NATIONAL UNIFICATION AND NATIONALISM Section 19-3

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  • NATIONAL UNIFICATION AND NATIONALISM Section 19-3
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  • A. Toward National Unification Revolutions of 1848 failed but by 1871 unification would happen. The changes that made this possible began with the Crimean War.Revolutions of 1848 failed but by 1871 unification would happen. The changes that made this possible began with the Crimean War.
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  • Toward National Unification 1. Breakdown of the Concert of Europe1. Breakdown of the Concert of Europe Crimean War was the result of the long term struggle between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman power was becoming weaker and Russia as a nation without a warm water port. If Russia could get a port it would become a power in Eastern Europe. 1853 Russia invaded the Turkish Balkans provinces of Moldova and Walachia. Great Britain and France joined with Ottoman. War was poorly planned and fought. The effect of the war was to destroy the Concert of Europe.Crimean War was the result of the long term struggle between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman power was becoming weaker and Russia as a nation without a warm water port. If Russia could get a port it would become a power in Eastern Europe. 1853 Russia invaded the Turkish Balkans provinces of Moldova and Walachia. Great Britain and France joined with Ottoman. War was poorly planned and fought. The effect of the war was to destroy the Concert of Europe.
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  • Toward National Unification 2. Italian Unification2. Italian Unification Austria was still the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula. People began to look to Piedmont for leadership in achieving unity. King Victor Emmanuel II turned it over to Count Camillo di Cavour. He pursued a policy of economic expansion to increase government revenues and enable the kingdom to equip a large army. Made an alliance with France and then provoked Austria into declaring war in 1859. They had success here and it caused several states to fall under Piedmonts control.Austria was still the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula. People began to look to Piedmont for leadership in achieving unity. King Victor Emmanuel II turned it over to Count Camillo di Cavour. He pursued a policy of economic expansion to increase government revenues and enable the kingdom to equip a large army. Made an alliance with France and then provoked Austria into declaring war in 1859. They had success here and it caused several states to fall under Piedmonts control.
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  • Count Camillo di Cavour King Victor Emmanuel II
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  • Toward National Unification Meanwhile in southern Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi raised an army of RED SHIRTS. His forces landed n Sicily and controlled this island. They then began to march up Italian Peninsula. He chose to turn over his conquests to Piedmont. Austria still held Venetia, which through a war was given to Italy. Rome was won during a war also and with this all of Italy was unified.Meanwhile in southern Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi raised an army of RED SHIRTS. His forces landed n Sicily and controlled this island. They then began to march up Italian Peninsula. He chose to turn over his conquests to Piedmont. Austria still held Venetia, which through a war was given to Italy. Rome was won during a war also and with this all of Italy was unified.
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  • Toward National Unification 3. German Unification3. German Unification Germans looked to Prussia for unification. Prussian king had firm control over both the government and the army. Prussia was known for its military. King William I turned it over to Count Otto von Bismarck. He was a believer in REALPOLITIK or politics based on practical matters rather than on theory or ethics. He proceeded to collect taxes and strengthen the army. Prussia, through war, gained control of Schleswig and Holstein. He defeated the Austrians. He now organized the German states north of the Main River into the North German Confederation. The South remained split until the Franco Prussian war. The French proved no match for the Prussian army. German stats in the south now agree to join North German confederation. William I was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire. German unity now a reality.Germans looked to Prussia for unification. Prussian king had firm control over both the government and the army. Prussia was known for its military. King William I turned it over to Count Otto von Bismarck. He was a believer in REALPOLITIK or politics based on practical matters rather than on theory or ethics. He proceeded to collect taxes and strengthen the army. Prussia, through war, gained control of Schleswig and Holstein. He defeated the Austrians. He now organized the German states north of the Main River into the North German Confederation. The South remained split until the Franco Prussian war. The French proved no match for the Prussian army. German stats in the south now agree to join North German confederation. William I was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire. German unity now a reality.
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  • B. Nationalism and Reform in Europe 1. Great Britain1. Great Britain Managed to avoid the revolutionary upheavals. More men got the right to vote and they were chiefly members of the industrial middle class. Parliament continued to make social and political reforms that helped the country stay stable. It also had continuing economic growth.Managed to avoid the revolutionary upheavals. More men got the right to vote and they were chiefly members of the industrial middle class. Parliament continued to make social and political reforms that helped the country stay stable. It also had continuing economic growth.
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  • Nationalism and Reform in Europe 2. France2. France After 1848 events moved them toward the restoration of the monarchy. Louis Napoleon won a plebiscite (popular vote) and assumed the title of Napoleon III. France clearly is an authoritarian government. Only he could introduce legislation and declare war. He completely controlled the government and limited civil liberties. He also carried out a vast rebuilding of the city of Paris. Second Empire fell after Franco Prussian war.After 1848 events moved them toward the restoration of the monarchy. Louis Napoleon won a plebiscite (popular vote) and assumed the title of Napoleon III. France clearly is an authoritarian government. Only he could introduce legislation and declare war. He completely controlled the government and limited civil liberties. He also carried out a vast rebuilding of the city of Paris. Second Empire fell after Franco Prussian war.
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  • Nationalism and Reform in Europe 3. The Austrian Empire3. The Austrian Empire Nationalism presented special problems. So many ethnic groups. Hapsburgs restored centralized, autocratic government to the empire. Warfare made them give concessions to the Hungarians that resulted in the Compromise of 1867. It created a dual monarchy of Austria Hungary. Francis Joseph was both emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.Nationalism presented special problems. So many ethnic groups. Hapsburgs restored centralized, autocratic government to the empire. Warfare made them give concessions to the Hungarians that resulted in the Compromise of 1867. It created a dual monarchy of Austria Hungary. Francis Joseph was both emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.
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  • Nationalism and Reform in Europe 4. Russia4. Russia Russia was overwhelmingly rural, agriculture, and autocratic. The Czar used soldiers, secret police, repression and censorship to withstand the revolutionary fervor. Czar Alexander II made some reforms-like serfdom where he emancipated the serfs. He attempted other reforms but he soon found that he could please no one.Russia was overwhelmingly rural, agriculture, and autocratic. The Czar used soldiers, secret police, repression and censorship to withstand the revolutionary fervor. Czar Alexander II made some reforms-like serfdom where he emancipated the serfs. He attempted other reforms but he soon found that he could please no one.
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  • C. Nationalism in the United States Constitution committed the nation to liberalism and nationalism, yet unity did not come easily. Two factions fought bitterly. They were the Federalists who favored a strong central government and the Republicans who wanted the federal government to be subordinate to the state governments. Slavery had become a threat to American unity with the souths economy so dependent on it because of cotton. In the north, was a big abolitionism movement. Led to South Carolina seceding from the country which led to the Civil War.Constitution committed the nation to liberalism and nationalism, yet unity did not come easily. Two factions fought bitterly. They were the Federalists who favored a strong central government and the Republicans who wanted the federal government to be subordinate to the state governments. Slavery had become a threat to American unity with the souths economy so dependent on it because of cotton. In the north, was a big abolitionism movement. Led to South Carolina seceding from the country which led to the Civil War.
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  • 19-3 Review Created the dual monarchy of Austria- Hungary, created a single monarch to govern both Austria and Hungary, and established a common Austria-Hungary army.Created the dual monarchy of Austria- Hungary, created a single monarch to govern both Austria and Hungary, and established a common Austria-Hungary army. The Compromise of 1867The Compromise of 1867 Austria, France, and the legislature opposed who at first?Austria, France, and the legislatur