Motivation in Learning English Speaking

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    Chapter 1: Introduction

    1.1 Rationale for the study

    We are living in the global world in which English language has rapidly become an

    international language. To meet this requirement, English has been taught almost

    everywhere in Vietnam, especially in schools, colleges, universities, English is a

    compulsory subject.

    However, how to speak English well is a problem or many learners o English,

    especially or the students o colleges and universities. !espite the act that most o the

    students have been learning English since they were at secondary or high school, they are

    deicient in English speaking."s a teacher o Tourism # $oreign language !epartment, %ao !o &ollege o

    'ndustry %&', Hai!uong, rom our observation and our own teaching e(perience, we see

    that during the speaking lesson classroom interaction is restricted. )nly some students get

    involved in the activities conducted by the teacher while others keep silence or do other

    things. Thus, one o the challenges to the teacher is to ind out the answer to the question

    *Why don+t many students o English get involved actively in speaking lesson-

    To ind the answer to this question it is necessary to investigate what motivates and

    demotivates students in English learning in general and in speaking in particular. /any

    teachers and researchers now believe that motivation is one o the most important actors

    that determine the rate and success o 01 attainment2 it provides the primary impetus to

    initiate learning the 01 and later the driving orce to sustain the long and oten tedious

    learning process. Without suicient motivation, even individuals with the most remarkable

    abilities cannot accomplish longterm goals, and there are no appropriate curricula and

    good teaching to ensure student achievement.

    $or the mentioned reasons, we would like to conduct a study on Motivation in

    Learning English Speaking of the Second Year TourismMa!or Students at Tourism

    and "oreign Language #epartment$ Sao #o %ollege of &ndustry'. The study is to

    investigate what motivates and demotivates students in English speaking learning. We do

    hope that this study will help the teacher o speaking in some ways to ind appropriate

    methods to motivate their students.

    1

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    1.( )ims of the study

    The study aims at investigating the motivation in English speaking learning among

    the second year tourismmajor students at Tourism and $oreign 0anguage $aculty, %ao !o

    'ndustrial &ollege. The our main purposes o the study are summari3ed below2

    4. To e(amine kinds o motivation possessed by the second year tourism major

    students at Tourism and $oreign !epartment, %ao !o &ollege o 'ndustry.

    1. To e(amine methods and techniques used by teachers o speaking to motivate

    their learners in speaking activities.

    5. To investigate actors demotivating students in English speaking learning

    6. To suggest motivational strategies and techniques, which can be applied tostimulate learners in teaching speaking skill.

    1.*Scope and significance of the study+

    There are many actors aecting the success or ailure o learning a oreign

    language, in which motivation is one o the key actors. The ocus o this study is on

    motivation as a separate actor in English speaking learning. The results o the study will

    be applied to improve the speaking skills o second tourism major students o Tourism #

    $oreign 0anguage !epartment, %&'. 't can not be said that the results are general to all

    students in Vietnam.

    1., #esign of the study

    The study is designed with 5 chapters.

    %hapter onepresents the rationale or study, aims o the study, research questions

    as well as the scope o the study.

    %hapter t-o displays the background o motivation and speaking teaching. 'n the

    chapter, the main approaches to motivation and demotivation in oreign language teaching

    are discussed. The main theories o oreign language speaking teaching are also presented

    in the chapter.

    %hapter threepresents the methodology perormed in the study. The chapter also

    deals with documentation, data analysis. The analysis and discussion on the data is based

    on the survey questionnaire, interview and classroom observation.

    %hapter four summari3es the indings, implication, recommendations and uture

    directions or uture research are also provided in the last chapter.

    2

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    Chapter 2: Literature review

    This chapter is concerned with the conceptions o motivation, motivation in oreign

    language learning, and the theoretical backgrounds o speaking skills.

    (.1 Theoretical ackground of motivation

    (.1.1 %onceptions of motivation

    /any researches have been undertaken and there is much in the research literature

    regarding the deinition o motivation. "ll the motivation theories in general want to

    e(plain the undamental question o why humans behave as they do, and thereore we

    cannot assume any simple and straightorward answer./otivation is described as the impetus to create and sustain intentions and goal

    seeking acts 7"mes # "mes, 4898:.

    ;urden, 7488

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    (.1.( Motivation in foreign language learning

    'n recent years, motivation has become a amiliar term in second language learning.

