Municipal Corporation of Tirupati - SSWM .GIZ-ASEM Municipal Corporation of Tirupati

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  • Municipal Corporation of Tirupati

    Draft City Sanitation Plan

    Executive Summary

    August 2011

  • GIZ-ASEM Municipal Corporation of Tirupati

    City Sanitation Plan for Tirupati - Draft Report Executive Summary P a g e | 1


    0.40 52%



    100% 1.00 100% 100% 100%

    Individual ToiletAccess

    Public Toilets per500 Floatingpopulation

    Water Supplycoverage


    Solid WasteDoor-to-Door


    Sanitation service Levels in MCT

    MCT NormSource: SLB report, IMaCS analysis


    The City Sanitation Plan (CSP) for Tirupati2

    provides an integrated action plan to achieve universal sanitation

    access as envisioned in Government of Indias National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP). This CSP has been prepared for the Municipal Corporation of Tirupati (MCT) by ICRA Management Consulting Services Limited

    (IMaCS) on behalf of Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).

    The CSP3 identifies key issues and actions along five sanitation components namely, a) Water Supply, b)

    Access to Toilets c) Wastewater management, d) Storm water drains and e) Solid Waste Management

    (SWM). Apart from Technical Actions along these sanitation components, the CSP also identifies issues and

    actions across four support pillars i.e., a) Governance and Institutional Framework, b) Capacity Development, c) Awareness Generation and d) Financial sustainability. The CSP follows constitution of a City

    Task Force (CTF), consultations with MCT officials and CTF, analysis of baseline information including a primary

    survey, spatial mapping and city reconnaissance. The CSP builds on past/on-going initiatives including City

    Development Plan and Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) for Sewerage and SWM.


    Tirupati, located in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh is famous for the Lord Venkateshwara temple in

    Tirumala. While Tirupatis economy has been pre-dominantly pilgrim- based, its growth in recent years has been driven by its emergence as education and trade hub of the Rayalseema region of Andhra Pradesh.

    MCT4 spread over 16.59 sq. km had a population of 2.27

    lakh during Census 2001, of which slum population (spread

    in 42 slum areas) was 0.94 lakh. Population within MCT is

    projected to grow to 3.92 lakh by 2021 and 6.80 lakh by

    2041. Being a pilgrim centre, daily floating population

    averages 55,000 and peaks to 100,000 during festivals and

    needs to be factored in provision of pilgrim related

    sanitation services (water kiosks, public toilets etc.) and

    infrastructure provisioning for water supply, waste-water

    management and SWM.

    The Tirupati Urban Agglomeration (TUA) extends beyond MCT and had a population of 3.24 lakh (Census

    2001). Spread over 70.67, the TUA comprises of 1 town, 3 urban out-growths and 9 villages in addition

    to MCT. Population in areas beyond MCT within TUA is actually growing faster than within MCT.

    Sanitation service levels have not kept pace

    with the growth of the city and fall below SLB

    norms specified by the Ministry of Urban

    Development Government of India (MoUD). A

    Sanitation rating exercise of cities carried out

    by MoUD in 2009-10 ranked Tirupati a low 117

    among 423 cities with a score of 39.4 in 100,

    highlighting the need to address sanitation

    challenges in an integrated comprehensive

    1 This document presents an executive summary of the Report on City Sanitation Plan (CSP) for Tirupati. Readers are requested to refer the

    complete report for further details of observations and recommendations made herein. 2 The focus of the study is area under the jurisdiction of the Municipal Corporation of Tirupati (MCT).

    3 Refer section 1.2 and 1.3 for Scope of Work and Approach respectively

    4 The Government of Andhra Pradesh (GoAP) issued a Government Order in 2008 to upgrade Tirupati as a municipal corporation and to

    bring the whole of TUA under MCT jurisdiction. The municipal council of erstwhile Tirupati Municipality was dissolved to pave the way for this extension. However, the proposal to extend city limits is yet to be implemented.

  • GIZ-ASEM Municipal Corporation of Tirupati

    City Sanitation Plan for Tirupati - Draft Report Executive Summary P a g e | 2

    manner. Under this context, the initiative to formulate a CSP for MCT is very timely.

