Motivation Why we do what we do…and how we feel about it.

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<ul><li><p>MotivationWhy we do what we doand how we feel about it. </p></li><li><p>MotivationA need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.</p></li><li><p>Early Motivation TheoriesMotivation is based on our instincts:</p><p>A behavior that is patterned throughout a species and is UNLEARNED.</p></li><li><p>What Is Motivation?Factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior.Cannot be directly observed, must be inferred.Thought of as an intervening variable.</p></li><li><p> Motives as Intervening Variables</p></li><li><p>Sources of MotivationBiological FactorsNeed for food, water, sex, temp. regulationEmotional FactorsPanic, fear, anger, love, hatredCognitive FactorsPerceptions, beliefs, expectationsSocial FactorsReactions from others ie: parents, family, co-workers, peers, friends</p><p>Deborah K. - Cap "F" for factors</p></li><li><p>Main Theories of MotivationInstinct TheoryDrive Reduction TheoryArousal TheoryIncentive TheoryCognitive TheoryHierarchy of Motives (Maslow)</p></li><li><p>Instinct TheoryExplains some animal behaviorsExplains some human behaviorsDoes not explain other human behaviors</p></li><li><p>Instinct TheoryInstinct = Automatic, unlearned, involuntary behavior triggered by a specific stimulus.Instincts became meaningless labels. Described behavior without explaining it.At least some aspects of human motivation seem innate - instinctual.Evolutionary approachSucking Smiling and other facial expressionsMate selection what makes you attracted to someone who you might have kids with?</p></li><li><p>Drive-Reduction TheoryThe idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.The need is usually to maintain homeostasis.Tendency to keep physiological systems in equilibrium Glucose levels, leptin, regulation of set point in weightnot too cold, not to hotnot too wet, not too dry.</p></li><li><p>Drive Reduction Theory</p></li><li><p>Drive-Reduction TheoryWe are not only pushed by our needs but.Pulled by our incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior</p></li><li><p>BUT why do we ride rollercoasters, gangbang, and bungee jump?</p><p>Deborah K. - Added periods</p></li><li><p>Optimum Arousal TheoryMotivation is tied to regulation of arousal.Performance is best when arousal is moderate.Organisms are motivated to behave in ways that maintain their optimal level of arousal.</p></li><li><p>The Arousal-Performance Relationship</p></li><li><p>Incentive TheoryBehavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli. Emphasizes the role of environmental stimuli that motivate behaviorTwo Incentive-Related Systems:Wanting being attracted to a stimulus.Liking Evaluating how pleasurable a stimulus is. </p></li><li><p>Cognitive TheoriesExtrinsic motivationinvolves engaging in certain activities or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewardsIntrinsic motivationinvolves engaging in certain activities or behaviors because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activities fulfills our beliefs or expectations</p></li><li><p>Extrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.</p></li><li><p>Intrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.</p></li><li><p>Cultivating Intrinsic Motivation</p></li><li><p>Hierarchy of MotivesBiological needsphysiological requirements that are critical to our survival and physical well-beingSocial needsneeds that are acquired through learning and experienceSatisfying needsMaslows hierarchy of needsascending order, or hierarchy, in which biological needs are placed at the bottom and social needs at the top</p></li><li><p>Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs</p><p>**********************</p></li></ul>


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