    /otivation in oreign language learning has been deined in dierent ways.

    "ccording to !ornyei, 4899, motivation reers to the eorts learners make to learn

    a oreign language. /otivation is one o the keys that inluence the rate and success o

    language learning.

    ?ark 71==121: believes that motivation is shaped as *...sets o belie about language

    learning, the target culture, their culture, the teacher, the learning task, ect.-

    Holt 71==424:, reerring to &ookes and %chmidt 74884:, deines motivation as

    *...the learner+s orientation with regard to the goal o learning a second language-./otivation in this conte(t can be understood as one relating to attitude and vice

    versa with both having an inluence on learning and acquisition. Aardner 7489B: as as cited

    in !ornyei, 71==4:, assumed that motivation involved desire to learn a language, intensity

    o eort to achieve this, and attitudes toward learning the language.

    "ccording to the ramework by !ornyei 74886:, motivation consists o 5 main

    levels which are language level, learner level and learning situation level.

    0anguage level reers to integrative motivational subsystem and instrumental

    motivational subsystem.

    0earner level depends on need or achievement, selconidence which is language

    use an(iety, perceived 01 competence, casual attributions and seleicacy

    0earning situation level reers to course speciic motivational components, teacher

    speciic motivational components and group speciic motivational components

    ;elow is !ornyei+s 74886: ramework o 01 motivation.

    4

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    Table 1: Dornyeis (1994) framework of L motivation (!da"ted from Dornyei# $$1)

    0anguage level 'ntegrative motivational subsystem

    'nstrumental motivational subsystem

    0earner level Ceed or achievement

    %elconidence

    D 0anguage use an(iety

    D ?erceived 01 competence

    D &asual attributions

    D %eleicacy

    0earning situation level

    %ourse s"ecific motivational

    com"onents 'nterest 7in the course:

    elevant 7o the course to one+s needs:

    E(pectancy 7o success:

    %atisaction 7one has in the outcome:

    Teac&er s"ecific motivational

    com"onents "iliative motive

    "uthority type

    !irect sociali3ation o student motivation

    /odeling

    Task presentation

    $eedback

    'rou" s"ecific motivational

    com"onents

    Aoalorientedness

    Corm and reward system

    Aroup cohesion

    &lassroom goal structure

    "nother comprehensive attempt to summari3e the motivational components that are

    relevant to 01 instruction has been made by /arion and ;ob ;urden 7488

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    (!da"ted from Dornyei# $$1)

    &nternal factors E/ternal factors

    'ntrinsic interest o activity

    arousal o curiosity

    optimal degree o challenge

    %igniicant others2

    parents

    teachers

    peers

    ?erceived value o activity

    ?ersonal relevance

    anticipated value o outcome

    intrinsic value attributed to the activity

    The nature o interaction with signiicant

    others

    mediated learning e(periences

    the nature and amount o eedback

    rewards

    the nature and amount o appropriate

    praise

    punishments, sanctions%ense o agency

    locus o causality

    locus o control E process and

    outcomes

    ability to set appropriate goals

    The learning environment

    comort

    resources

    time o the day, week, year

    si3e o class, school

    class and school ethos

    /astery

    eelings o competence

    awareness o developing skills and

    mastery in a chosen area

    sel eicacy

    The broader conte(t

    wider amily networks

    the local education system

    conlicting interests

    cultural norms societal e(pectations and attitudes

    %elconcept

    realistic awareness o personal strengths

    and weaknesses in skills required

    personal deinitions and judgments o

    success and ailure

    selworth concern

    learned helplessness

    "ttitudes

    to language learning in general

    to the target language

    to the target community and culture

    )ther aective states

    conidence

    an(iety, ear

    !evelopmental age and stage

    Aender

    'n conclusion, motivation is one variable, which, combined with other actors,

    inluences a learner+s success.

    (.1.* Types of motivation in foreign language learning

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    /otivation can be classiied in dierent ways. 'n some studies, motivation is

    categori3ed into two types2 intrinsic and e/trinsicmotivation

    Tracing the word *intrinsic- down to its roots, it means *innate- or *within-, thus

    intrinsic motivation originates in the individual itsel. &oncerning learning it can be said

    that the drive or stimulation to learn comes rom within the students, hence, the teacher or

    instructor does not have to Fmanipulate+ the student in any way in order to make him learn.

