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Methods, Evaluation and Innovation
António Lopes and Raúl Ruiz Cecilia
New Trends in Foreign Language Teaching: Methods, Evaluation and Innovation Edited by António Lopes and Raúl Ruiz Cecilia This book first published 2018 Cambridge Scholars Publishing Lady Stephenson Library, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 2PA, UK British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Copyright © 2018 by António Lopes, Raúl Ruiz Cecilia and contributors All rights for this book reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN (10): 1-5275-0597-9 ISBN (13): 978-1-5275-0597-1
TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ................................................................................................. 1 António Lopes and Raúl Ruiz Cecilia Part 1 – Methods and Approaches Chapter One ................................................................................................. 6 Teaching CLIL in a Post-Graduate Programme: Survey Conclusions on Teacher’s Training Needs María Bobadilla-Pérez and Pilar Couto-Cantero Chapter Two .............................................................................................. 20 Task-Based Approach to Teaching Foreign Languages to Older Adults: A Neurobiological Perspective Magdalena Kalita Chapter Three ............................................................................................ 38 Task-based Approach to Foreign Language Education: A Neurobiological Perspective Sawomira Kosut Chapter Four .............................................................................................. 56 A Case for LSP David Tual, Teresa Geslin and Jamie Rinder Part 2 – Teachers in the Making Chapter Five .............................................................................................. 64 Gender as a Global Issue in Foreign Language Teacher Training Juan Ramón Guijarro-Ojeda Chapter Six ................................................................................................ 82 How Bold are Language Teachers? Comparative Analysis of the Data of a Transatlantic Survey on Technology-Mediated Task-Based Language Teaching António Lopes
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Chapter Seven .......................................................................................... 137 Top Ten Keywords to become an Impact Teacher Pilar Couto-Cantero and María Bobadilla-Pérez Chapter Eight ........................................................................................... 157 The Reflective Approach in Pre-Service Foreign Language Teacher Education Sandra Mardeši Part 3 – Innovation in the Classroom Chapter Nine ............................................................................................ 174 Codeswitching as a Teaching Strategy: L2 Learners’ Assessment of Experimental Practice Anna Franca Plastina Chapter Ten ............................................................................................. 198 The Significance of Composition Symbols for the Development of Writing in a Foreign Language Rebekah Rast Chapter Eleven ........................................................................................ 212 The Causal Effect of Proficiency and Gender on Formulaic Language Use in Different Task Types Ümran Üstünba Chapter Twelve ....................................................................................... 229 Effects of Expanded 10-minute Writing on L2 Speaking and Writing Fluency Development Sakae Onoda Chapter Thirteen ...................................................................................... 258 Learning Grammar Using Corpora: A Case Study Ivano Celentano Part 4 – Evaluating and Assessing Chapter Fourteen ..................................................................................... 278 Integrated Forms of Self-Evaluation and Evaluation for Incoming Foreign Students at the University of Padova Ivana Fratter and Luisa Marigo
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Chapter Fifteen ........................................................................................ 294 Assessment and Certification of Foreign Language Learning through Rubrics: A Methodological Perspective Davide Capperucci Contributors ............................................................................................. 308
INTRODUCTION
ANTÓNIO LOPES AND RAÚL RUIZ CECILIA Language teaching approaches, methods and procedures are constantly undergoing reassessment. New ideas keep emerging as the growing complexity of the means of communication and the opportunities created by technology put language skills to new uses. In addition, the political, social and economic impact of globalization, the new demands of the labour market that result from it, the pursuit of competitiveness, the challenges of intercultural communication and the diversification of culture are phenomena that have opened new perspectives on the role that foreign languages have come to play in the development of contemporary societies.
This has far-reaching consequences in terms of foreign language learning. Having become more aware of these changing circumstances, learners now seek practical solutions for their needs in real contexts, and this has entailed a radical departure from the school’s traditional teacher- directed curriculum. On the other hand, the Common European Framework for Reference has helped teachers to rethink their strategies and attitudes, and has opened new research avenues.
