Nanotechnology in the sectors of solar energy

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  • Nanotechnology in the sectors of solar energy and energy storage

    Technology Report

  • 2

    Technology Report

    Acknowledgements

    This Technology Report is published by the IEC. It was prepared for the IEC Market Strategy Board by the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe, Germany.

    Technical contact

    Dr.-Ing. Bjrn P. Moller Competence Center Innovation and Technology Management and Foresight Business Unit Strategies for Material Technologies Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI Breslauer Strae 48 D-76139 Karlsruhe Germany

    Phone: +49 721 6809-427 Email: bjoern.moller@isi.fraunhofer.de Internet: www.isi.fraunhofer.de

    Authors

    Ralph Seitz, Bjrn P. Moller, Axel Thielmann, Andreas Sauer, Michael Meister, Mickael Pero, Oliver Kleine, Clemens Rohde, Antje Bierwisch, Meike de Vries, Victoria Kayser

    Fraunhofer Project Team

    Ralph Seitz, Bjrn P. Moller, Axel Thielmann, Meike de Vries, Antje Bierwisch

    IEC Project Team

    Gabriel Barta, Donald Deutsch, Peter J. Lanctot, Enno Liess, Katsuhiro Tsukamoto

  • Nanotechnology in the sectors of solar energy and energy storage

    3

    Table of Contents

    1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................5

    1.1 Aim of the project and process .......................................... 5

    1.2 Nanotechnology vs. energy storage and solar energy markets ......................................................... 5

    1.3 Scenarios for future energy generation and use ..........................................................................................................9

    2 Methodologies used in the project .....................................12

    2.1 Project structure ...............................................................................12

    2.2 Roadmapping and meta-roadmapping ...................14

    2.3 Bibliometric research ..................................................................16

    2.4 Description of technologies (technology profi les) .....................................................................16

    3 Results ......................................................................................................................16

    3.1 Roadmap ...................................................................................................16

    3.2 Results of bibliometric analysis ......................................18

    3.2.1 Framework........................................................................18

    3.2.2 Solar energy ...................................................................18

    3.2.3 Energy storage ............................................................23

    3.2.4 In-depth analysis of solar energy and energy storage ...........................28

    3.3 Technology profi les .......................................................................32

    3.3.1 Nanocomposites ........................................................32

    3.3.2 Nanoelectrodes ..........................................................35

    3.3.3 Nanocoatings ................................................................38

    3.3.4 Carbon nanomaterials ........................................41

    3.3.5 Printed electronics ..................................................43

    3.3.6 Nanocatalysts ...............................................................47

    3.3.7 Nanofl uids .........................................................................50

    3.4 Manufacturing perspective ...................................................51

    3.5 Roadmap Layer 1 Nanotechnologies ..................54

    3.5.1 Nanotechnologies for solar energy....................................................................................54

    3.5.2 Nanotechnologies for energy storage ..................................................................................57

    3.6 Roadmap Layer 2 Application technologies ..........................................................................................61

    3.6.1 Application technologies in solar energy .............................................................61

    3.6.2 Application technologies in energy storage ......................................................66

    3.7 Roadmap Layer 3 Products............................................71

    3.7.1 Products for solar energy ................................71

    3.7.2 Products for energy storage ........................74

    3.8 Roadmap Layer 4 Global developments .........78

    3.8.1 Politics, legal, society ..........................................78

    3.8.2 Growth of the economy .....................................78

    3.8.3 Growth of population and demographic changes ........................................78

    3.8.4 Resources .........................................................................79

    3.8.5 Climate change ...........................................................79

    4 Conclusions .......................................................................................................81

    5 Recommendations ....................................................................................81

    6 Annex ..........................................................................................................................82

    6.1 List of abbreviations .....................................................................82

    6.2 Studies screened .............................................................................83

    7 References ...........................................................................................................97

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    Technology Report

    Executive summaryThe present publication reports on the future develop-ment of products and markets in solar energy and elec-trical energy storage, insofar as they are infl uenced by nanotechnologies.

    It is based on a forward-looking examination of the re-search interest in these topics as it has developed over two decades, the actual technologies and their potential improvements, and a wide range of external analyses and events as they will affect the use of the technologies in future.

    This Technology Report explains which solar and stor-age applications are likely to prove the most useful and infl uence research and development most strongly, and conversely how the potential of known and foreseeable technologies will condition the products which can be manufactured and how they can be used. It takes into ac-count relevant global economic and political conditions, both favourable and unfavourable, and shows the likely results of all this on the market, with an idea of the shape and size of that market over the next 15 years.

    As a pilot, this study has also contributed to the IECs need for a technology and market watch, without which relevant and timely standards cannot be developed.

    It concludes that many aspects of solar energy and stor-age are being and will be infl uenced by nanoscale mate-rials, and that in some areas nanotechnology may even be a condition of success. Consequently the report will be of great use for those planning the use of solar ener-gy and storage, whether they make products, use those products to generate and store electricity, or organize and regulate the use of the electricity produced.

    In the IEC's own activities, several Technical Committees (TCs) will fi nd this report ideal for informing their work on future standards for products, systems and installations; we can mention the TCs on battery, photovoltaic and so-lar thermal systems.

    A few concluding recommendations are made. The TC on nanotechnologies is encouraged to take the lead in allowing standardization to benefi t from the information provided, and the whole of the IEC community to help outside stakeholders such as regulators, research insti-tutions and consumer organizations to become involved so as to realize nanotechnologys benefi ts in the energy sector. Finally, the present results are drawn to the at-tention of organizations active in investment, product & system design & marketing, installation and regulation of solar energy production and electricity storage.

  • Nanotechnology in the sectors of solar energy and energy storage

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    1 Introduction

    1.1 Aim of the project and process

    In September 2010 the IEC published a white paper enti-tled Coping with the Energy Challenge The IECs role from 2010 to 2030. One of its recommendations was to set up a market watch and technology prioritization process for technologies and standardization needs in the energy sector. The activities should be related to systems-oriented standards development, as well as ap-plication-oriented goal solutions defi ned by the market.

    Fraunhofer ISI was approached by the IEC Market Strategy Board (MSB) to propose a process which al-lows for a regular review of developments in markets and technologies related to electrical engineering. One tool to be used was a set of workshops involving represent-atives of the IEC MSB, to set the basis in terms of con-tents for a regularly updated roadmap and for technology profi les. The objective from the IECs point of view was to develop a method to synthesize available market and technology information, and thus produce an early indi-cation of future standardization needs.

    Nanotechnology was identifi ed by the IEC as a technol-ogy which is likely to have a high impact on the energy sector. That is why the focus in this pilot project is to establish a sound content-related base on the infl uence of nanotechnology