    't is an inner desire o the student to ulill a positive learning outcome. 'ntrinsic

    motivation itsel is goal related, thereore, it is independent o any kind o e(ternal value.

    E(trinsic motivation can be regarded as the opposite o intrinsic motivation. The

    goal connected with intrinsic motivation is a positive learning eect that lasts a long time,but the goal o an e(trinsic motivated student is completely dierent. *When individuals

    are e(trinsically motivated, they hold some desired outcome as a goal 7e.g., getting a good

    grade or avoiding punishment:, they recogni3e that a certain way o behaving is an

    e(pedient means to that goal, and they make plans to modiy their behavior in such a

    manner that they are likely to e(perience the desired outcome-.

    However, motivation in oreign language learning is more broadly categori3ed into

    two types2 integrative andinstrumental motivation

    'n a pioneering study, Aardner and 0ambert 748

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    (.1.,. Main demotivating factors affecting motivation in learning foreign language

    (.1.,.1 %onceptions of demotivation

    !ornyei 71==B2 465: deined demotivation as *speciic e(ternal orces that reduce

    or diminish the motivational basis o a behavioral intention or an ongoing action-.

    !eci and yan 7489B: used a similar term *amotivation-, which means *the

    relative absence o motivation that is not caused by a lack o initial interest but rather by

    the individual+s e(periencing eelings o incompetence and helplessness when aced with

    the activity.-

    !ornyei pointed out that demotivation does not mean that all the positive

    inluences that originally made up the motivational basis o a behavior have been got rido. 't only means that a strong negative actor restrains the present motivation with some

    other positive motives still remain ready to be activated.

    (.1.,.( #emotivating factors affecting motivation in learning foreign language.

    "ccording to !ornyei, actors demotivating students+ learning are as ollows.

    4. The teacher 7personality, commitment, competence, teaching method:G

    1. 'nadequate school acilities 7group is too big or not the right level, requent change

    o teachers:G

    5. educed selconidence 7e(perience o ailure or lack o success:G

    6. Cegative attitude towards the 01G

    B. &ompulsory nature o 01 studyG

    >. 'ntererence o another oreign language being studiedG

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    reported that there is a link between intelligence measured by ' tests and second language

    learning, some students, in act, whose academic perormance is weak, are successul in 01

    learning.

    b+ !"titude:

    "ptitude reers to the special ability involved in second language learning 7!ouglas

    et al 488B:. The relationship between aptitude and second language learning success is a

    very important one and various studies, such as Aardner 7489=: and %kehan 74898: have

    reported that aptitude is a major actor determining the level o success o second language

    learning 7!ouglous et al 488B:. %tudents can have a *good aptitude or learning-. This can

    iner various things, such as2 The understanding o the unction o words in sentences.

    The ability to understand and use grammatical rules.

    /emory o key words, what they mean and how to use them.

    "n important point regarding aptitude and second language learning is that

    successul learners may not be strong in all the components o aptitude and can still

    succeed at learning a second language. $or e(ample, some individuals may have strong

    memories but only average abilities in the other components o aptitude 7%pada 4888:.c+ -ersonality

    0earners+ emotional states have a powerul inluence on their behavior and

    perormance in the classroom and other learning situations. There are various theories that

    claim that personality actors are important predictors o success in second language

    learning. ?ersonality traits such as e(troversion, introversion, risktaking, independence

    and empathy have been the basis o discussions and disputes relating to this topic 7Ellis

    489>:.

    d+ Learning strategies

    "s in all school topics, learning strategies are a actor o second language learning.

    )ne deinition o learning strategies is2 *%teps or actions taken by learners to improve the

    development o their language skills- 7Aass et al 48852 1>B:. !ierent learning strategies

    work best or dierent people when learning a second language. $or e(ample, one student

    may learn vocabulary through writing and practicing the vocabulary using cue cards,

    whereas another student may only read the vocabulary and learn that way.

    e+ Leaners belief

    9

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    /ost learners have strong belie about how languages are learnt, how their

    instruction should be divided. *These belies are usually based on previous learning

    e(periences and the assumption 7right or wrong: that a particular type o instruction is the

    best way or them to learn. 7 0ightbrown, 48882B8:

    f+ !ge of ac.uisition

    "ge is another characteristic o learners which aects learners+ success in second

    language learning. 't is believed that children are better tha...

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