Taking into account these contexts, the editors selected from contributions made at an international conference held in Granada in April 2016 those papers that, besides their scientific quality, best represent the approaches and strategies that more effectively address the actual needs of learners. Most proposals revolved around the notion that the teaching of language can no longer be exclusively language-centred, but should rather embrace more comprehensive and integrated approaches where learners are invited to use the language as a means not only of “acquiring information”1, but also of producing content, in particular when exposed to “comprehensible input”, that is “a comprehensible subject-matter”2. More
1 Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approaches and methods in language teaching (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 207. 2 Stephen Krashen, Second language acquisition and second language learning. (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1981), 62.
Introduction
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than just entailing the development of language acquisition, this perspective on language learning helps learners move from reception to production, as Snow points out, in “the search for the right balance of language and content teaching”3.
In sum, this book aims to provide an insight into the latest developments in the field and to discuss the new trends in foreign language teaching that result from the need to adapt to the new social, economic and educational contexts in four major areas, namely methods and approaches (with particular emphasis on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT), Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) and the Flipped Classroom); teacher training; innovation in the classroom; evaluation and assessment. These topics correspond to those key areas in language teaching permanently subject to detailed scrutiny by researchers in the field, and are all closely intertwined. Innovation cannot be detached from a specific methodological orientation and can only be validated if the evaluation tools are applied in a consistent way. On the other hand, methods and approaches that fail to prompt innovative practices within their didactic framework are unable to keep up with the social, cultural and technological changes directly affecting the learners’ lives. In turn, teacher training plays a pivotal role in fostering a critical awareness of the potential, opportunities and challenges that all these aspects present to the practitioner.
The book comprises fifteen chapters. In part one, priority is given to CLIL and TBLT. With the increase in the number of European countries where bilingual education is offered more extensively, CLIL has become a central issue, both in educational and political terms. On the other hand, TBLT has prompted a major change in language learning, shifting it from language-centred approaches to a learner-centred one, where the focus is on communication and the development of practical skills necessary for effective language use. This has redefined the way teachers develop their in-class activities and the roles both learners and teachers play in the learning process. Likewise, the concept of the “flipped classroom” has helped teachers to move away from the traditional model of classroom instruction and has diversified the ways in which content has been delivered. These approaches have been critical in improving the teaching of LSP, as the latter also entails the learning of specialised knowledge
3 Margaret A. Snow, “Content-based and immersion models for second and foreign language teaching.” In Teaching English as a second or foreign language, edited by Marianne Celce-Murcia (Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001), 315.
New Trends in Foreign Language Teaching 3
which requires greater attention to be paid to the contexts where language plays an instrumental and constitutive role.
Part two looks into the new challenges facing teacher training and how teachers position themselves in relation to new methodological proposals. Since the approaches discussed in the first part rely heavily on social interacting and social representations, a reflection is required on the ways in which values are negotiated and agreed upon. One should bear in mind that the oral and written production of learners, as well as the very social dynamic of the class, are influenced by the dominant discourses in circulation in society. The discussion of sensitive matters such as gender discrimination in teacher training is a first step towards ensuring a healthy social environment within the learning group. The chapter that discusses this latter aspect is followed by another that examines the teachers’ attitudes towards innovation and their training needs through the analysis of the results of a survey conducted both in Europe and the US on how teachers value the latest methods and approaches in language teaching and on the ways in which ICT has been used in the context of TBLT. This part of the book is rounded off by two studies targeting pre-service teacher students and concerning their prospects of professional development. One of them resorts to task-based learning and attempts to identify the concepts impacting teaching practices, while ascertaining how those concepts can be exploited in teacher training. The other one addresses the importance of the reflective approach and experimental learning not only in the development of teaching competencies, but also in the improvement of the quality of initial teacher training.
Part three is about innovation in the classroom and presents five studies on experimental teaching practices for the development of the language proficiency. The first two studies are focused on CLIL. The first one analyses the way in which teachers resort to code-switching as a teaching strategy and how learners react to it, while discussing at the same time the management of code choice in the CLIL classroom and its implication in the development of bilingualism. This study is followed by another one centred on the development of the mechanical aspects of the learners’ writing. In turn, task-based learning is addressed in two chapters dedicated to the use of formulaic language in the development of the learner’s proficiency while carrying out tasks of different sorts. One final study shows the potential that ICT has to offer in terms of increasing the learners’ motivation and enhancing the teaching and learning process, by means of a data-driven corpus-based methodology for an inductive and learner-centred approach to foreign language teaching.