    The CSP considers two time horizons:

    Planning Horizon (30 years 2012-2041): The Planning Horizon covers 30 years from 2012 to 2041 and

    involves planning for an Intermediate Stage (2021 or 10 years) and an Ultimate Stage (2041 or 30 years).

    Action Horizon (10 years 2012-21): The Action Horizon covers 10 years from 2012 to 2021. Actions are

    prioritised along a) Short Term: 3 years b) Medium Term: 5 years and c) Long Term: 10 years.

    The rationale and recommendations with respect to critical issues identified in the CSP are summarized below:

    Priority Issues and Actions5

    1. Inadequate provision of Public Toilets and Community toilets6 has led to prevalence of open defecation in low-income pockets in the fringes and open urination in commercial areas respectively.


    Open Defecation (OD) is widely prevalent in select slum clusters within MCT. Although access to individual

    toilets is reasonably high at 94%7, Open Defecation is visibly prevalent in 10 places adjoining slum pockets in

    election wards 2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 13, 17, 18 and 29. About 4% of respondents in slum areas reported OD during

    the primary survey conducted as part of the CSP exercise. Street reconnaissance and local interactions reveal

    higher levels of OD prevalence in slums in peripheral areas. For e.g., OD prevalence is more than 40% in Lenin

    nagar-Parvathipuram and Uppangi harijanawada slum clusters in election ward 17. While the CSP estimates a

    demand of 62 Community Toilets in slum areas to cater to requirements in 2016, there are no functional

    Community Toilets at present, in these areas. Low Cost Sanitation toilets provided under slum development

    programs in the past are now defunct and non-operational.

    Open urination is rampant in commercial areas with high floating population. Coverage of Public Toilets is

    inadequate at 0.4 seats per 500 floating population as against a desired level of 1 for every 500 of floating

    population. Against an estimated demand of 53 Public Toilets, there are only 23 Public Toilets at present and

    even these are not maintained well. 88% of users rated maintenance of public toilets as poor or very poor.

    5 Only the priority issues and actions are covered in the executive summary. For a detailed analysis, refer chapters 3 to 7 of the CSP for

    issues and recommendations on sanitation components and chapters 8-11 for coverage of cross-cutting aspects. 6 Issues relating to Access to Toilets and details of Baseline status are discussed in section 3.1 of the CSP

    7 Proposal for ISIP. Service Level Benchmarking (SLB). March 2011.

    Areas requiring Public Toilets on priority Areas requiring Community Toilets on priority Areas with open defecation

    Shaded areas show slums

    of different density

  • GIZ-ASEM Municipal Corporation of Tirupati

    City Sanitation Plan for Tirupati - Draft Report Executive Summary P a g e | 3

    Visits to toilet locations indicate that critical design considerations such as gender sensitivity, 24x7 access and

    water availability are often not addressed. For instance, Pay-and-use toilets built by MCT do not have urinals.

    Public urinals (at Gandhi circle, Tilak road, Tatiah nagar, P K street, TP Area, Koneru, Tirumala byepass,

    Leelamahal road , KT road, Annamaiah junction etc.) have become pollution hot spots due to lack of water

    supply and maintenance. Accountability for toilet maintenance within MCT is diffused with Toilet monitoring

    being handled by the Health Department while repairs and maintenance are done by the Engineering

    department. As a result, open urination is rampant particularly in commercial areas in election wards 14-17.

    Critically vulnerable locations including Koneru, TP area, Sreenivasam group theatres, Railway station area, and

    behind both the private and government Bus Stands. MCT is in discussions with Sulabh International to

    develop Public Toilets at 7 locations as an initial measure.


    1. Building on the findings of the CSP, MCT should develop and implement a City-wide Toilet Development and Rehabilitation Plan

    9 to eliminate open defecation and open urination within three years. This Plan

    should be developed at a DPR level of detail to identify specific locations, configuration and sizing for

    provision of Public Toilets and Community Toilets10

    after a detailed city-wide demand assessment. The

    DPR should also