies of saltwater are found in the regionCaspian Sea- largest inland body of water on EarthDead Sea on the border of Israel and Jordan is at the mouth of the Jordan RiverAral Sea in Central Asia1960s fourth largest body of water in the worldDried up in the 1970s to present because of water used for irrigation to grow cotton, split the sea north and south

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5Physical GeographyWater SystemsRegion lacks abundant water resources and rivers have always been important and affected developmentNile River fertile land along river home to one of the worlds earliest civilizations90% of population lives in Nile River delta (3% of Egypts land)Aswan High Dam on Nile provides hydroelectric power and water for agricultureTigris- Euphrates valley in Southwest Asia was a cradle of civilizationToday dams provide water for agriculture and hydroelectric power for Syria, Iraq and Turkey

6Physical GeographyOil and natural gas are the most important natural resources in the regionRegion contains over 60% of the know world oil reservesOil exports have enriched the regionEconomy can rise or sink because of fluctuation in world oil marketsMany countries in the region are trying to diversify their economies away from reliance on oil exports

7ClimateWater scarcity affects the regions climateDeserts cover more than 50% of the regionSahara Desert largest desert in the world, covers North AfricaWeather patterns in deserts are extreme, cold nights and long hot summersRub al-Khali in Saudi Arabia largest area of sand in the worldSome nomadic herding and small scale farming is possible in oasis regionsVillages develop around oases

8ClimateSteppe is the second largest climate regionSupports livestock grazingMediterranean climates are found in coastal areasCountries rely on Mediterranean climates to export citrus fruits, olives to Europe and North AmericaThese regions also benefit from tourism

9Cultural Geography

10North AfricaIndigenous cultures of North Africa have mixed with Arab and European culturesSpanish, French, Roman, Jewish and Muslim cultures have influenced the regionEuropean influence mainly in coastal North Arica (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia)Primary cultural mixture is Arab and indigenous culturesArab invaders mixed with native Berber peopleBerbers exist today as farmers and pastoral nomadsArabs migrated to the region around 600

11North AfricaAvailability of water has influenced settlementMost people settled along seacoasts and river deltasCairo, Egypt is one of the most densely populated cities on the planet

12North AfricaLocation near Europe and Southwest Asia has made the region vulnerable to invasion over the centuriesRegions farmers were among the first in the world to domesticate plants and animalsOne of the world first great civilizations developed in the Nile River ValleyIn the 600s Arab invasions and heavily influenced cultures of the regionThe Arabs brought their language, architecture and Islam European colonial influence in the 1800s helped develop the regions geometric boundaries

13North AfricaEgypt gained independence in 1922 from Great BritainTypically pro- Western in their views, country has a large militaryTheir control of the Suez canal has made it a key regional powerEgypt is also a center of Arab nationalismAlgeria gained independence from France in 1962They have developed their natural resources (oil) and raised their standard of livingLibya gained independence from Italy in 1951Since 1969 they have been ruled by a military dictator Muammar Kaddafi (until last year)Morocco and Tunisia gained independence from France in 1956

14North AfricaMost people in North Africa practice IslamMost share the Arabic languageLiteracy rates range widely from 52% in Morocco to 82% in LibyaHealth care is government run in most countries, with urban areas receiving better health care than rural areas

15Eastern MediterraneanCountries in the region include: Israel, Jordan, Syria, LebanonDry desert climate of the region causes majority of population to live along coasts and Euphrates River ValleyParts of region have highest population densities in the regionEastern Mediterranean is 75% urbanPeople from over 100 countries have settled in Israel, makes an ethnically diverse country16Eastern MediterraneanRegion is inhabited by Jews and ArabsMost Jews live in IsraelTrace heritage to region that is today Israel and LebanonInvasions led to exile and persecution, forced many Jews to relocate to different countries1948 Israel founded as an independent Jewish stateArabs in region did not want Jewish state that had been their homeland for centuries, brought a series of six wars to the region sine 1948Palestinians are the Arab people that live where Israel is todayMany have been displaced from their homes and have been forced to become refugees

17Eastern MediterraneanThree major religions began in regionJudaism, Christianity, and IslamAll three share similar beliefs, especially monotheismJudaism is the oldest of the monotheistic faithsChristianity was founded in the land of Israel in AD 30Islamic tradition began on nearby Arabian peninsula and spread to the region by AD 700

18Eastern MediterraneanJews in the late 1800s called Zionists , called for a return to Palestine and the foundation of a Jewish stateAfter WWII the UN divided Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state1948 Jews proclaim the independent state of IsraelSeries of wars occurred over the next 50 years and caused many Palestinians to become refugeesMany Palestinians today live in Israeli controlled settlements in IsraelPalestinians want an independent state of their ownIsrael agreed to give the Palestinians some self rule in the 1990s, but have since changed their position The militant Palestinians group Hamas has supported attacks on Israeli territory

19Eastern MediterraneanMost people in are MuslimLarge groups of Christians live in Syria and LebanonHebrew is spoken in Israel, while other countries speak ArabicLiteracy rates vary from 76% in Syria to 96% in Israel

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