Introduction
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Evaluation and assessment, which constitute part four of the book, are critical components to enhance the quality of the teaching and learning processes. The two final chapters take on two different perspectives. The first one presents the results of an experimental research study to test the reliability of a self-evaluation tool based on the grid of descriptors of the European Language Portfolio and a syllabus structured around each of the six levels applied to the incoming students of a Higher Education institution. The second study seeks to build a methodological model for the certification of foreign language achievement in primary and lower secondary schools based on the “principle of authentic assessment”, which takes into account personal language learning in different communicative situations.
References
Krashen, Stephen. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1981.
Richards, Jack C., and Theodore S. Rodgers. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Snow, Margaret A. (2001). “Content-based and immersion models for second and foreign language teaching.” In Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, edited by Marianne Celce-Murcia, 303- 318. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.
PART 1 –
SURVEY CONCLUSIONS ON TEACHER’S TRAINING NEEDS
MARÍA BOBADILLA-PÉREZ AND PILAR COUTO-CANTERO
1. Introduction
This article discusses the results of a study carried out in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) subject of the Master’s Degree in Specific Didactics offered by the School of Education at the University of Coruña (UDC). One of the main academic aims of this postgraduate programme is to present future educators with models for the interdisciplinary teaching and plurilingual approach promoted by current legislations. Upon the conclusion of the course, a survey was conducted among the students with a double aim: one was the recollection of information for future improvements of the course. The other aim, and more relevant to the purpose of this study, was to inquire into the students’ opinion on the training needs in plurilingual education of the UDC undergraduate students. All of them had recently completed the degrees on Pre-Primary and Primary Education on offer at this institution and at the moment, the study was carried out, they had acquired enough knowledge about CLIL so they could have a formed judgment about the matter discussed.
The data collected in the survey, which was both quantitative and qualitative in nature, aimed to shed some light on the student’s perception on three issues: their perception of CLIL as a practical approach to the promotion of plurilingualism; what was their opinion about how it was promoted in Galicia; and what training needs at UDC Pre-Primary and
Teaching CLIL in a Post-Graduate Programme 7
Primary Education degrees they felt were necessary for the students’ future exercise of their profession in plurilingual institutions in our autonomous community. We present here the analysis of such data and the preliminary conclusions arrived to, which triggered questions about the need to revisit undergraduate education programmes at the University of A Coruña contemplating the incorporation of a CLIL specific subject, which would better prepare students for their future profession.
In order to contextualize the study, it is necessary to define the concept of plurilingualism itself and to present the reasons that justify CLIL as the approach for its implementation following the guidelines provided by the Council of Europe. Since the object of study is a particular subject on offer at the UDC’s Master’s degree, the contents introduced in class are presented as required training needs for the formation of any teacher in a plurilingual system. Finally, with the aim of discussing the possibility of future modifications of UDC’s study plan, we describe the current training offered in didactics of the foreign language and CLIL both in undergraduate and graduate programmes.
2. Plurilingualism and CLIL
In order to adopt the plurilingual educational model promoted at the continental level by European Linguistic Policies, in 2010 the Galician local government encouraged the plurilingual designation of 52 schools in our community and since then, the number has steadily been increasing so that by the year 2015 that number had reached the 274 mark. Several laws, some of them not exempt from public discussion, are regulating that implementation. That was the case of the controversy triggered by the highly criticised “Galician Decree on Plurilingualism (79/2010)”1 for non- university teachings, which would directly affect the existing policy of having half the Primary and Secondary school subjects taught in Galician and the other half in Spanish, since now plurilingual institutions would have to bestow some of that L1 class time to subjects being taught in L2s through CLIL methodology. Following the guidelines provided by that decree, an Act was approved regulating plurilingual schools in the Galician autonomous community by establishing the linguistic requirements that the institutions must meet for the compulsory stages of
1 Decreto 79/2010, de 20 de mayo, para el plurilingüismo en la enseñanza no universitaria de Galicia. http://www.xunta.gal/dog/Publicados/2010/20100525/Anuncio17BE6_es.html
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Primary and Secondary Education2. Although there is no actual regulation in that sense for the non-compulsory stage of pre-school education, those institutions seeking to develop the plurilingual competence among their students should reinforce foreign languages in that stage. The Act also establishes a B2 level proficiency certificate as a requirement to teach CLIL sections.
