Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 1 Chapter 3 Fats

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Text of Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc. Slide 1 Chapter 3 Fats

  • Chapter 3Fats

  • Chapter 3Lesson 3.1

  • Key ConceptsDietary fat supplies essential body tissue needs, both as an energy fuel and a structural material.Foods from animal and plant sources supply distinct forms of fat that affect health in different ways.Excess dietary fat, especially from animal food sources, is a health risk factor.

  • The Nature of FatsDietary importanceConcentrated fuel for energyClasses of fatsLipidsTriglyceridesFatty acidsLipoproteins

  • Fatty AcidsSaturated fatty acidsFilled with hydrogenUnsaturated fatty acidsNot completely filled with hydrogenLess heavy, less denseMonounsaturated: One unfilled spotPolyunsaturated: Two or more unfilled spots

  • CholesterolNot a fatA fat-related compoundFrom animal foodsEgg yolksLiver, kidneyMeatsSynthesized in the liverDiet should be low in cholesterolLinked with heart disease

  • Functions of Fat in FoodsFat in foods provide:EnergyEssential nutrientsFlavor and satisfaction

  • Functions of Fat in the BodyAdipose tissueProtects organsHelps regulate temperatureCell membrane structureForms part of cell wallHelps transport nutrients across cell membranes

  • Food Sources of FatAnimal fatsPlant fatsHydrogenated fatsCommercial fat products raise health concernsCis formTrans formFood industry now offers trans-free products

  • Food Label InformationCalories from fatCalories from saturated fat*Total fatSaturated fatPolyunsaturated fat*Monounsaturated fat*Cholesterol (*voluntary information)

  • Chapter 3Lesson 3.2

  • Key ConceptsDietary fat supplies essential body tissue needs, both as an energy fuel and a structural material.Excess dietary fat, especially from animal food sources, is a health risk factor.

  • Dietary Fat and HealthThe American diet is high in fat.Excess calories are stored as fat.Animal food sources contribute to excess cholesterol and saturated fat in the diet.A decrease in saturated fat reduces serum total cholesterol.Monounsaturated fats (olive oil) reduce LDL cholesterol when substituted for saturated fat.

  • Digestion of FatsMouthStomachSmall intestineBile from the gallbladderEnzymes from the pancreasEnzyme from the small intestineAbsorption

  • Dietary Fat RequirementsHealthy diet guidelines:Stress the health benefits of a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.Recommend that the fat content should not exceed 20 to 35 percent of total kcaloriesLess than 10 percent of kcalories should be from saturated fatdietary cholesterol be limited to 300 mg/day

  • Dietary Guidelines for AmericansControl saturated fat and cholesterolUse only lean cuts of all meats; use more poultry and seafoodLimit eggs to two or three per weekUse low-fat or fat-free milk and milk productsAvoid adding too much fat in food preparation

    Fats are an essential nutrient to the body.Excessive intake of fats can contribute to heath problems such as heart disease.What foods are examples of fats?Why is fat considered a back-up fuel source for the body? (Fats back up carbohydrates, the primary fuel, as an available energy source.)What are lipids? (Lipids are the overall name for the chemical group of fats.)What are fatty acids? (Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats.)What are lipoproteins? (They are a combination of fat, protein, and other fat-related substances. Lipoproteins carry nutrients to the blood stream.)Saturated fats are heavier, denser, and more solid than unsaturated fats.Unsaturated fats are usually in oil form.What foods supply monounsaturated fats? (olive and olive oil, peanuts and peanut oil, canola oil, almonds, pecans, and avocados)Cholesterol is a fat-related compound and a sterol.There is no cholesterol in plant foods; it is synthesized only in animal tissues.There is no biological requirement for cholesterol in the diet.What are some health risks associated with increased cholesterol levels? (There is a link between cholesterol intake and increased risk for coronary heart disease.)Fat is a back-up fuel to carbohydrates. It is more concentrated: 9 kcal/g versus 4 kcal/g for carbs.Food fats supply the body with essential fatty acids and carry fat soluble vitamins.What are examples of fat substitutes? Fat is stored in adipose tissue.A special fat covering protects nerve fibers and helps relay nerve impulses.The majority of saturated fats come from animal sources.What plant sources contain saturated fats? (Coconut and palm oils are saturated fats used mainly in commercially processed food items)Plant foods supply mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.What is a good source of polyunsaturated fats? (fish)The FDA will require food manufacturers to provide the amount of trans fatty acids on the nutrition facts panel by 2006.The nature and amount of dietary fat and cholesterol are special health concerns related to some cancers, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity.Increased body fat and weight can contribute to what types of health problems? (diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension)The role of fat-modified foods in the American diet has been increasing.Heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death in developed countries. Much attention is focused on reducing risk factors leading to this disease.The primary digestion action occurring in the mouth is mechanical. Foods are broken up into smaller particles through chewing and moistened for passage into the stomach.Little, if any, chemical fat digestion takes place in the stomach.Fat digestion primarily occurs in the small intestine.What is the function of the gall bladder in fat digestion?

    The current average consumption of fat is about 34 percent of total kcalories.Some fat is necessary to supply essential fatty acids.What is the fat content of your favorite snack?By using these tips, people can reduce their fat intake significantly.What are some other tips that can help to reduce fat in your diet?