In spite of the above-mentioned controversy caused by the implementation of plurilingual policies in the Galician bilingual community, more and more schools are choosing the linguistic designation promoted by guidelines presented in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages3, from now referred to as CEFRL. In its introductory chapter, a section is devoted to defining the term “plurilingualism” as opposed to the term “multilingualism”:
Plurilingualism differs from multilingualism, which is the knowledge of a number of languages, or the co-existence of different languages in a given society…Beyond this, the plurilingual approach emphasizes the fact that as an individual person’s experience of language in its cultural contexts expands, from the language of the home to that of society at large and then to the languages of other peoples (whether learnt at school or college, or by direct experience), he or she does not keep these languages and cultures in strictly separated mental compartments, but rather builds up a communicative competence to which all knowledge and experience of language contributes and in which languages interrelate and interact (CEFRL, 4) That definition given by the CEFRL implies a dramatic change in the
way schools should approach the treatment of foreign languages. With a multilingual approach, the use of the L2s at schools was only limited and used within the foreign language lesson. In fact, this multilingual approach to language teaching has been the only one used for decades in the Spanish educational institutions. During the 80s and 90s, foreign languages were taught at Spanish and Galician schools, but students did not have the chance to use the language outside the classroom or even outside the school. English or French were only learned and used within the specific
2 Orden de 12 de mayo de 2011 por la que se regulan los centros plurilingües en la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia y se establece el procedimiento de incorporación de nuevos centros a la Red de Centros Plurilingües de Galicia. https://www.xunta.gal/dog/Publicados/2011/20110520/AnuncioC3F1-160511- 1748_es.html 3 Council of Europe, Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Teaching CLIL in a Post-Graduate Programme 9
linguistic subjects and students would not be encouraged to use them elsewhere. Furthermore, the methodology used in our language classrooms has been in general quite traditional: teacher-centred classrooms with a focus on learning grammar and vocabulary and hardly any time to put that knowledge into practice. The choice of such methodology might somehow be explained by the fact that during the last decades of the 20th century in Primary and Secondary school classrooms in our country there was an average of 40 students per class, due to the so-called “baby boom” of the sixties and seventies. If we compare this number of students with the situation nowadays (25-30), it is understandable that it would be difficult to give so many students the opportunity to properly use the language in such a limited time period (two or three weekly hours).
Making an allowance for that needed change, the last two educational laws passed during the 21st century have emphasised a plurilingual approach to the teaching and learning processes of foreign languages. Thus, following the guidelines provided by the CEFRL, the last two national educational laws in Spain, the Organic Law on Education-LOE (2006)4 and the Organic Law of Improvement of Educational Quality- LOMCE (2013)5, specifically establish the implementation of plurilingual policies. One of the final dispositions of the LOE (the seventh) instructs the establishment of plurilingual education to be done in coordination with the autonomous communities, paying particular attention to the linguistic reality of each of the regions. The LOMCE takes a step forward in the promotion of plurilingualism, addressing the insufficient promotion of foreign language acquisition by the Spanish educational system and establishes as one of its main priorities the construction of a European project as defined by the Council of Europe6:
La Ley apoya decididamente el plurilingüismo, redoblando los esfuerzos para conseguir que los estudiantes se desenvuelvan con fluidez al menos en una primera lengua extranjera, cuyo nivel de comprensión oral y lectora y
4 Ley Orgánica de Educación: https://www.boe.es/buscar/pdf/2006/BOE-A-2006- 7899-consolidado.pdf 5 Ley Orgánica 8/2013, de 9 de diciembre, para la mejora de la calidad educativa (LOMCE):https://www.boe.es/buscar/pdf/2013/BOE-A-2013-12886- consolidado.pdf 6 My translation: The LOMCE decidedly supports plurilingualism, strengthens its efforts towards achieving the students’ fluency in at least a first foreign language, whose level of oral and written comprehension and of oral and written expression results decisive to favour employability and professional ambitions, and for that it makes a decided commitment towards the curricular incorporation of a second language (LOMCE, 2013).
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de expresión oral y escrita resulta decisivo para favorecer la empleabilidad…

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